View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine Firat University 23100 Elazig, Turkey
  • 2 Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine Firat University 23100 Elazig, Turkey
  • 3 Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine Firat University 23100 Elazig, Turkey
  • 4 Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine Firat University 23100 Elazig, Turkey
  • 5 Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine Firat University 23100 Elazig, Turkey
  • 6 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Firat University 23100 Elazig, Turkey
  • 7 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Firat University 23100 Elazig, Turkey
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $752.00

In this study, rats were made to inhale cigarette smoke in a specifically prepared container for different periods. The lung tissue samples of the subjects were examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Malonaldehyde, one of the free oxygen radicals was determined in lungs and plasma. The catalase activity level of erythrocyte and arginase levels were determined. Three groups were formed. The rats in the Ist and IInd groups were made to inhale cigarette smoke for 30 and 60 minutes a day for a total period of 3 months. Control group, the rats in the IIIrd group (controls) were made to inhale clean air during the same periods. An increase in the number of macrophages was observed in the pulmonary tissue of the exposed groups. Especially in the group that inhaled the smoke for long periods, the number of macrophages and the inclusion bodies contained in them increased. These differences could easily be observed in TEM studies. In the light microscopy and SEM observations, it arouse attention that the alveolar macrophages occurred as sets and their activation increased. Depending on the length of the exposure to cigarette smoke, an increase in the number of macrophages was observed. Statistically significant increases were determined in the malonaldehyde levels of pulmonary tissue and plasma when compared to the control group. Besides significant increases were found in the catalase activity levels of erythrocytes in the experimental groups.

  • Paunio M, Virtamo J, Gref CG, Heinonen OP: Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol, alcohol and coronary mortality in male smokers. BMJ 312, 1200-1203 (1996)

    'Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol, alcohol and coronary mortality in male smokers ' () 312 BMJ : 1200 -1203.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Goerre S, Staehli C, Show S, Luscher TF: Effect of cigarette smoking and nicotine on plasma endothelin-1 levels. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 3, 236-238 (1995)

    'Effect of cigarette smoking and nicotine on plasma endothelin-1 levels ' () 3 J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. : 236 -238.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cosio MG, Shiner RJ, Saetta M: Alveolar fenestrae in smokers. Relationship with light microscopic and functional abnormalities. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 133, 126-131 (1986)

    'Alveolar fenestrae in smokers. Relationship with light microscopic and functional abnormalities ' () 133 Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. : 126 -131.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kawakami M, Takizawa T: Distribution of pores within alveoli in the human lung. J. Appl. Physiol. 63, 1866-1870 (1987)

    'Distribution of pores within alveoli in the human lung ' () 63 J. Appl. Physiol. : 1866 -1870.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Frasca JM, Auerbach O, Carter HW, Parks VR: Morphologic alterations induced by short-term cigarette smoking. Am. J. Pathol. 111, 11-20 (1983)

    'Morphologic alterations induced by short-term cigarette smoking ' () 111 Am. J. Pathol. : 11 -20.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Morabia A, Wynder EL: Cigarette smoking and lung cancer cell types. Cancer 68, 2074-2078 (1991)

    'Cigarette smoking and lung cancer cell types ' () 68 Cancer : 2074 -2078.

  • Auerbach O, Garfýnkel L: Histologic changes in the urinary bladder in relation to cigarette smoking and use of artificial sweeteners. Cancer 64, 983-987 (1989)

    'Histologic changes in the urinary bladder in relation to cigarette smoking and use of artificial sweeteners ' () 64 Cancer : 983 -987.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Terblanche AP, Theron AJ: Health effects of passive smoking in adolescent children. S. Afr. Med. J. 86, 143-147 (1996)

    'Health effects of passive smoking in adolescent children ' () 86 S. Afr. Med. J. : 143 -147.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Aoshiba K, Nagaý A, Yasui S, Konno K: Nicotine prolongs neutrophil survival by suppressing apoptosis. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 127, 186-194 (1996)

    'Nicotine prolongs neutrophil survival by suppressing apoptosis ' () 127 J. Lab. Clin. Med. : 186 -194.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Brunnemann KD, Kagan MR, Cox JE, Hoffmann D: Determination of benzene, toluene and 1,3-butadiene in cigarette smoke by GC-MSD. Exp Pathol 37, 108-113 (1989)

    'Determination of benzene, toluene and 1,3-butadiene in cigarette smoke by GC-MSD ' () 37 Exp Pathol : 108 -113.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Finkelstein R, Fraser RS, Ghezzo H, Cosio MG: Alveolar inflammation and its relation to emphysema in smokers. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 152, 1666-1672 (1995)

    'Alveolar inflammation and its relation to emphysema in smokers ' () 152 Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. : 1666 -1672.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Matulionis DH, Simmerman LA: Chronic cigarette smoke inhalation and aging in mice: 2. Quantitation of the pulmonary macrophage response. Exp. Lung Res. 9, 309-26 (1985)

