View More View Less
  • 1 University of Stellenbosch Department of Business Management Private Bag X1 Matieland 7602 South Africa
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $700.00

The advent of service-dominant logic has led to increasing attention being given to value experienced by customers in the marketing literature. Customers’ shopping value is multidimensional and consists of two dimensions, namely utilitarian value and hedonic value. The main objective of this study was to determine whether selected constructs impact on value and whether value impacts on loyalty amongst customers of a firm operating in the South African supermarket industry. The findings indicate that satisfaction has the strongest relationship with utilitarian value, which, in turn, has a strong relationship with customer loyalty. More loyalty will not result from an increase in the hedonic value that a supermarket customer experiences, regardless of an enhanced shopping experience.

  • American Customer Satisfaction Index (2001): Methodology Report. Ann Arbor, MI: The Regents of the University of Michigan.

    '', in Methodology Report , (2001 ) -.

  • Babin, B. J. — Attaway, J. S. (2000): Atmospheric Affect as a Tool for Creating Value and Gaining Share of Customer. Journal of Business Research, 49(1): 91–99.

    Attaway J. S. , 'Atmospheric Affect as a Tool for Creating Value and Gaining Share of Customer ' (2000 ) 49 Journal of Business Research : 91 -99.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Babin, B. J. — Darden, W. R. (1995): Consumer Self-regulation in a Retail Environment. Journal of Retailing, 71(1): 47–70.

    Darden W. R. , 'Consumer Self-regulation in a Retail Environment ' (1995 ) 71 Journal of Retailing : 47 -70.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Babin, B. J. — Darden, W. R. — Griffin, M. (1994): Work and/or Fun: Measuring Hedonic and Utilitarian Shopping Value. Journal of Consumer Research, 19(3): 133–139.

    Griffin M. , 'Work and/or Fun: Measuring Hedonic and Utilitarian Shopping Value ' (1994 ) 19 Journal of Consumer Research : 133 -139.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Babin, B. J. — Lee, Y. K. — Kim, E. J. — Griffin, M. (2005): Modelling Consumer Satisfaction and Word-of-mouth: Restaurant Patronage in Korea. Journal of Services Marketing, 19(3): 133–139.

    Griffin M. , 'Modelling Consumer Satisfaction and Word-of-mouth: Restaurant Patronage in Korea ' (2005 ) 19 Journal of Services Marketing : 133 -139.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Baker, J. — Grewal, D. — Parasuraman, A. (1994): The Influence of Store Environment on Quality Inferences and Store Image. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(4): 328–339.

    Parasuraman A. , 'The Influence of Store Environment on Quality Inferences and Store Image ' (1994 ) 22 Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science : 328 -339.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bitner, M. J. (1990): Evaluating Service Encounters: The Effects of Physical Surroundings and Employee Responses. Journal of Marketing, 54(4): 69–82.

    Bitner M. J. , 'Evaluating Service Encounters: The Effects of Physical Surroundings and Employee Responses ' (1990 ) 54 Journal of Marketing : 69 -82.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bloemer, J. — De Ruyter, K. (1998): On the Relationship between Store Image, Store Satisfaction and Store Loyalty. European Journal of Marketing, 32(5/6): 499–513.

    Ruyter K. , 'On the Relationship between Store Image, Store Satisfaction and Store Loyalty ' (1998 ) 32 European Journal of Marketing : 499 -513.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Brady, M. K. — Cronin, J. J. (Jr.) (2001): Some New Thoughts on Conceptualizing Perceived Service Quality: A Hierarchical Approach. Journal of Marketing, 65(3): 34–49.

    Cronin J. J. , 'Some New Thoughts on Conceptualizing Perceived Service Quality: A Hierarchical Approach ' (2001 ) 65 Journal of Marketing : 34 -49.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Brunner, T. A. — Stöcklin, M. — Opwis, K. (2008): Satisfaction, Image and Loyalty: New versus Experienced Customers. European Journal of Marketing, 42(9/10): 1095–1105.

