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  • 1 Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • | 2 Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Hormozgan Health Institute, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
  • | 3 Department of Bacteriology and Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran
  • | 4 Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
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Abstract

Carbapenems are employed to treat infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria including Klebsiella pneumoniae. This research is aimed to perform phenotypic detection of β-lactamases and molecular characterization of NDM-1 positive K. pneumoniae isolates. Another objective is to investigate NDM-1 producing K. pneumoniae among children in Iran. From 2019 to 2020, altogether 60 K. pneumoniae isolates were acquired from various patients in certain Iranian hospitals. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. In addition, mCIM and eCIM were used to confirm the production of carbapenemases and metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs), respectively. Detection of resistance genes namely, blaNDM-1, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaKPC, blaOXA-48-like, blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, and mcr-1 was performed by PCR and confirmed by DNA sequencing. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was employed to determine the molecular typing of the strains. According to the findings, the highest rate of carbapenem resistance was detected against doripenem 83.3% (50). Moreover, 31.7% (19) were resistant to colistin. Further to the above, altogether 80% (48) were carbapenemase-producing isolates and among them 46.7% (28) of the isolates were MBL and 33.3% (20) isolates were serine β-lactamase producer. According to the PCR results, 14 isolates produced blaNDM-1. Remarkably, four blaNDM-1 positive isolates were detected in children. In addition, these isolates were clonally related as determined by MLST (ST147, ST15). Altogether ten blaNDM-1 positive isolates were ST147 and four blaNDM-1 positive isolates were ST15. Based on the results, the emergence of NDM-producing K. pneumoniae among children is worrying and hence, it is necessary to develop a comprehensive program to control antibiotic resistance in the country.

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