    'Chronic cigarette smoke inhalation and aging in mice: 2. Quantitation of the pulmonary macrophage response ' () 9 Exp. Lung Res. : 309 -26.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Muller KM, Hirschberg M: Alveolar macrophages after chronic tobacco smoke inhalation and after artificial respiratory therapy for acute pulmonary failure. Klin. Wochenschr. 2, 43-50 (1984)

    'Alveolar macrophages after chronic tobacco smoke inhalation and after artificial respiratory therapy for acute pulmonary failure ' () 2 Klin. Wochenschr. : 43 -50.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Reznik-Schuller HM: Acute effects of cigarette smoke inhalation on the Syrian hamster lungs. J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. 4, 285-291 (1980)

    'Acute effects of cigarette smoke inhalation on the Syrian hamster lungs ' () 4 J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. : 285 -291.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lamb D, Lumsden A: Intra-epithelial mast cells in human airway epithelium: evidence for smoking-induced changes in their frequency. Thorax 37, 334-342 (1982)

    'Intra-epithelial mast cells in human airway epithelium: evidence for smoking-induced changes in their frequency ' () 37 Thorax : 334 -342.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kükner A, Öner H, Çolakodlu N, Öner J, Ozan E, Ozan S, Yýlmaz S: Observations of the changes occurring in the rat trachea due to inhalation of cigarette smoke. Turk. J. Med. Sci. 31, 103-109 (2001)

    'Observations of the changes occurring in the rat trachea due to inhalation of cigarette smoke ' () 31 Turk. J. Med. Sci. : 103 -109.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gupta MP, Khanduja KL, Sharma RR: Effect of cigarette smoke inhalation on anti-oxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in the rat. Toxicology Letters 41, 107-114 (1988)

    'Effect of cigarette smoke inhalation on anti-oxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in the rat ' () 41 Toxicology Letters : 107 -114.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tong L, Spitz MR, Fuerger JJ, Amos CI: Lung carcinoma in former smokers. Cancer 78, 1004-1010 (1996)

    'Lung carcinoma in former smokers ' () 78 Cancer : 1004 -1010.

  • Baumgartner KB, Samet JM, Stidley CA, Colby TU, Waldron JA: Cigarette smoking: A risk factor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 155, 242-248 (1997)

    'Cigarette smoking: A risk factor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis ' () 155 Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. : 242 -248.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Talceuchi M, Nagai S, Izumi T: The mechanism of inhibition of alveolar macrophages on autologous blood natural killer cell activity. Chest 95, 383-387 (1989)

    'The mechanism of inhibition of alveolar macrophages on autologous blood natural killer cell activity ' () 95 Chest : 383 -387.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Appel J, Szule P: Electron microscopy of macrophages obtained from bronchial lavage-fluid. Acta Morphol. Hung. 34, 163-170 (1986)

    'Electron microscopy of macrophages obtained from bronchial lavage-fluid ' () 34 Acta Morphol. Hung. : 163 -170.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Aebi H: Catalase in vitro. Methods in Enzymology 105, 121-126 (1984)

    'Catalase in vitro ' () 105 Methods in Enzymology : 121 -126.

  • Ibe BO, Raj JU: Metabolism of N-Methyl-carbazole by rat lung microsomes. Exp. Lung Res. 20, 207-222 (1994)

    'Metabolism of N-Methyl-carbazole by rat lung microsomes ' () 20 Exp. Lung Res. : 207 -222.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pesci A, Majori M, Cuoma A, Borciani N: Neutrophils infiltrating bronchial epithelium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respir. Med. 92, 863-870 (1998)

    'Neutrophils infiltrating bronchial epithelium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ' () 92 Respir. Med. : 863 -870.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Klut ME, Doerschuk CM, Von Eeden SF, Burns AR, Hogg JC: Activation of neutrophils within pulmonary microvessels of rabbits exposed to cigarette smoke. Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 9, 82-89 (1993)

    'Activation of neutrophils within pulmonary microvessels of rabbits exposed to cigarette smoke ' () 9 Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. : 82 -89.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Terashima T, Klut ME, English D, Hards J, Hogg JC, VanEeden SF: Cigarette smoking causes sequestration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes released from the bone marrow in lung microvessels. Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 20, 171-177 (1999)

    'Cigarette smoking causes sequestration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes released from the bone marrow in lung microvessels ' () 20 Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. : 171 -177.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Agius RM, Rutman A, Knight RK, Cole PJ: Human pulmonary alveolar macrophages with smoker's inclusions; their relation to the cessation of cigarette smoking. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 67, 407-413 (1986)

