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  • 1 National Research Centre, Egypt
  • 2 Ain Shams University, Egypt
  • 3 The Center of Excellence for Influenza Research, National Research Centre, Egypt
  • 4 National Research Centre, Egypt
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In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of a supplemented killed influenza virus (V) by Echinacea purpurea (E) and Nigella sativa (N) extracts and effect of changing the route of immunization from intramuscular (IM) to intraperitoneal (IP). At the 2nd-, 3rd- and 4th-week post-IM immunizations (WPIMI), the supplemented V with N (VN) induced the most significant IgM response unlike N alone. At the 2nd WPIMI, V or VN induced the highest significant IgG levels. At the 2nd-week post-IP immunization (WPIPI), E and VN induced the most significant IgG levels. Both at the 3rd and 4th WPIMI or WPIPI, various treatments induced significant increases in IgG. At the 4th WPIMI, E, V, and V with E (VE) induced significant increases in the CD4+ thymocytes while all IP treatments caused significant increase in their counts. V and VN induced the most significant IM induction of CD8+ thymocytes while their best IP stimulation was induced by N, VE, and VN. At the 4th WPIMI, various treatments caused significant increases in the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) CD4+, CD8+ counts. WPIPI with V or VE caused significant increases in both the CD4+- and CD8+ MLN cells, whereas VN significantly induced CD8+ MLN cells only. WPIPI with various treatments caused significant increases in the B-cell counts and the peak was obtained by VN.

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