View More View Less
  • 1 University Clinical Centre Maribor, Slovenia
  • | 2 National Laboratory for Health, Environment and Food, Slovenia
  • | 3 University Maribor, Slovenia
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $784.00

The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the major causes of a variety of infections in hospitals and the community. One of the most prominent changes in the MRSA epidemiology is the emergence of livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) strains in the human population. The aim of this study was to follow the MRSA epidemiology in a large teaching hospital during an 8-year time period (2006–2013). Altogether 519 MRSA, cultured from screening or clinical samples, were distributed into 77 spa types, of which three (t003 and t001, associated with CC5; and t015; associated with CC45) were the most common. LA-MRSA-associated spa types (t011, t034, t108, t899; associated with CC398) started to emerge in the year 2009 and continued to be found annually at a frequency from 3.9% to 12.7% of all MRSA strains examined. Only 6 of 27 LA-MRSA strains were associated with infections.

  • 1.

    European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control: Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance in Europe 2014. Annual report of the European antimicrobial resistance surveillance network (EARS-Net), ECDC, Stockholm, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Magill, S. S., Edwards, J. R., Bamberg, W., Beldavs, Z. G., Dumyati, G., Kainer, M. A., Lynfield, R., Maloney, M., McAllister-Hollod, L., Nadle, J., Ray, S., Thompson, D. L., Wilson, L. E., Fridkin, S. C.: Multistate point-prevalence survey of health care-associated infections. N Engl J Med 370, 11981208 (2014).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Bal, A. M., Coombs, G. W., Holden, M. T. G., Lindsay, J. A., Nimmo, G. R., Tattevin, P., Skov, R. L.: Genomic insights into the emergence and spread of international clones of healthcare-, community- and livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Blurring of the traditional definitions. J Glob Antimicrob Resist 6, 95101 (2016)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Otto, M.: Community-associated MRSA: What makes them special? Int J Med Microbiol IJMM 303, 324330 (2013)

  • 5.

    Stefani, S., Chung, D. R., Lindsay, J. A., Friedrich, A. W., Kearns, A. M., Westh, H., Mackenzie, F. M.: Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): Global epidemiology and harmonisation of typing methods. Int J Antimicrob Agents 39, 273282 (2012).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Bush, K., Leal, J., Fathima, S., Li, V., Vickers, D., Chui, L., Louie, M., Taylor, G., Henderson, E.: The molecular epidemiology of incident methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cases among hospitalized patients in Alberta, Canada: A retrospective cohort study. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 4, 35 (2015).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Aires-de-Sousa, M.: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among animals: Current overview. Clin Microbiol Infect 23, 373380 (2017).

  • 8.

    van Cleef, B. A. G. L., Monnet, D. L., Voss, A., Krziwanek, K., Allerberger, F., Struelens, M., Zemlickova, H., Skov, R. L., Vuopio-Varkila, J., Cuny, C., Friedrich, A. W., Spiliopoulou, I., Pászti, J., Hardardottir, H., Rossney, A., Pan, A., Pantosti, A., Borg, M., Grundmann, H., Mueller-Premru, M., Olsson-Liljequist, B., Widmer, A., Harbarth, S., Schweiger, A., Unal, S., Kluytmans, J. A.: Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in humans, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis 17, 502505 (2011).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Cuny, C., Wieler, L. H., Witte, W.: Livestock-associated MRSA: The impact on humans. Antibiot Basel Switz 4, 521543 (2015).

  • 10.

