Transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFB1) likely contributes to the pathogenesis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-mediated cancer. A microarray containing 59 probes for detecting mRNA of members of TGFB1-associated pathways was developed. mRNA expression of TGFB1 receptors and members of connected pathways were examined in peripheral blood leukocytes of patients during acute EBV infection and after recovery. TGFB1 and TGFBR2 mRNA expression was increased in patients with EBV infection. Similarly, mRNA expression of protein kinase C (PRKCB), MAP3K7, PDLIM7, and other members of TGFB1 and NF-κB signaling pathways increased. A shift of mRNA transcript variant expression of some key members (TGFBR2, PRKCB, and NFKBIB) of involved signaling pathways was detected. After the patients’ recovery, most of the altered mRNA expression has been normalized. We speculate that in patients with EBV infection, members of TGFB1-associated pathways contribute to the suppression of proapoptotic and induction of pro-survival factors in leukocytes. The modulation of TGFB1-associated pathways may be considered as a potential risk factor in the development of EBV-associated tumors in patients with acute EBV infection.