    Opwis K. , 'Satisfaction, Image and Loyalty: New versus Experienced Customers ' (2008 ) 42 European Journal of Marketing : 1095 -1105.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Burt, S. — Carralero-Encinas, J. (2000): The Role of Store Image in Retail Internationalisation. International Marketing Review, 15(4/5): 433–453.

    Carralero-Encinas J. , 'The Role of Store Image in Retail Internationalisation ' (2000 ) 15 International Marketing Review : 433 -453.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Carpenter, J. M. (2008): Consumer Shopping Value, Satisfaction and Loyalty in Discount Retailing. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 15(5): 358–363.

    Carpenter J. M. , 'Consumer Shopping Value, Satisfaction and Loyalty in Discount Retailing ' (2008 ) 15 Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services : 358 -363.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Caruana, A. — Money, A. H. — Berthon, P. R. (2000): Service Quality and Satisfaction — The Moderating Role of Value. European Journal of Marketing, 34(11/12): 1338–1352.

    Berthon P. R. , 'Service Quality and Satisfaction — The Moderating Role of Value ' (2000 ) 34 European Journal of Marketing : 1338 -1352.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chaudhuri, A. — Holbrook, M. B. (2001): The Chain of Effects from Brand Trust and Brand Affect to Brand Performance: The Role of Brand Loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 65(2): 81–94.

    Holbrook M. B. , 'The Chain of Effects from Brand Trust and Brand Affect to Brand Performance: The Role of Brand Loyalty ' (2001 ) 65 Journal of Marketing : 81 -94.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Churchill, G. A. (Jr.) (1979): A Pradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 16(1): 64–73.

    Churchill G. A. , 'A Pradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs ' (1979 ) 16 Journal of Marketing Research : 64 -73.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Copeland, M. T. (1923). Relation of Consumer’s Buying Habits to Marketing Methods. Harvard Business Review, 1: 282–289.

    Copeland M. T. , 'Relation of Consumer’s Buying Habits to Marketing Methods ' (1923 ) 1 Harvard Business Review : 282 -289.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cronin, J. J. (Jr.) — Brady, M. K. — Brand, R. R. — Hightower, R. (Jr.) — Shemwell, D. J. (1997): A Cross-sectional Test of the Effect and Conceptualization of Service Value. The Journal of Services Marketing, 11(6): 375–91.

    Cronin J. J. , 'A Cross-sectional Test of the Effect and Conceptualization of Service Value ' (1997 ) 11 The Journal of Services Marketing : 375 -91.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cronin, J. J. (Jr.) — Brady, M. K. — Hult, G. T. (2000): Assessing the Effects of Quality, Value, and Customer Satisfaction on Consumer Behavioural Intentions in Service Environments. Journal of Retailing, 76(2): 193–218.

    Cronin J. J. , 'Assessing the Effects of Quality, Value, and Customer Satisfaction on Consumer Behavioural Intentions in Service Environments ' (2000 ) 76 Journal of Retailing : 193 -218.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dabholkar, P. A. — Thorpe, D. I. — Rentz, J. O. (1996): A Measure of Service Quality for Retail Stores: Scale Development and Validation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 24(1): 3–16.

    Rentz J. O. , 'A Measure of Service Quality for Retail Stores: Scale Development and Validation ' (1996 ) 24 Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science : 3 -16.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Darden, W. R. — Babin, B. J. (1994): Exploring the Concept of Affective Quality: Expanding the Concept of Retail Personality. Journal of Business Research, 29(2): 101–109.

    Babin B. J. , 'Exploring the Concept of Affective Quality: Expanding the Concept of Retail Personality ' (1994 ) 29 Journal of Business Research : 101 -109.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Darden, W. R. — Erdem, O. — Darden, D. K. (1983): A Comparison and Test of Three Causal Models of Patronage Intentions. In: Darden, W. R. — Lusch, F. R. (eds): Patronage Behavior and Retail Management. New York, NY: North Holland.

    Darden D. K. , '', in Patronage Behavior and Retail Management , (1983 ) -.

