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  • 1 Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum, Poland
  • 2 Biophage Pharma SA, Poland
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Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile infections (CDIs) are becoming more common and more serious. C. difficile is the etiologic agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, pseudomembranous enterocolitis, and toxic megacolon while CDIs recur in 7.9% of patients. About 42.9 CDI cases/10,000 patient-days are diagnosed each day in Europe, whereas in Poland 5.6 CDI cases/10,000 patient-days are reported; however, the median for European countries is 2.9 CDI cases/10,000 patient-days. Epidemiology of CDIs has changed in recent years and risk of developing the disease has doubled in the past decade that is largely determined by use of antibiotics. Studies show that rate of antibiotic consumption in the non-hospital sector in Poland is much higher than the European average (27 vs. 21.8 DDD/1,000 patient-days), and this value has increased in recent years. Antibiotic consumption has also increased in the hospital sector, especially in the intensive care units – 1,520 DDD/1,000 patient-days (ranging from 620 to 3,960 DDD/1,000 patient-days) – and was significantly higher than in Germany 1,305 (ranging from 463 to 2,216 DDD/1,000 patient-days) or in Sweden 1,147 (ranging from 605 to 2,134 DDD/1,000 patient-days). The recent rise in CDI incidence has prompted a search for alternative treatments. Great hope is placed in probiotics, bacteriocins, monoclonal antibodies, bacteriophages, and developing new vaccines.

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