View More View Less
  • 1 Semmelweis University Heart and Vascular Center, Budapest, Hungary
  • 2 Veszprém Megyei Csolnoky Ferenc Kórház, Veszprém, Hungary
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $752.00

In Hungary, ECG is a keystone of routine athletic screening. Its signifcance is based on simplicity, quickness and high informative value as well as the fact that appearance of pathological ECG signs can precede the formation of structural heart diseases. During screening of healthy athletes, we studied the incidence of athletic ECG changes and pathological ECG abnormalities. Methods: We performed detailed analysis of 12-lead ECG recordings of asymptomatic elite, non-elite and master athletes and controls. Results: 227 athletes (male: 180, age: 27.2±8.7 years) and 89 controls (male: 57, age: 28.1±6.8 years) were examined. Benign ECG signs: sinus bradycardia, early repolarization and isolated Voltage criteria of left ventricular hypertrophy were common and more often in athletes compared to controls. Potentially pathological ECG signs: ST- (6.6% vs. 1.1%, p < 0.05) and T-wave (15.0% vs. 5.6%, p < 0.05) changes and signs of pathological left ventricular hypertrophy (5.3% vs. 0%, p < 0.05) occurred more frequently in athletes compared to controls. Conclusions: Signs of pathological left ventricular hypertrophy and repolarization abnormalities are more often in athletes. No structural heart disease could be verifed in the background of the disorders. However, athletes having pathological ECG should be kept under tight cardiology control. Exact defnition and widespread knowledge of pathological ECG changes is essential in early recognition of high risk athletes.

  • 1.

    Bayes de Luna A, Brugada J, Baranchuk A, Borggrefe M, Breithardt G, Goldwasser D, Lambiase P, Riera AP, Garcia-Niebla J, Pastore C, Oreto G, McKenna W, Zareba W, Brugada R, Brugada P: Current electrocardiographic criteria for diagnosis of Brugada pattern: a consensus report. J. Electrocardiol. 45, 433442 (2012)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Bianco M, Bria S, Gianfelici A, Sanna N, Palmieri V, Zeppilli P: Does early repolarization in the athlete have analogies with the Brugada syndrome? Eur. Heart J. 22, 504510 (2001)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Boyett MR, D’Souza A, Zhang H, Morris GM, Dobrzynski H, Monfredi O: Viewpoint: is the resting bradycardia in athletes the result of remodeling of the sinoatrial node rather than high vagal tone? J. Appl. Physiol. 114, 13511355 (2013)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Brosnan M, La Gerche A, Kalman J, Lo W, Fallon K, Macisaac A, Prior D: The Seattle Criteria increase the specifcity of preparticipation ECG screening among elite athletes. Br. J. Sports Med. 48, 11441150 (2013)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Cappato R, Furlanello F, Giovinazzo V, Infusino T, Lupo P, Pittalis M, Foresti S, De Ambroggi G, Ali H, Bianco E, Riccamboni R, Butera G, Ricci C, Ranucci M, Pelliccia A, De Ambroggi L: J wave, QRS slurring, and ST elevation in athletes with cardiac arrest in the absence of heart disease: marker of risk or innocent bystander? Circ. Arrhythm. Electrophysiol. 3, 305311 (2010)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Corrado D, Biff A, Basso C, Pelliccia A, Thiene G: 12-lead ECG in the athlete: physiological versus pathological abnormalities. Br. J. Sports Med. 43, 669676 (2009)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Corrado D, Pelliccia A, Heidbuchel H, Sharma S, Link M, Basso C, Biff A, Buja G, Delise P, Gussac I, Anastasakis A, Borjesson M, Bjornstad HH, Carre F, Deligiannis A, Dugmore D, Fagard R, Hoogsteen J, Mellwig KP, Panhuyzen-Goedkoop N, Solberg E, Vanhees L, Drezner J, Estes NA, 3rd, Iliceto S, Maron BJ, Peidro R, Schwartz PJ, Stein R, Thiene G, Zeppilli P, McKenna WJ: Recommendations for interpretation of 12-lead electrocardiogram in the athlete. Eur. Heart J. 31, 243259 (2010)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Furlanello F, Bertoldi A, Dallago M, Galassi A, Fernando F, Biff A, Mazzone P, Pappone C, Chierchia S: Atrial fbrillation in elite athletes. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 9, S63S68 (1998)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Haissaguerre M, Derval N, Sacher F, Jesel L, Deisenhofer I, de Roy L, Pasquie JL, Nogami A, Babuty D, Yli-Mayry S, De Chillou C, Scanu P, Mabo P, Matsuo S, Probst V, Le Scouarnec S, Defaye P, Schlaepfer J, Rostock T, Lacroix D, Lamaison D, Lavergne T, Aizawa Y, Englund A, Anselme F, O’Neill M, Hocini M, Lim KT, Knecht S, Veenhuyzen GD, Bordachar P, Chauvin M, Jais P, Coureau G, Chene G, Klein GJ, Clementy J: Sudden cardiac arrest associated with early repolarization. N. Engl. J. Med. 358, 20162023 (2008)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Horvath P, Petrekanits M, Gyore I, Kneffel Z, Varga-Pinter B, Pavlik G: Echocardiographic and spiroergometric data of elite Hungarian female water polo players. Acta Physiol. Hung. 96, 449457 (2009)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Kim JH, Noseworthy PA, McCarty D, Yared K, Weiner R, Wang F, Wood MJ, Hutter AM, Picard MH, Baggish AL: Signifcance of electrocardiographic right bundle branch block in trained athletes. Am. J. Cardiol. 107, 10831089 (2011)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Kovacs A, Apor A, Nagy A, Vago H, Toth A, Nagy AI, Kovats T, Sax B, Szeplaki G, Becker D, Merkely B: Left ventricular untwisting in athlete’s heart: key role in early diastolic flling? Int. J. Sports Med. 35, 259264 (2014)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Link MS, Mark Estes NA, 3rd: Sudden cardiac death in athletes. Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis. 51, 4457 (2008)