  • Donovan, R. J. — Rossiter, R. J. (1982): Store Atmosphere: An Environmental Psychology Approach, Journal of Retailing, 58(1): 34–57.

    Rossiter R. J. , 'Store Atmosphere: An Environmental Psychology Approach ' (1982 ) 58 Journal of Retailing : 34 -57.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Donovan, R. J. — Rossiter, R. J. — Marcoolyn, G. — Nesdale, A. (1994): Store Atmosphere and Purchasing Behaviour. Journal of Retailing, 70(3): 283–294.

    Nesdale A. , 'Store Atmosphere and Purchasing Behaviour ' (1994 ) 70 Journal of Retailing : 283 -294.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • East, R. — Hammond, K. — Harris, P. — Lomax, W. (2000): First-store Loyalty and Retention. Journal of Marketing Management, 16: 307–325.

    Lomax W. , 'First-store Loyalty and Retention ' (2000 ) 16 Journal of Marketing Management : 307 -325.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Eroglu, S. A. — Machleit, K. A. — Chebat, J. C. (2005): Effects of Price, Brand and Store Information on Buyers’ Product Evaluations. Psychology and Marketing, 22(7): 577–589.

    Chebat J. C. , 'Effects of Price, Brand and Store Information on Buyers’ Product Evaluations ' (2005 ) 22 Psychology and Marketing : 577 -589.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fornell, C. — Johnson, M. D. — Anderson, E. W. — Cha, J. — Bryant, B. E. (1996): The American Customer Satisfaction Index: Nature, Purpose, and Findings. Journal of Marketing, 60(4): 7–18.

    Bryant B. E. , 'The American Customer Satisfaction Index: Nature, Purpose, and Findings ' (1996 ) 60 Journal of Marketing : 7 -18.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gallarza, M. G. — Saura, I. G. (2006): Value Dimensions, Perceived Value, Satisfaction and Loyalty: An Investigation of University Student’s Travel Behaviour. Tourism Management, 27(3): 437–452.

    Saura I. G. , 'Value Dimensions, Perceived Value, Satisfaction and Loyalty: An Investigation of University Student’s Travel Behaviour ' (2006 ) 27 Tourism Management : 437 -452.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gounaris, S. P. — Tzempelikos, N. A. — Chatzipanagiotou, K. (2007): The Relationships of Customer-perceived Value, Satisfaction, Loyalty and Behavioral Intentions. Journal of Relationship Marketing, 6(1): 63–87.

    Chatzipanagiotou K. , 'The Relationships of Customer-perceived Value, Satisfaction, Loyalty and Behavioral Intentions ' (2007 ) 6 Journal of Relationship Marketing : 63 -87.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Grewal, D. — Baker, J. — Levy, M. — Voss, G. B. (2003): The Effects of Wait Expectations and Store Atmosphere Evaluations on Patronage Intentions in Service-intensive Retail Stores. Journal of Retailing, 79(4): 259–268.

    Voss G. B. , 'The Effects of Wait Expectations and Store Atmosphere Evaluations on Patronage Intentions in Service-intensive Retail Stores ' (2003 ) 79 Journal of Retailing : 259 -268.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Grewal, D. — Krishnan, R. — Baker, J. — Borin, N. (1998): The Effect of Store Name, Brand Name and Price Discounts on Consumers’ Evaluations and Purchase Intentions. Journal of Retailing, 74(3): 331–352.

    Borin N. , 'The Effect of Store Name, Brand Name and Price Discounts on Consumers’ Evaluations and Purchase Intentions ' (1998 ) 74 Journal of Retailing : 331 -352.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Grönroos, C. (2006): Adopting a Service Logic for Marketing. Marketing Theory, 6(3): 317–333.

    Grönroos C. , 'Adopting a Service Logic for Marketing ' (2006 ) 6 Marketing Theory : 317 -333.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hartman, K. B. — Spiro, R. L. (2005): Recapturing Store Image in Customer-based Store Equity: A Construct Conceptualization. Journal of Business Research, 58(3): 1112–1120.

