Author: N. Sakr
View More View Less
  • 1 Syrian Atomic Energy Commission Department of Agriculture Damascus P. O. Box 6091 Syria
  • 2 INRA-UBP, UMR 1095 234 Avenue du Brézet 63100 Clermont-Ferrand France
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $692.00

Phenotypic groups including pathogenic, morphological and genetic characteristics for 50 Plasmopara halstedii (downy mildew) isolates belonging to seven races based on interactions with sunflower plants were revealed. Pathogenicity for pathogen isolates were analysed in sunflower plants showing different levels of resistance. Based on the reaction for the P. halstedii isolates to sunflower hybrids varying only in Pl resistance genes, there were three identified groups based on virulence reaction. Index of aggressiveness was calculated for pathogen isolates and revealed the presence of significant differences between isolates of 100 and 3xx races (more aggressive) and isolates of 710 and 7xx races (less aggressive). Morphological analyses were carried out on zoosporangia and sporangiophores for P. halstedii isolates produced on the surface of cotyledons in sunflower plants infected thought roots. There were no groups based on the morphology of zoosporangia and sporangiophores for pathogen isolates. Genetic relationships were detected between pathogen isolates using 12 EST-derived markers. There was no intra-race genetic variation, but five genetically-identified groups were detected among pathogen isolates of all races. Combining data of pathogen’s variation with variability in sunflower to arrive at durable resistance against P. halstedii was discussed.

  • Ahmed, S., Delmotte, F. and Tourvieille de Labrouhe, D. (2012): Emerging virulence arising from hybridisation facilitated by multiple introductions of the sunflower downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara halstedii. - Fungal Genet. Biol. 49(10): 847–855.

    Tourvieille de Labrouhe D , 'Emerging virulence arising from hybridisation facilitated by multiple introductions of the sunflower downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara halstedii ' (2012 ) 49 Fungal Genet. Biol. : 847 -855.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • As-sadi, F., Carrere, S., Gascuel, Q., Hourlier, T., Rengel, D., Le Paslier, M. C., Bordat, A., Boniface, M. C., Brunel, D., Gouzy, J., Godiard, L. and Vincourt, P. (2011): Transcriptomic analysis of the interaction between Helianthus annuus and its obligate parasite Plasmopara halstedii shows single nucleotide polymorphisms in CRN sequences. - BMC Genomics 12: 498.

    Vincourt P , 'Transcriptomic analysis of the interaction between Helianthus annuus and its obligate parasite Plasmopara halstedii shows single nucleotide polymorphisms in CRN sequences ' (2011 ) 12 BMC Genomics : 498 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Brown, J. K. M. and Tellier, A. (2011): Plant-parasite coevolution: bridging the gap between genetics and ecology. - Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 49: 345–367.

    Tellier A , 'Plant-parasite coevolution: bridging the gap between genetics and ecology ' (2011 ) 49 Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. : 345 -367.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chacon, M. G., Andrade-Piedra, J. L., Gessler, C. and Forbes, G. A. (2007): Aggressiveness of Phytophthora infestans and phenotypic analysis of resistance in wild Petota accessions in Ecuador. - Plant Pathol. 56(4): 549–561.

    Forbes G A , 'Aggressiveness of Phytophthora infestans and phenotypic analysis of resistance in wild Petota accessions in Ecuador ' (2007 ) 56 Plant Pathol. : 549 -561.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Delmotte, F., Giresse, X., Richard-Cervera, S., M’Baya, J., Vear, F., Tourvieille, J., Walser, P. and Tourvieille de Labrouhe, D. (2008): Single nucleotide polymorphisms reveal multiple introductions into France of Plasmopara halstedii, the plant pathogen causing sunflower downy mildew. - Infect. Genet. Evol. 8(5): 534–540.

    Tourvieille de Labrouhe D , 'Single nucleotide polymorphisms reveal multiple introductions into France of Plasmopara halstedii, the plant pathogen causing sunflower downy mildew ' (2008 ) 8 Infect. Genet. Evol. : 534 -540.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Goodwin, S. B. (1997): The population genetics of Phytophthora. - Phytopathology 87(4): 462–473.

    Goodwin S B , 'The population genetics of Phytophthora ' (1997 ) 87 Phytopathology : 462 -473.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gulya, T. J. (2007): Distribution of Plasmopara halstedii races from sunflower around the world. - Proc. 2nd Intern. Downy Mildew Symp., 2–6 July, 1997, Palcky University in Olomouc and JOLA, Czech Republic, pp. 135–142.

    Gulya T J , '', in Proc. 2nd Intern. Downy Mildew Symp. , (2007 ) -.