  • 14.

    Maron BJ: Sudden death in young athletes. N. Engl. J. Med. 349, 10641075 (2003)

  • 15.

    Maron BJ, Pelliccia A: The heart of trained athletes: cardiac remodeling and the risks of sports, including sudden death. Circulation 114, 16331644 (2006)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Ostman-Smith I, Wisten A, Nylander E, Bratt EL, Granelli A, Oulhaj A, Ljungstrom E: Electrocardiographic amplitudes: a new risk factor for sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Eur. Heart J. 31, 439449 (2010)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Papadakis M, Carre F, Kervio G, Rawlins J, Panoulas VF, Chandra N, Basavarajaiah S, Carby L, Fonseca T, Sharma S: The prevalence, distribution, and clinical outcomes of electrocardiographic repolarization patterns in male athletes of African/Afro-Caribbean origin. Eur. Heart J. 32, 23042313 (2011)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Pavlik G, Major Z, Csajagi E, Jeserich M, Kneffel Z: The athlete’s heart. Part II: infuencing factors on the athlete’s heart: types of sports and age (review). Acta Physiol. Hung. 100, 127 (2013)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Pavlik G, Major Z, Varga-Pinter B, Jeserich M, Kneffel Z: The athlete’s heart Part I (Review). Acta Physiol. Hung. 97, 337353 (2010)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Serra G, Baranchuk A, Bayes-De-Luna A, Brugada J, Goldwasser D, Capulzini L, Arazo D, Boraita A, Heras ME, Garcia-Niebla J, Elosua R, Brugada R, Brugada P: New electrocardiographic criteria to differentiate the Type-2 Brugada pattern from electrocardiogram of healthy athletes with r’-wave in leads V1/V2. Europace 16, 16391645 (2014)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Sheikh N, Papadakis M, Malhotra A, Millar L, Dhutia H, Merghani A, Narain R, Wilson M, McKenna W, Sharma S: 89 The electrocardiographic phenotype in athletes with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: implications for pre-participation cardiovascular evaluation using electrocardiography. Heart 100 Suppl. 3, A51 (2014)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Sztajzel J, Jung M, Sievert K, Bayes De Luna A: Cardiac autonomic profle in different sports disciplines during all-day activity. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 48, 495501 (2008)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Tanguturi VK, Noseworthy PA, Newton-Cheh C, Baggish AL: The electrocardiographic early repolarization pattern in athletes: normal variant or sudden death risk factor? Sports Med. 42, 359366 (2012)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Weinstock J, Estes NA, 3rd: The heart of an athlete: black, white, and shades of grey with no gold standard. Circulation 127, 17571759 (2013)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

The author instruction is available in PDF.