    Spiro R. L. , 'Recapturing Store Image in Customer-based Store Equity: A Construct Conceptualization ' (2005 ) 58 Journal of Business Research : 1112 -1120.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Heskett, J. L. — Sasser, W. E. (Jr.) — Schlesinger, L. A. (1997): The Service Profit Chain. How Leading Companies Link Profit and Growth to Loyalty, Satisfaction and Value. New York: The Free Press.

    Sasser W. E. , '', in The Service Profit Chain. How Leading Companies Link Profit and Growth to Loyalty, Satisfaction and Value , (1997 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jensen, H. R. (1996): The Interrelationship between Customer and Consumer Value. Asia Pacific Advances in Consumer Research, 2: 60–63.

    Jensen H. R. , 'The Interrelationship between Customer and Consumer Value ' (1996 ) 2 Asia Pacific Advances in Consumer Research : 60 -63.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Johnson, M. D. — Fornell, C. (1991): A Framework for Comparing Customer Satisfaction across Individuals and Product Categories. Journal of Economic Psychology, 12(2): 267–286.

    Fornell C. , 'A Framework for Comparing Customer Satisfaction across Individuals and Product Categories ' (1991 ) 12 Journal of Economic Psychology : 267 -286.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Johnson, M. D. — Gustafsson, A. — Andreassen, T. W. — Lervik, L. — Cha, J. (2001): The Evaluation and Future of National Customer Satisfaction Index Models. Journal of Economic Psychology, 22(2): 217–245.

    Cha J. , 'The Evaluation and Future of National Customer Satisfaction Index Models ' (2001 ) 22 Journal of Economic Psychology : 217 -245.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jones, M. A. — Reynolds, K. E. — Arnold, M. J. (2006): Hedonic and Utilitarian Shopping Value: Investigating Differential Effects on Retail Outcomes. Journal of Business Research, 59(9): 974–981.

    Arnold M. J. , 'Hedonic and Utilitarian Shopping Value: Investigating Differential Effects on Retail Outcomes ' (2006 ) 59 Journal of Business Research : 974 -981.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jöreskog, K. G. — Sörbom, D. (2006): LISREL 8.80 for Windows [Computer Software]. Lincolnwood, IL: Scientific Software International, Inc.

    Sörbom D. , '', in LISREL 8.80 for Windows , (2006 ) -.

  • Kerin, R. A. — Jain, A. — Howard, D. J. (1992): Store Shopping Experience and Consumer Price-Quality-Value Perceptions. Journal of Retailing, 68(4): 376–397.

    Howard D. J. , 'Store Shopping Experience and Consumer Price-Quality-Value Perceptions ' (1992 ) 68 Journal of Retailing : 376 -397.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lee, M. Y. — Kim, Y. K. — Fairhurst, A. (2009): Shopping Value in Online Auctions: Their Antecedents and Outcomes. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 16(1): 75–82.

    Fairhurst A. , 'Shopping Value in Online Auctions: Their Antecedents and Outcomes ' (2009 ) 16 Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services : 75 -82.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lichtlé, M. C. — Plichon, V. (2008): Understanding Better Consumer Loyalty. Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 23(4): 121–140.

    Plichon V. , 'Understanding Better Consumer Loyalty ' (2008 ) 23 Recherche et Applications en Marketing : 121 -140.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Macintosh, G. — Lockshin, L. S. (1997): Retail Relationships and Store Loyalty: A Multi-level Perspective. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 14(5): 487–497.

    Lockshin L. S. , 'Retail Relationships and Store Loyalty: A Multi-level Perspective ' (1997 ) 14 International Journal of Research in Marketing : 487 -497.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mackay, H. (1999): Turning Point: Australians Choosing their Future. Sydney: MacMillan.

    Mackay H. , '', in Turning Point: Australians Choosing their Future , (1999 ) -.

  • Mägi, A. — Julander, C. R. (1996): Perceived Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in a Store Performance Framework: An Empirical Study of Swedish Grocery Retailers. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 3(1): 33–41.