  • Islam, S. Z., Badadoost, M., Lambert, K. N., Ndeme, A. and Fouly, H. M. (2004): Characterization of Phytophthora capsici isolates from processing pumpkin in Illinois. - Plant Dis. 89(2): 191–197.

    Fouly H M , 'Characterization of Phytophthora capsici isolates from processing pumpkin in Illinois ' (2004 ) 89 Plant Dis. : 191 -197.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jin, L. and Chakraborty, R. (1993): Estimation of genetic distance and coefficient of gene diversity from single-probe multilocus DNA fingerprinting data. - Mol. Biol. Evol. 11(1): 1112–1114.

    Chakraborty R , 'Estimation of genetic distance and coefficient of gene diversity from single-probe multilocus DNA fingerprinting data ' (1993 ) 11 Mol. Biol. Evol. : 1112 -1114.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Körösi, K., Bán, R., Barna, B. and Virányi, F. (2011): Biochemical and molecular changes in downy mildew-infected sunflower triggered by resistance inducers. - J. Phytopathol. 159(7–8): 471–478.

    Virányi F , 'Biochemical and molecular changes in downy mildew-infected sunflower triggered by resistance inducers ' (2011 ) 159 J. Phytopathol. : 471 -478.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Langella, O. (1999): Populations 1.2.28 software. - http://www.pge.cnrsgif.fr/bioinfo/populations

    Langella O , '', in Populations 1.2.28 software , (1999 ) -.

  • Montarry, J., Corbiere, R., Lesueur, S., Glais, I. and Andrivon, D. (2006): Does selection by resistant hosts trigger local adaptation in plant-pathogen systems? - J. Evol. Biol. 19(2): 522–531.

    Andrivon D , 'Does selection by resistant hosts trigger local adaptation in plant-pathogen systems? ' (2006 ) 19 J. Evol. Biol. : 522 -531.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Montarry, J., Hamelin, F. M., Glais, I., Corbiere, R. and Andrivon, D. (2010): Fitness costs associated with unnecessary virulence factors and life history traits: evolutionary insights from the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. - BMC Evol. Biol. 10: 283.

    Andrivon D , 'Fitness costs associated with unnecessary virulence factors and life history traits: evolutionary insights from the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans ' (2010 ) 10 BMC Evol. Biol. : 283 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Radwan, O., Bouzidi, M. F., Vear, F., Phillipon, J., Tourvieille de Labrouhe, D., Nicolas, P. and Mouzeyar, S. (2002): Identification of non TIR-NBS-LRR markers linked to the PL5/PL8 locus for resistance to downy mildew in sunflower. - Theor. Appl. Genet. 106(8): 1438–1446.

    Mouzeyar S , 'Identification of non TIR-NBS-LRR markers linked to the PL5/PL8 locus for resistance to downy mildew in sunflower ' (2002 ) 106 Theor. Appl. Genet. : 1438 -1446.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sakr, N. (2009): Variation in aggressiveness of Plasmopara halstedii (sunflower downy mildew). - J. Plant Dis. Protect. 116(6): 247–251.

    Sakr N , 'Variation in aggressiveness of Plasmopara halstedii (sunflower downy mildew) ' (2009 ) 116 J. Plant Dis. Protect. : 247 -251.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sakr, N. (2011a): Aggressiveness in Plasmopara halstedii (sunflower downy mildew). - Plant Pathol. J. 27(2): 110–115.

    Sakr N , 'Aggressiveness in Plasmopara halstedii (sunflower downy mildew) ' (2011 ) 27 Plant Pathol. J. : 110 -115.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sakr, N. (2011b): Evolution of pathogenicity in Plasmopara halstedii (sunflower downy mildew). - Arch. Phytopathol. Plant Protect. 44(15): 1432–1436.

    Sakr N , 'Evolution of pathogenicity in Plasmopara halstedii (sunflower downy mildew) ' (2011 ) 44 Arch. Phytopathol. Plant Protect. : 1432 -1436.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sakr, N. (2011c): Relationship between aggressiveness and zoosporangia viability in Plasmopara halstedii (sunflower downy mildew). - Arch. Phytopathol. Plant Protect. 44(16): 1585–1594.

    Sakr N , 'Relationship between aggressiveness and zoosporangia viability in Plasmopara halstedii (sunflower downy mildew) ' (2011 ) 44 Arch. Phytopathol. Plant Protect. : 1585 -1594.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sakr, N. (2012a): Aggressiveness variation in Plasmopara halstedii and its alternation with non-race-specific resistance in sunflower. - Arch. Phytopathol. Plant Protect. 45(14): 1633–1641.

    Sakr N , 'Aggressiveness variation in Plasmopara halstedii and its alternation with non-race-specific resistance in sunflower ' (2012 ) 45 Arch. Phytopathol. Plant Protect. : 1633 -1641.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sakr, N. (2012b): Virulence cost in Plasmopara halstedii (sunflower downy mildew). - Arch. Phytopathol. Plant Protect. 45(6): 646–651.

    Sakr N , 'Virulence cost in Plasmopara halstedii (sunflower downy mildew) ' (2012 ) 45 Arch. Phytopathol. Plant Protect. : 646 -651.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sakr, N., Ducher, M., Tourvieille, J., Walser, P. and Tourvieille de Labrouhe, D. (2007): A new method to obtain monozoosporangial isolates of sunflower downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii). - Cryptogamie, Mycol. 28(2): 123–131.

    Tourvieille de Labrouhe D , 'A new method to obtain monozoosporangial isolates of sunflower downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii) ' (2007 ) 28 Cryptogamie, Mycol. : 123 -131.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran, W. G. (eds) (1989): Statistical methods. 8th ed. - The Iwoa State University Press, Iowa, 528 pp.

    '', in Statistical methods , (1989 ) -.

  • Spring, O. and Zipper, R. (2006): Evidence for asexual genetic recombination in sunflower downy mildew, Plasmopara halstedii. - Mycol. Res. 110(6): 657–663.

    Zipper R , 'Evidence for asexual genetic recombination in sunflower downy mildew, Plasmopara halstedii ' (2006 ) 110 Mycol. Res. : 657 -663.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Spring, O., Bachofer, M., Thines, M., Riethmuller, A., Goker, M. and Oberwinkler, F. (2006): Intraspecific relationship of Plasmopara halstedii isolates differing in pathogenicity and geographic origin based on ITS sequence data. - Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 114(3): 309–315.

    Oberwinkler F , 'Intraspecific relationship of Plasmopara halstedii isolates differing in pathogenicity and geographic origin based on ITS sequence data ' (2006 ) 114 Eur. J. Plant Pathol. : 309 -315.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tourvieille de Labrouhe, D., Pilorge, E., Nicolas, P. and Vear, F. (eds) (2000): Le mildiou du tournesol. CETIOM- INRA Publications, Paris, 176 pp.

    '', in Le mildiou du tournesol , (2000 ) -.

  • Tourvieille de Labrouhe, D., Serre, F., Roche, S., Walser, P. and Vear, F. (2008): Quantitative resistance to downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus). - Euphytica 164(2): 433–444.

    Vear F , 'Quantitative resistance to downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) ' (2008 ) 164 Euphytica : 433 -444.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tourvieille de Labrouhe, D., Bordat, A., Tourvieille, J., Mestries, E., Walser, P., Sakr, N., Ducher, M., Delmotte, F. and Vear, F. (2010): Impact of major gene resistance management for sunflower on fitness of Plasmopara halstedii (downy mildew) populations. - Oleagineux, Corps Gras, Lipides 17(1): 56–64.

    Vear F , 'Impact of major gene resistance management for sunflower on fitness of Plasmopara halstedii (downy mildew) populations ' (2010 ) 17 Oleagineux, Corps Gras, Lipides : 56 -64.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Van der Plank, J. E. (1968): Disease resistance in plants. - Academic Press, New York and London, 206 pp.

    Plank J E , '', in Disease resistance in plants , (1968 ) -.

  • Vear, F., Serre, F., Jouan-Dufournel, I., Bert, P. F., Roche, S., Walser, P., Tourvieille de Labrouhe, D. and Vincourt, P. (2008): Inheritance of quantitative resistance to downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus). - Euphytica 164(2): 561–570.

    Vincourt P , 'Inheritance of quantitative resistance to downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) ' (2008 ) 164 Euphytica : 561 -570.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Vincourt, P., As-sadi, F., Bordat, A., Langlade, N. B., Gouzy, J., Pouilly, N., Lippi, Y., Serre, F., Godiard, L., Tourvieille de Labrouhe, D. and Vear, F. (2012): Consensus mapping of major resistance genes and independent QTL for quantitative resistance to sunflower downy mildew. - Theor. Appl. Genet. 125(5): 909–920.

    Vear F , 'Consensus mapping of major resistance genes and independent QTL for quantitative resistance to sunflower downy mildew ' (2012 ) 125 Theor. Appl. Genet. : 909 -920.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Viranyi, F. and Spring, O. (2011): Advances in sunflower downy mildew research. - Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 129(2): 207–220.

    Spring O , 'Advances in sunflower downy mildew research ' (2011 ) 129 Eur. J. Plant Pathol. : 207 -220.

    • Search Google Scholar