Please, download the file from HERE

  • Impact Factor (2016): 0.571
  • 5-year Impact Factor (2016): 0.675
  • Physiology (Medical) Quartile score (2016): Q4
  • SJR Indicator (2016): 0.276
  • H-Index (2016): H-Index (2016): 23

Language: English

Founded in 1950
Publication: One volume of four issues annually
Publication Programme: 2016: Vol. 103
Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • Biological Abstracts
  • BIOSIS Previews
  • CAB Abstracts
  • Chemical Abstracts
  • EMBASE/Excerpta Medica
  • Global Health
  • Index Copernicus
  • Index Medicus
  • Medline
  • Referativnyi Zhurnal
  • Science Citation Index Expanded
  • SCOPUS

 

Subscribers can access the electronic version of every printed article.

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Rosivall, László

Honorary Editor(s)-in-Chief): Monos, Emil

Managing Editor(s): Bartha, Jenő; Berhidi, Anna

Co-editor(s): Koller, Ákos; Lénárd, László; Szénási, Gábor

Assistant Editor(s): G. Dörnyei (Budapest), Zs. Miklós (Budapest), Gy. Nádasy (Budapest)

Hungarian Editorial Board

      Benedek, György (Szeged)
      Benyó, Zoltán (Budapest)
      Boros, Mihály (Szeged)
      Chernoch, László (Debrecen)
      Détári, László (Budapest)
      Hamar, János (Budapest)
      Hantos, Zoltán (Szeged)
      Hunyady, László (Budapest)
      Imre, Sándor (Debrecen)
      Jancsó, Gábor (Szeged)
      Karádi, Zoltán (Pécs)
      Kovács, László (Debrecen)
      Palkovits, Miklós (Budapest)
      Papp, Gyula (Szeged)
      Pavlik, Gábor (Budapest)
      Spät, András (Budapest)
      Szabó, Gyula (Szeged)
      Szelényi, Zoltán (Pécs)
      Szolcsányi, János (Pécs)
      Szollár, Lajos (Budapest)
      Szücs, Géza (Debrecen)
      Telegdy, Gyula (Szeged)
      Toldi, József (Szeged)
      Tósaki, Árpád (Debrecen)

International Editorial Board

      R. Bauer (Jena)
      W. Benjelloun (Rabat)
      A. W. Cowley Jr. (Milwaukee)
      D. Djuric (Belgrade)
      C. Fry (London)
      S. Greenwald (London)
      O. Hänninen (Kuopio)
      H. G. Hinghofer-Szalkay (Graz)
      Th. Kenner (Graz)
      Gy. Kunos (Richmond)
      M. Mahmoudian (Tehran)
      T. Mano (Seki, Gifu)
      G. Navar (New Orleans)
      H. Nishino (Nagoya)
      O. Petersen (Liverpool)
      U. Pohl (Münich)
      R. S. Reneman (Maastricht)
      A. Romanovsky (Phoenix)
      G. M. Rubanyi (Richmond)
      T. Sakata (Oita)
      A. Siddiqui (Karachi)
      Cs. Szabo (Beverly)
      E. Vicaut (Paris)
      N. Westerhof (Amsterdam)
      L. F. Zhang (Xi'an)

Editorial Office:
Akadémiai Kiadó Zrt.
Prielle Kornélia u. 21–35, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary

Editorial Correspondence:
Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Semmelweis University, Faculty of Medicine Institute of Pathophysiology
Nagyvárad tér 4, H-1089 Budapest, Hungary
Phone/Fax: +36-1-2100-100
E-mail: aph@semmelweis-univ.hu