    Julander C. R. , 'Perceived Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in a Store Performance Framework: An Empirical Study of Swedish Grocery Retailers ' (1996 ) 3 Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services : 33 -41.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Malthouse, E. — Mulhern, F. (2007): Understanding and Using Customer Loyalty and Customer Value. Journal of Relationship Marketing, 6(3/4): 59–86.

    Mulhern F. , 'Understanding and Using Customer Loyalty and Customer Value ' (2007 ) 6 Journal of Relationship Marketing : 59 -86.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Martineau, P. (1958): The Personality of the Retail Store. Harvard Business Review, 36(1): 47–55.

    Martineau P. , 'The Personality of the Retail Store ' (1958 ) 36 Harvard Business Review : 47 -55.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mazursky, D. — Jacoby, J. (1986): Exploring the Development of Store Images. Journal of Retailing, 62(2): 145–165.

    Jacoby J. , 'Exploring the Development of Store Images ' (1986 ) 62 Journal of Retailing : 145 -165.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • McDougall, G. H. — Levesque, T. (2000): Customer Satisfaction with Services: Putting Perceived Value into the Equation. The Journal of Services Marketing, 14(5): 392–410.

    Levesque T. , 'Customer Satisfaction with Services: Putting Perceived Value into the Equation ' (2000 ) 14 The Journal of Services Marketing : 392 -410.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mehrabian, A. — Russell, J. (1974): An Approach to Environmental Psychology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    Russell J. , '', in An Approach to Environmental Psychology , (1974 ) -.

  • Nilson, T. H. (1992): Value-Added Marketing: Marketing Management for Superior Result. Berkshire: McGraw-Hill.

    Nilson T. H. , '', in Value-Added Marketing: Marketing Management for Superior Result , (1992 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Nunnally, J. — Bernstein, I.H. (1994): Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Bernstein I.H. , '', in Psychometric Theory , (1994 ) -.

  • Oliver, R. L. (1999): Whence Consumer Loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 63(4): 33–44.

    Oliver R. L. , 'Whence Consumer Loyalty? ' (1999 ) 63 Journal of Marketing : 33 -44.

  • Olsen, S. O. — Skallerud, K. (2011): Retail Attributes’ Differential Effects on Utilitarian versus Hedonic Shopping Value. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 28(7): 532–539.

    Skallerud K. , 'Retail Attributes’ Differential Effects on Utilitarian versus Hedonic Shopping Value ' (2011 ) 28 Journal of Consumer Marketing : 532 -539.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Orth, U. R. — Green, M. T. (2009): Consumer Loyalty to Family versus Non-family Business: The Roles of Store Image, Trust and Satisfaction. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 16(4): 248–259.

    Green M. T. , 'Consumer Loyalty to Family versus Non-family Business: The Roles of Store Image, Trust and Satisfaction ' (2009 ) 16 Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services : 248 -259.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ostrom, A. — Iacobucci, D. (1995): Consumer Trade-offs and the Evaluation of Services. Journal of Marketing, 59(1): 17–28.

    Iacobucci D. , 'Consumer Trade-offs and the Evaluation of Services ' (1995 ) 59 Journal of Marketing : 17 -28.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Parasuraman, A. — Zeithaml, V. A. — Berry, L. L. (1994): Alternative Scales for Measuring Service Quality: AComparative Assessment Based on Psychometric and Diagnostic Criteria. Journal of Retailing, 70(3): 201–230.

    Berry L. L. , 'Alternative Scales for Measuring Service Quality: AComparative Assessment Based on Psychometric and Diagnostic Criteria ' (1994 ) 70 Journal of Retailing : 201 -230.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Payne, A. — Holt, S. (2001): Diagnosing Customer Value: Integrating the Value Process and Relationship Marketing. British Journal of Management, 12: 159–182.

    Holt S. , 'Diagnosing Customer Value: Integrating the Value Process and Relationship Marketing ' (2001 ) 12 British Journal of Management : 159 -182.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ridgway, N. M. — Dawson, S. A. — Bloch, P. H. (1989): Pleasure and Arousal in the Marketplace: Interpersonal Differences in Approach-avoidance Responses. Marketing Letters, 1(2): 139–147.