    Price, L. B., Stegger, M., Hasman, H., Aziz, M., Larsen, J., Andersen, P. S., Pearson, T., Waters, A. E., Foster, J. T., Schupp, J., Gillece, J., Driebe, E., Liu, C. M., Springer, B., Zdovc, I., Battisti, A., Franco, A., Zmudzki, J., Schwarz, S., Butaye, P., Jouy, E., Pomba, C., Porrero, M. C., Ruimy, R., Smith, T. C., Robinson, D. A., Weese, J. S., Arriola, C. S., Yu, F., Laurent, F., Keim, P., Skov, R., Aarestrup, F. M.: Staphylococcus aureus CC398: Host adaptation and emergence of methicillin resistance in livestock. mBio 3, e00305-11 (2012).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Kinross, P., Petersen, A., Skov, R., Van Hauwermeiren, E., Pantosti, A., Laurent, F., Voss, A., Kluytmans, J., Struelens, M. J., Heuer, O., Monnet, D. L., The European Human LA-Mrsa Study Group: Livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among human MRSA isolates, European Union/European Economic Area countries, 2013. Euro Surveill 22, 16-00696 (2017).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control: Point Prevalence Survey of Health Care Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Use in European Acute Care Hospitals. ECDC, Stockholm, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Kolman, A., Lejko Zupanc, T., Kotnik-Kevorkijan, B., Klavs, I., Korošec, A., Serdt, M.: Prevalenca proti antibiotikom odpornih povzročiteljev okužb v slovenskih bolnišnicah za akutno oskrbo [Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens of healthcare-associated infections in Slovenian hospitals for acute care]. Med Razgledi 52, 2328 (2013).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Henderson, D. K.: Managing methicillin-resistant staphylococci: A paradigm for preventing nosocomial transmission of resistant organisms. Am J Med 119, S4552; discussion S62–S70 (2006).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Müller-Premru, M., Strommenger, B., Alikadic, N., Witte, W., Friedrich, A. W., Seme, K., Kucina, N. S., Smrke, D., Spik, V., Gubina, M.: New strains of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with Panton-Valentine leukocidin causing an outbreak of severe soft tissue infection in a football team. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 24, 848850 (2005).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Dermota, U., Grmek-Košnik, I., Ravnik, M., Budimir, A., Ribič, H., Cerkvenik-Škafar, A.: First report of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a Slovenian hospital. J Hosp Infect 79, 271272 (2011).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Dermota, U., Jurca, T., Harlander, T., Košir, M., Zajc, U., Golob, M., Zdovc, I., Košnik, I. G.: Infections caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus European clone (ST80) in Slovenia between 2006 and 2013. Zdr Varst 55, 121125 (2016).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Dermota, U., Zdovc, I., Strumbelj, I., Grmek-Kosnik, I., Ribic, H., Rupnik, M., Golob, M., Zajc, U., Bes, M., Laurent, F., Mueller-Premru, M.: Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying the mecC gene in human samples in Slovenia. Epidemiol Infect 143, 11051108 (2015).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Dermota, U., Mueller-Premru, M., Švent-Kučina, N., Petrovič, Ž., Ribič, H., Rupnik, M., Janežič, S., Zdovc, I., Grmek-Košnik, I.: Survey of community-associated-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Slovenia: Identification of community-associated and livestock-associated clones. Int J Med Microbiol IJMM 305, 505510 (2015).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Grundmann, H., Schouls, L. M., Aanensen, D. M., Pluister, G. N., Tami, A., Chlebowicz, M., Glasner, C., Sabat, A. J., Weist, K., Heuer, O., Friedrich, A. W.: The dynamic changes of dominant clones of Staphylococcus aureus causing bloodstream infections in the European region: Results of a second structured survey. Euro Surveill Bull Eur Sur Mal Transm Eur Commun Dis Bull 19, 20987 (2014).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Hetem, D. J., Derde, L. P. G., Empel, J., Mroczkowska, A., Orczykowska-Kotyna, M., Kozińska, A., Hryniewicz, W., Goossens, H., Bonten, M. J. M., MOSAR WP3 Study Group: Molecular epidemiology of MRSA in 13 ICUs from eight European countries. J Antimicrob Chemother 71, 4552 (2016).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Kotnik-Kevorkijan, B., Petrovič, Ž., Klasinc, M., Rupnik, M., Lorenčič Robnik, S.: Diversity of spa types among MRSA isolates from Maribor University Hospital. Zdr Vestn 78, 119122 (2009).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Grisold, A. J., Leitner, E., Mühlbauer, G., Marth, E., Kessler, H. H.: Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and simultaneous confirmation by automated nucleic acid extraction and real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol 40, 23922397 (2002).