    'Human pulmonary alveolar macrophages with smoker's inclusions; their relation to the cessation of cigarette smoking ' () 67 Br. J. Exp. Pathol. : 407 -413.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Roth MD, Golub SH: Inhibition of lymphokine activated killer cell function by human alveolar macrophages. Cancer Res. 49, 4690-4695 (1989)

    'Inhibition of lymphokine activated killer cell function by human alveolar macrophages ' () 49 Cancer Res. : 4690 -4695.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Khuder SA, Dayal HH, Mutgi AB, Willey JC, Dayal G: Effect of cigarette smoking on major histological types of lung cancer in men. Lung Cancer 22, 15-21 (1998)

    'Effect of cigarette smoking on major histological types of lung cancer in men ' () 22 Lung Cancer : 15 -21.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Thun MJ: Mixed progress against lung cancer. Tobacco Control 7, 223-226 (1998)

    'Mixed progress against lung cancer ' () 7 Tobacco Control : 223 -226.

  • Mezzetti A, Lapenna D, Pierdomenico SD: Vitamins E, C and lipid peroxidation in plasma and arterial tissue of smokers and nonsmokers. Atherosclerosis 112, 91-99 (1995)

    'Vitamins E, C and lipid peroxidation in plasma and arterial tissue of smokers and nonsmokers ' () 112 Atherosclerosis : 91 -99.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Demir R et al.: Ultrastructural investigation of the effect of cigarette smoking on the human placenta. J. Obstet. Cynaecol. 10, 289-298 (1990)

    'Ultrastructural investigation of the effect of cigarette smoking on the human placenta ' () 10 J. Obstet. Cynaecol. : 289 -298.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Frei B, Forte TM, Ames BN, Cross CE: Gas phase oxidants of cigarette smoke induce lipid peroxidation and changes in lipoprotein properties in human blood plasma: protective effects of ascorbic acid. Biochem. J. 277, 133-138 (1991)

    'Gas phase oxidants of cigarette smoke induce lipid peroxidation and changes in lipoprotein properties in human blood plasma: protective effects of ascorbic acid ' () 277 Biochem. J. : 133 -138.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yagi K: A simple fluorimetric assay for lipid peroxides in blood plasma. Biochem. Med. 15, 212-216 (1976)

    'A simple fluorimetric assay for lipid peroxides in blood plasma ' () 15 Biochem. Med. : 212 -216.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Uchiyama M, Mihara M: Determination of malonaldehyde precursor in tissues by thiobarbituric acid test. Analytical Biochemistry 86, 271-278 (1978)

    'Determination of malonaldehyde precursor in tissues by thiobarbituric acid test ' () 86 Analytical Biochemistry : 271 -278.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Geyer JW, Dabich D: Rapid method for determination of arginase activity in tissue homogenates. Anal. Biochem. 39, 412-417 (1971)

    'Rapid method for determination of arginase activity in tissue homogenates ' () 39 Anal. Biochem. : 412 -417.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Streck RJ, Jezewski HM, Rodriguez MI, Hurley EL, Rich GA, Braun KM, Pauly JL: A method for isolating human lung macrophages and observations of fluorescent phagocytes from the lungs of habitual cigarette smokers. J. Immunol. Methods 174, 67-82 (1994)

    'A method for isolating human lung macrophages and observations of fluorescent phagocytes from the lungs of habitual cigarette smokers ' () 174 J. Immunol. Methods : 67 -82.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Smith CM, Tukey DP, Boyd R: Size and filterability of human and hamster pulmonary macrophages exposed to cigarette smoke. J. Leukoc. Biol. 40, 601-615 (1986)

    'Size and filterability of human and hamster pulmonary macrophages exposed to cigarette smoke ' () 40 J. Leukoc. Biol. : 601 -615.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sabuncuoglu B, Güven MC, Yardimci S, Tastan H, Ergün A: Ultrastructural effects of cigarette smoke in rat lung. 13. Ulusal Elektron Mikroskopi Kongresi, 1-4 Eylül, sayfa 430-434, ODTÜ-Ankara.

  • Aguayo SM: Pulmonary Neuroendocrine cells in tobacco-related lung disorders. Anat. Record 236, 122-127 (1993)

    'Pulmonary Neuroendocrine cells in tobacco-related lung disorders ' () 236 Anat. Record : 122 -127.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Heckman CA, Dalbey WE: Pathogenesis of lesions induced in rat lung by chronic tobacco smoke inhalation. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 69, 117-129 (1982)

    'Pathogenesis of lesions induced in rat lung by chronic tobacco smoke inhalation ' () 69 J. Natl. Cancer Inst. : 117 -129.

    • Search Google Scholar

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Jun 2020 0 4 6
Jul 2020 2 1 4
Aug 2020 1 0 0
Sep 2020 4 0 0
Oct 2020 2 0 0
Nov 2020 2 0 0
Dec 2020 0 0 0