View More View Less
  • 1 University of Pécs Heart Institute, Medical School Pécs Hungary
  • | 2 University of Kaposvár Institute of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Oncology Kaposvár Hungary
  • | 3 University of Pécs Department of Pathophysiology and Gerontology, Medical School Pécs Hungary
  • | 4 University of Pécs Szentágothai Research Centre Pécs Hungary
  • | 5 University of Pécs Heart Institute Ifjúság u. 13 H-7624 Pécs Hungary
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $752.00

There are several experimental models for the in vivo investigation of myocardial infarction (MI) in small (mouse, rat) and large animals (dog, pig, sheep and baboons). The application of large animal models raises ethical concerns, the design of experiments needs longer follow-up times, requiring proper breeding and housing conditions, therefore resulting in higher cost, than in vitro or small animal studies. On the other hand, the relevance of large animal models is very important, since they mostly resemble to human physiological and pathophysiological processes. The first main difference among MI models is the method of induction (open or closed chest, e.g. surgical or catheter based); the second main difference is the presence or absence of reperfusion. The former (i.e. reperfused MI) allows the investigation of reperfusion injury and new catheter based techniques during percutaneous coronary interventions, while the latter (i.e. nonreperfused MI) serves as a traditional coronary occlusion model, to test the effects of new pharmacological agents and biological therapies, as cell therapy. The reperfused and nonreperfused myocardial infarction has different outcomes, regarding left ventricular function, remodelling, subsequent heart failure, aneurysm formation and mortality. Our aim was to review the literature and report our findings regarding experimental MI models, regarding the differences among species, methods, reproducibility and interpretation.

  • Abegunewardene N, Vosseler M, Gori T, Hoffmann N, Schmidt KH, Becker D, Kreitner K F, Petersen SE, Schreiber LM, Horstick G, Munzel T: Usefulness of MRI to differentiate between temporary and long-term coronary artery occlusion in a minimally invasive model of experimental myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc. Intervent. Radiol. 32, 1033–1041 (2009)

    Munzel T. , 'Usefulness of MRI to differentiate between temporary and long-term coronary artery occlusion in a minimally invasive model of experimental myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc ' (2009 ) 32 Intervent. Radiol. : 1033 -1041.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Abendschein DR, Tacker WA, Jr., Babbs CF: Protection of ischemic myocardium by whole-body hypothermia after coronary artery occlusion in dogs. Am. Heart. J. 96, 772–780 (1978)

    Babbs C.F. , 'Protection of ischemic myocardium by whole-body hypothermia after coronary artery occlusion in dogs ' (1978 ) 96 Am. Heart. J. : 772 -780.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Agress CM, Rosenberg MJ, Jacobs HI, Binder MJ, Schneiderman A, Clark WG: Protracted shock in the closed-chest dog following coronary embolization with graded microspheres. Am. J. Physiol. 170, 536–549 (1952)

    Clark W.G. , 'Protracted shock in the closed-chest dog following coronary embolization with graded microspheres ' (1952 ) 170 Am. J. Physiol. : 536 -549.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Baks T, Cademartiri F, Moelker AD, van der Giessen WJ, Krestin GP, Duncker DJ, de Feyter PJ: Assessment of acute reperfused myocardial infarction with delayed enhancement 64-MDCT. AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 188, W135–137 (2007)

    Feyter P.J. , 'Assessment of acute reperfused myocardial infarction with delayed enhancement 64-MDCT ' (2007 ) 188 AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. : W135 -137.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Berg R, Mewes J: Sex differences in the structure of the normal porcine myocardial wall. Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. 107, 325–327 (1994)

    Mewes J. , 'Sex differences in the structure of the normal porcine myocardial wall ' (1994 ) 107 Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. : 325 -327.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bitkover C, Hansson LO, Valen G, Vaage J: Effects of cardiac surgery on some clinically used inflammation markers and procalcitonin. Scand. Cardiovasc. J. 34, 307–314 (2000)

    Vaage J. , 'Effects of cardiac surgery on some clinically used inflammation markers and procalcitonin ' (2000 ) 34 Scand. Cardiovasc. J. : 307 -314.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Blumgart HL, Zoll PM, Freedberg AS, Gilligan DR: The experimental production of intercoronary arterial anastomoses and their functional significance. Circulation 1, 10–27 (1950)

    Gilligan D.R. , 'The experimental production of intercoronary arterial anastomoses and their functional significance ' (1950 ) 1 Circulation : 10 -27.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Botvinick EH, Shames D, Lappin H, Tyberg JV, Townsend R, Parmley WW: Noninvasive quantitation of myocardial infarction with technetium 99m pyrophosphate. Circulation 52, 909–915 (1975)

    Parmley W.W. , 'Noninvasive quantitation of myocardial infarction with technetium 99m pyrophosphate ' (1975 ) 52 Circulation : 909 -915.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Buckley NM, Gootman PM, Yellin EL, Brazeau P: Age-related cardiovascular effects of catecholamines in anesthetized piglets. Circ. Res. 45, 282–292 (1979)