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Shrestha, N. K., Tuohy, M. J., Hall, G. S., Isada, C. M., Procop, G. W.: Rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus and the mecA gene from BacT/ALERT blood culture bottles by using the LightCycler system. J Clin Microbiol 40, 26592661 (2002).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Harmsen, D., Claus, H., Witte, W., Rothgänger, J., Claus, H., Turnwald, D., Vogel, U.: Typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a university hospital setting by using novel software for spa repeat determination and database management. J Clin Microbiol 41, 54425448 (2003).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Mellmann, A., Weniger, T., Berssenbrügge, C., Rothgänger, J., Sammeth, M., Stoye, J., Harmsen, D.: Based Upon Repeat Pattern (BURP): An algorithm to characterize the long-term evolution of Staphylococcus aureus populations based on spa polymorphisms. BMC Microbiol 7, 98 (2007).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Monecke, S., Coombs, G., Shore, A. C., Coleman, D. C., Akpaka, P., Borg, M., Chow, H., Ip, M., Jatzwauk, L., Jonas, D., Kadlec, K., Kearns, A., Laurent, F., O’Brien, F. G., Pearson, J., Ruppelt, A., Schwarz, S., Scicluna, E., Slickers, P., Tan, H. L., Weber, S., Ehricht, R.: A field guide to pandemic, epidemic and sporadic clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PLoS One 6, e17936 (2011).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Asadollahi, P., Farahani, N. N., Mirzaii, M., Khoramrooz, S. S., van Belkum, A., Asadollahi, K., Dadashi, M., Darban-Sarokhalil, D.: Distribution of the most prevalent spa types among clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus around the world: A review. Front Microbiol 9, 163 (2018).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Strommenger, B., Kettlitz, C., Weniger, T., Harmsen, D., Friedrich, A. W., Witte, W.: Assignment of Staphylococcus isolates to groups by spa typing, SmaI macrorestriction analysis, and multilocus sequence typing. J Clin Microbiol 44, 25332540 (2006).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Cirkovic, I., Stepanovic, S., Skov, R., Trajkovic, J., Grgurevic, A., Larsen, A. R.: Carriage and genetic diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among patients and healthcare workers in a Serbian university hospital. PLoS One 10, e0127347 (2015)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Ostojić, M., Hukić, M.: Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, isolated on three different geography locations. Bosn J Basic Med Sci 15, 4856 (2015)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Cuny, C., Layer, F., Werner, G., Harmsen, D., Daniels-Haardt, I., Jurke, A., Mellmann, A., Witte, W., Köck, R.: State-wide surveillance of antibiotic resistance patterns and spa types of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from blood cultures in North Rhine-Westphalia, 2011–2013. Clin Microbiol Infect 21, 750757 (2015).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Nillius, D., von Müller, L., Wagenpfeil, S., Klein, R., Herrmann, M.: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Saarland, Germany: The long-term care facility study. PLoS One 11, e0153030 (2016)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Brennan, G. I., Abbott, Y., Burns, A., Leonard, F., McManus, B. A., O’Connell, B., Coleman, D. C., Shore, A. C.: The emergence and spread of multiple livestock-associated clonal complex 398 methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains among animals and humans in the Republic of Ireland, 2010–2014. PLoS One 11, e0149396 (2016).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Zarfel, G., Luxner, J., Folli, B., Leitner, E., Feierl, G., Kittinger, C., Grisold, A.: Increase of genetic diversity and clonal replacement of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in South-East Austria. FEMS Microbiol Lett 363, fnw137 (2016).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Cuny, C., Köck, R., Witte, W.: Livestock associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) and its relevance for humans in Germany. Int J Med Microbiol IJMM 303, 331337 (2013).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Becker, K., Ballhausen, B., Kahl, B. C., Köck, R.: The clinical impact of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus of the clonal complex 398 for humans. Vet Microbiol 200, 3338 (2015).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 204 201 20
Full Text Views 48 19 0
PDF Downloads 22 11 0