    Bloch P. H. , 'Pleasure and Arousal in the Marketplace: Interpersonal Differences in Approach-avoidance Responses ' (1989 ) 1 Marketing Letters : 139 -147.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schiffman, L. G. — Kanuk, L. L. (2010): Consumer Behavior (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River Valley, NJ: Prentice Hall.

    Kanuk L. L. , '', in Consumer Behavior , (2010 ) -.

  • Sela, A. — Berger, J. — Liu, W. (2009): Variety, Vice and Virtue: How Assortment Size Influences Option Choice. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(6): 941–951.

    Liu W. , 'Variety, Vice and Virtue: How Assortment Size Influences Option Choice ' (2009 ) 35 Journal of Consumer Research : 941 -951.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sirgy, M. J. — Samli, A. C. (1985): A Path Analytic Model of Store Loyalty Involving Self-concept, Store Image, Socioeconomic Status, and Geographic Loyalty. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 13(3): 265–292.

    Samli A. C. , 'A Path Analytic Model of Store Loyalty Involving Self-concept, Store Image, Socioeconomic Status, and Geographic Loyalty ' (1985 ) 13 Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science : 265 -292.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sirohi, N. — McLaughlin, E. W. — Wittink, D. R. (1998): A Model of Consumer Perceptions and Store Loyalty Intentions for a Supermarket Retailer. Journal of Retailing, 74(2): 223–245.

    Wittink D. R. , 'A Model of Consumer Perceptions and Store Loyalty Intentions for a Supermarket Retailer ' (1998 ) 74 Journal of Retailing : 223 -245.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Smith, J. B. — Colgate, M. (2007): Customer Value Creation: A Practical Framework. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 15(1): 7–23.

    Colgate M. , 'Customer Value Creation: A Practical Framework ' (2007 ) 15 Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice : 7 -23.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sweeney, J. C. — Soutar, G. N. — Johnson, L. W. (1999): The Role of Perceived Risk in the Quality-Value Relationship: AStudy in a Retail Environment. Journal of Retailing, 75(1): 77–105.

    Johnson L. W. , 'The Role of Perceived Risk in the Quality-Value Relationship: AStudy in a Retail Environment ' (1999 ) 75 Journal of Retailing : 77 -105.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Terblanche, N. S. — Boshoff, C. (2006): A Generic Instrument to Measure Customer Satisfaction with the Controllable Elements of the In-store Shopping Experience. South African Journal of Business Management, 37(3): 1–14.

    Boshoff C. , 'A Generic Instrument to Measure Customer Satisfaction with the Controllable Elements of the In-store Shopping Experience ' (2006 ) 37 South African Journal of Business Management : 1 -14.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Uncles, M. D. — Dowling, G. R. — Hammond, K. (2003): Customer Loyalty and Customer Loyalty Programs. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 20(4): 294–316.

    Hammond K. , 'Customer Loyalty and Customer Loyalty Programs ' (2003 ) 20 Journal of Consumer Marketing : 294 -316.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Vázquez, R. — Rodriguez-Del Bosque, I. A. — Ma Daz, A. — Ruiz, A. V. (2001): Service Quality in Supermarket Retailing: Identifying Critical Service Experiences. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 8(1): 1–14.

    Ruiz A. V. , 'Service Quality in Supermarket Retailing: Identifying Critical Service Experiences ' (2001 ) 8 Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services : 1 -14.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wang, L. C. — Baker, J. — Wagner, J. A. — Wakefield, K. (2007): Can a Retail Website be Social? Journal of Marketing, 71(3): 143–157.

    Wakefield K. , 'Can a Retail Website be Social? ' (2007 ) 71 Journal of Marketing : 143 -157.

  • Woodruff, B. R. — Gardial, F. S. (1996): Know your Customer: New Approaches to Understanding Customer Value and Satisfaction. Malden: Blackwell Business.

    Gardial F. S. , '', in Know your Customer: New Approaches to Understanding Customer Value and Satisfaction , (1996 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar