View More View Less
  • 1 University School of Physical Education Department of Sports Medicine and Nutrition Paderewski Avenue 35 51-612 Wroclaw Poland
  • 2 University of Zielona Gora Department of Physical Education Zielona Gora Poland
  • 3 Diagnostic Centre Znak-Test Gorzow Wielkopolski Poland
  • 4 University School of Physical Education Poznan Poland
  • 5 University of Environmental and Life Sciences Wroclaw Poland
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $752.00

Carnosine is a dipeptide formed from the amino acids β-alanine and histidine and found in large amounts in the brain and muscle, especially fast twitch muscle. Carnosine has an antioxidant role and accounts for about 10% of the muscle’s ability to buffer the H+ ions produced by high intensity exercise. Due to the interesting role of carnosine, the aim of the study was observe the effects of carnosine intake on pro-antioxidant status in highly trained athletes exposed to intense exercise.Fourteen male athletes from the Polish national kayak and canoe teams participated in placebo-controlled and cross-over study. The athletes were supplemented with 4 g/d carnosine for 14 days. Blood samples were collected before and 30 min, 24 h and 48 h after 2000 m exercise trial. In blood, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO), markers of RO/NS activity 8-isoprostanes and 3-nitrotyrosine, total (GSHt) and oxidised glutathione (GSSG), antioxidant status (APO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined. There were not observed statistically significant differences in exercise-induced changes in H2O2 and NO concentrations and SOD activity after carnosine intake. However, carnosine prevented an increase in 8-isoprostanes, 3-nitrotyrosine and GSSG concentrations as well as elevated redox status (GSHt-2GSSG)/GSSG at post-exercise period.Although, oral supplementation with 4 g carnosine did not affect RO/NS generation, it significantly attenuated exercise-induced glutathione loss, reduced oxidation/nitration markers concentration and SOD activity. These results suggest that carnosine could provide antioxidative protection for highly trained athletes.

  • Antonini FM, Petruzzi E, Pinzani P, Orlando C, Poggesi M, Serio M, Pazzagli M, Masotti G: The meat in the diet of aged subjects and the antioxidant effects of carnosine. Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl. 8, 714 (2002)

    Masotti G. , 'The meat in the diet of aged subjects and the antioxidant effects of carnosine ' (2002 ) 8 Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl. : 714 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Baguet A, Bourgois J, Vanhee L, Achten E, Derave W: Important role of muscle carnosine in rowing performance. J Appl Physiol. 109(4), 1096–1101 (2010)

    Derave W. , 'Important role of muscle carnosine in rowing performance ' (2010 ) 109 J Appl Physiol. : 1096 -1101.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Begum G, Cunliffe A, Leveritt M: Physiological role of carnosine in contracting muscle. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 15(5), 493–514 (2005)

    Leveritt M. , 'Physiological role of carnosine in contracting muscle ' (2005 ) 15 Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. : 493 -514.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bellia F, Vecchio G, Rizzarelli E: Carnosine derivatives: new multifunctional drug-like molecules. Amino Acids 32(4–6), 258–266 (2011)

    Rizzarelli E. , 'Carnosine derivatives: new multifunctional drug-like molecules ' (2011 ) 32 Amino Acids : 258 -266.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Boldyrev AA, Stvolinski. SL, Fedorova TN: Carnosine: endogenous physiological corrector of antioxidative system activity. Usp Fiziol Nauk. 38(3), 57–71 (2007)

    Fedorova T.N. , 'Carnosine: endogenous physiological corrector of antioxidative system activity ' (2007 ) 38 Usp Fiziol Nauk. : 57 -71.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Budzen S, Rymaszewska J: The biological role of carnosine and its possible applications in medicine. Adv Clin Exp Med. 22, 739–744 (2013)

    Rymaszewska J. , 'The biological role of carnosine and its possible applications in medicine ' (2013 ) 22 Adv Clin Exp Med. : 739 -744.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Caruso J, Charles J, Unruh K, Giebel R, Learmonth L, Potter W: Ergogenic effects of β-alanine and carnosine: proposed future research to quantify their efficacy. Nutrients 4, 585–601 (2012)

    Potter W. , 'Ergogenic effects of β-alanine and carnosine: proposed future research to quantify their efficacy ' (2012 ) 4 Nutrients : 585 -601.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Derave W, Everaert I, Beeckman S, Baguet A: Muscle carnosine metabolism and beta-alanine supplementation in relation to exercise and training. Sports Med. 40(3), 247–263 (2010).

    Baguet A. , 'Muscle carnosine metabolism and beta-alanine supplementation in relation to exercise and training ' (2010 ) 40 Sports Med. : 247 -263.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dutka TL, Lamb GD: Effect of carnosine on excitation-contraction coupling in mechanically — skinned rat skeletal muscle. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 25(3), 203–213 (2004)

    Lamb G.D. , 'Effect of carnosine on excitation-contraction coupling in mechanically — skinned rat skeletal muscle ' (2004 ) 25 J Muscle Res Cell Motil. : 203 -213.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Everaert I, De Naeyer H, Taes Y, Derave W: Low plasma carnosinase activity promotes carnosinemia after carnosine ingestion in humans. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 302(12), F1537–1544 (2012)

    Derave W. , 'Low plasma carnosinase activity promotes carnosinemia after carnosine ingestion in humans ' (2012 ) 302 Am J Physiol Renal Physiol : F1537 -1544.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gardner M, Illingworth KM, Kelleher J, Wood D: Intestinal absorption of the intact peptide carnosine in man, and comparison with intestinal permeability of lactulose. J Physiol 439, 411–422 (1991)

    Wood D. , 'Intestinal absorption of the intact peptide carnosine in man, and comparison with intestinal permeability of lactulose ' (1991 ) 439 J Physiol : 411 -422.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gottfredsen RH, Larsen UG, Enghild JJ, Petersen SV: Hydrogen peroxide induce modifications of human extracellular superoxide dismutase that results in enzyme inhibition. Redox Biol. 1, 24–31 (2013)

    Petersen S.V. , 'Hydrogen peroxide induce modifications of human extracellular superoxide dismutase that results in enzyme inhibition ' (2013 ) 1 Redox Biol. : 24 -31.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Haddad JJ, Harb HL: L-gamma-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine (glutathione; GSH) and GSH-related enzymes in the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines: a signalling transcriptional scenario for redox(y) immunologic sensor(s)? Mol Immunol 42, 987–1014 (2005)

    Harb H.L. , 'L-gamma-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine (glutathione; GSH) and GSH-related enzymes in the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines: a signalling transcriptional scenario for redox(y) immunologic sensor(s)? ' (2005 ) 42 Mol Immunol : 987 -1014.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Harris RC, Marlin DJ, Dunnett M, Snow DH, Hultman E: Muscle buffering capacity and dipeptide content in the thoroughbred horse, greyhound dog and man. Comp Biochem Physiol. 97(2), 249–251 (1990)

    Hultman E. , 'Muscle buffering capacity and dipeptide content in the thoroughbred horse, greyhound dog and man ' (1990 ) 97 Comp Biochem Physiol. : 249 -251.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Harris RC, Tallon MJ, Dunnett M, Boobis L, Coakley J, Kim HJ, Fallowfield JL, Hill CA, Sale C, Wise JA: The absorption of orally supplied β-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino Acids 30, 279–289 (2006)

    Wise J.A. , 'The absorption of orally supplied β-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis ' (2006 ) 30 Amino Acids : 279 -289.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Harris RC, Sale C: Beta-alanine supplementation in high-intensity exercise. Med Sport Sci. 59, 1–17 (2012)

    Sale C. , 'Beta-alanine supplementation in high-intensity exercise ' (2012 ) 59 Med Sport Sci. : 1 -17.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hipkiss AR, Brownson C, Bertani MF, Ruiz E, Ferro A: Reaction of carnosine with aged proteins: another protective process? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 959, 285–294 (2002)

    Ferro A. , 'Reaction of carnosine with aged proteins: another protective process? ' (2002 ) 959 Ann N Y Acad Sci. : 285 -294.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kim MY, Kim EJ, Kim YN, Choi C, Lee BH: Effects of α-lipoic acid and L-carnosine supplementation on antioxidant activities and lipid profiles in rats. Nutr Res Pract. 5(5), 421–428 (2011)

    Lee B.H. , 'Effects of α-lipoic acid and L-carnosine supplementation on antioxidant activities and lipid profiles in rats ' (2011 ) 5 Nutr Res Pract. : 421 -428.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lamont C, Miller DJ: Calcium sensitizing action of carnosine and other endogenous imidazoles in chemically skinned striated muscle. J Physiol. 454, 421–434 (1992)

    Miller D.J. , 'Calcium sensitizing action of carnosine and other endogenous imidazoles in chemically skinned striated muscle ' (1992 ) 454 J Physiol. : 421 -434.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lenney JF, Peppers SC, Kucera-Orallo CM, George RP: Characterization of human tissue carnosinase. Biochem J. 228(3), 653–660 (1989)

    George R.P. , 'Characterization of human tissue carnosinase ' (1989 ) 228 Biochem J. : 653 -660.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Margonis K, Fatouros IG, Jamurtas AZ, Nikolaidis MG, Douroudos I, Chatzinikolaou A, Mitrakou A, Mastorakos G, Papassotiriou I, Taxildaris K, Kouretas D: Oxidative stress biomarkers responses to physical overtraining: implications for diagnosis. Free Radic Biol Med. 43(6), 901–910 (2007)

    Kouretas D. , 'Oxidative stress biomarkers responses to physical overtraining: implications for diagnosis ' (2007 ) 43 Free Radic Biol Med. : 901 -910.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Park Y, Volpe SL, Decker EA: Quantification of carnosine in human plasma after dietary consumption of beef. J Agric Food Chem. 53, 4736–4739 (2005)

    Decker E.A. , 'Quantification of carnosine in human plasma after dietary consumption of beef ' (2005 ) 53 J Agric Food Chem. : 4736 -4739.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Parkhouse WS, McKenzie DC, Hochachka PW, Ovalle WK: Buffering capacity of deproteinized human vastus lateralis muscle. J Appl Physiol. 58(1), 14–17 (1985)

    Ovalle W.K. , 'Buffering capacity of deproteinized human vastus lateralis muscle ' (1985 ) 58 J Appl Physiol. : 14 -17.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pavlov AR, Revina AA, Dupin AM, Boldyrev AA, Yaropolov AI: The mechanism of interaction of carnosine with superoxide radicals in water solutions. Biochim Biophys Acta.1157(3), 304–312 (1993)

    Yaropolov A.I. , 'The mechanism of interaction of carnosine with superoxide radicals in water solutions ' (1993 ) 1157 Biochim Biophys Acta. : 304 -312.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Riedl I, Koeppel H, Brinkkoetter P, Sternik P, Steinbeisser H, Sauerhoefer S, Janssen B, van der Woude FJ, Yard BA: A CTG polzmorphisms in the CNDP1 gene determines the secretion of serum carnosinase in Cos+7 tresfected cells. Diabetes 56, 2410–2413 (2007)

    Yard B.A. , 'A CTG polzmorphisms in the CNDP1 gene determines the secretion of serum carnosinase in Cos+7 tresfected cells ' (2007 ) 56 Diabetes : 2410 -2413.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sale Saunders B, Harris RC: Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine concentrations and exercise performance. Amino Acids 39(2), 321–333 (2010)

    Harris R.C. , 'Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine concentrations and exercise performance ' (2010 ) 39 Amino Acids : 321 -333.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Suzuki Y, Nakao T, Maemura H, Sato M, Kamahara K, Morimatsu F, Takamatsu K: Carnosine and anserine ingestion enhances contribution of nonbicarbonate buffering. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 38, 334–338 (2006)

    Takamatsu K. , 'Carnosine and anserine ingestion enhances contribution of nonbicarbonate buffering ' (2006 ) 38 Med Sci Sports Exerc. : 334 -338.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Suzuki Y, Ito O, Mukai N, Takahashi H, Takamatsu K: High level of skeletal muscle carnosine contributes to the latter half of exercise performance during 30-s maximal cycle ergometer sprinting. Jpn J Physiol 52(2), 199–205 (2002)

    Takamatsu K. , 'High level of skeletal muscle carnosine contributes to the latter half of exercise performance during 30-s maximal cycle ergometer sprinting ' (2002 ) 52 Jpn J Physiol : 199 -205.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tallon MJ, Harris RC, Boobis LH, Fallowfield JL, Wise JA: The carnosine content of vastus lateralis is elevated in resistance-trained bodybuilders. J Strength Cond Res. 19(4), 725–729 (2005)

    Wise J.A. , 'The carnosine content of vastus lateralis is elevated in resistance-trained bodybuilders ' (2005 ) 19 J Strength Cond Res. : 725 -729.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tanskanen M, Atalay M, Uusitalo A: Altered oxidative stress in overtrained athletes. J Sports Sci. 28(3), 309–317 (2010)

    Uusitalo A. , 'Altered oxidative stress in overtrained athletes ' (2010 ) 28 J Sports Sci. : 309 -317.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Venditti P, Di Meo S: Effect of training on antioxidant capacity, tissue damage, and endurance of adult male rats. Int J Sports Med. 18(7), 497–502 (1997)

    Di Meo S. , 'Effect of training on antioxidant capacity, tissue damage, and endurance of adult male rats ' (1997 ) 18 Int J Sports Med. : 497 -502.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yeum KJ, Orioli M, Regazzoni L, Carini M, Rasmussen H, Russell RM, Aldini G, Orioli M, Regazzoni L: Profiling histidine dipeptides in plasma and urine after ingesting beef, chicken or chicken broth in humans. Amino Acids 38, 847–858 (2009)

    Regazzoni L. , 'Profiling histidine dipeptides in plasma and urine after ingesting beef, chicken or chicken broth in humans ' (2009 ) 38 Amino Acids : 847 -858.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yoon JH, Lee MS, Kang JH: Reaction of ferritin with hydrogen peroxide induces lipid peroxidation. BMB Rep. 43(3), 219–224 (2010)

    Kang J.H. , 'Reaction of ferritin with hydrogen peroxide induces lipid peroxidation ' (2010 ) 43 BMB Rep. : 219 -224.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zembron-Lacny A, Slowinska-Lisowska M, Ziemba A: Integration of the thiol redox status with cytokine response to physical training in professional basketball players. Physiol Res. 59(6), 239–245 (2010)

    Ziemba A. , 'Integration of the thiol redox status with cytokine response to physical training in professional basketball players ' (2010 ) 59 Physiol Res. : 239 -245.

    • Search Google Scholar

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Sep 2020 0 0 0
Oct 2020 1 0 0
Nov 2020 2 0 0
Dec 2020 0 0 0
Jan 2021 1 0 0
Feb 2021 0 0 0
Mar 2021 6 0 0