The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of kinaesthetic feedback in the control of goal-directed movements. The subjects were qualified basketball and handball players compared to weightlifters as controls. The body measures and the general motor tests verified fit physical condition of the subjects, and detected no sign that would disturb the execution of special motor tests. The special motor tests were free-throw shootings with basketball to the basket, free shootings with handball to a rectangular frame, zigzag dribbling with basketball to 14 m among traffic cones 2 m apart, and stopping at a mark after running to 10 m. These tests were performed both with open eyes and closed eyes. The results of all special motor tests decreased significantly in the lack of visual information. Furthermore, in contrast to the significantly different results obtained from the three different groups with open eyes, these groups produced equally minor results with closed eyes. It is concluded that the practice of goal-directed movement, learned under visual guidance, does not make the kinaesthetic feedback able to compensate the lack of visual input.
Ángyán L: Cardiovascular effects of septal, thalamic, hypothalamic and midbrain self-stimulation. Physiol. Behav. 20, 217-226 (1978)
'Cardiovascular effects of septal, thalamic, hypothalamic and midbrain self-stimulation' () 20Physiol. Behav.: 217-226.
Cardiovascular effects of septal, thalamic, hypothalamic and midbrain self-stimulationPhysiol. Behav.20217226)| false
Duan YF, Winters RW, McCabe PM, Green EJ, Huang Y, Schneiderman N: Modulation of the baroreceptor reflex by stimulation of the hypothalamic defense and vigilance areas. Physiol. Behav. 59, 1093-1098 (1996)
'Modulation of the baroreceptor reflex by stimulation of the hypothalamic defense and vigilance areas' () 59Physiol. Behav.: 1093-1098.
Modulation of the baroreceptor reflex by stimulation of the hypothalamic defense and vigilance areasPhysiol. Behav.5910931098)| false
Hilton SM (1979): The defense reaction as a paradigm for cardiovascular control. In: Integrative Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System, eds. Brooks C McC, Koizumi K, Sato A, University of Tokyo Press, pp. 443-449.
The defense reaction as a paradigm for cardiovascular control, () 443-449.
The defense reaction as a paradigm for cardiovascular control443449)| false
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