    Brazeau P. , 'Age-related cardiovascular effects of catecholamines in anesthetized piglets ' (1979 ) 45 Circ. Res. : 282 -292.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bush LR, Romson JL, Ash JL, Lucchesi BR: Effect of diltiazem on extent of ultimate myocardial injury resulting from temporary coronary artery occlusion in dogs. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 4, 285–296 (1982)

    Lucchesi B.R. , 'Effect of diltiazem on extent of ultimate myocardial injury resulting from temporary coronary artery occlusion in dogs ' (1982 ) 4 J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. : 285 -296.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Capone RJ, Most AS, Sydik PA: Precordial ST segment mapping. A sensitive technique for the evaluation of myocardial injury? Chest 67, 577–582 (1975)

    Sydik P.A. , 'Precordial ST segment mapping. A sensitive technique for the evaluation of myocardial injury? ' (1975 ) 67 Chest : 577 -582.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chazaud B, Hittinger L, Sonnet C, Champagne S, Le Corvoisier P, Benhaiem-Sigaux N, Unterseeh T, Su J, Merlet P, Rahmouni A, Garot J, Gherardi R, Teiger E: Endoventricular porcine autologous myoblast transplantation can be successfully achieved with minor mechanical cell damage. Cardiovasc. Res. 58, 444–450 (2003)

    Teiger E. , 'Endoventricular porcine autologous myoblast transplantation can be successfully achieved with minor mechanical cell damage ' (2003 ) 58 Cardiovasc. Res. : 444 -450.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Choi SI, Jiang CZ, Lim KH, Kim ST, Lim CH, Gong GY, Lim TH: Application of breath-hold T2-weighted, first-pass perfusion and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging for assessment of myocardial viability in a pig model. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 11, 476–480 (2000)

    Lim T.H. , 'Application of breath-hold T2-weighted, first-pass perfusion and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging for assessment of myocardial viability in a pig model ' (2000 ) 11 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging : 476 -480.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Corr PB, Pearle DL, Hinton JR, Roberts WC, Gillis RA: Site of myocardial infarction. A determinant of the cardiovascular changes induced in the cat by coronary occlusion. Circ. Res. 39, 840–847 (1976)

    Gillis R.A. , 'Site of myocardial infarction. A determinant of the cardiovascular changes induced in the cat by coronary occlusion ' (1976 ) 39 Circ. Res. : 840 -847.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Crick SJ, Sheppard MN, Ho SY, Gebstein L, Anderson RH: Anatomy of the pig heart: comparisons with normal human cardiac structure. J. Anat. 193(Pt 1), 105–119 (1998)

    Anderson R.H. , 'Anatomy of the pig heart: comparisons with normal human cardiac structure ' (1998 ) 193 J. Anat. : 105 -119.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • de Roos A, van Rossum AC, van der Wall E, Postema S, Doornbos J, Matheijssen N, van Dijkman PR, Visser FC, van Voorthuisen AE: Reperfused and nonreperfused myocardial infarction: diagnostic potential of Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology 172, 717–720 (1989)

    Voorthuisen A.E. , 'Reperfused and nonreperfused myocardial infarction: diagnostic potential of Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging ' (1989 ) 172 Radiology : 717 -720.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • DeBoer LW, Nosta J, Kloner RA, Braunwald E: Studies of amiodarone during experimental myocardial infarction: beneficial effects on hemodynamics and infarct size. Circulation 65, 508–512 (1982)

    Braunwald E. , 'Studies of amiodarone during experimental myocardial infarction: beneficial effects on hemodynamics and infarct size ' (1982 ) 65 Circulation : 508 -512.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dib N, Diethrich EB, Campbell A, Gahremanpour A, McGarry M, Opie SR: A percutaneous swine model of myocardial infarction. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Methods 53, 256–263 (2006)

    Opie S.R. , 'A percutaneous swine model of myocardial infarction ' (2006 ) 53 J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Methods : 256 -263.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Duncker DJ, Klassen CL, Ishibashi Y, Herrlinger SH, Pavek TJ, Bache RJ: Effect of temperature on myocardial infarction in swine. Am. J. Physiol. 270, H1189–1199 (1996)

    Bache R.J. , 'Effect of temperature on myocardial infarction in swine ' (1996 ) 270 Am. J. Physiol. : H1189 -1199.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Eldar M, Ohad D, Bor A, Varda-Bloom N, Swanson DK, Battler A: A closed-chest pig model of sustained ventricular tachycardia. Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. 17, 1603–1609 (1994)

    Battler A. , 'A closed-chest pig model of sustained ventricular tachycardia ' (1994 ) 17 Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. : 1603 -1609.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fieno DS, Hillenbrand HB, Rehwald WG, Harris KR, Decker RS, Parker MA, Klocke FJ, Kim RJ, Judd RM: Infarct resorption, compensatory hypertrophy, and differing patterns of ventricular remodeling following myocardial infarctions of varying size. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 43, 2124–2131 (2004)

    Judd R.M. , 'Infarct resorption, compensatory hypertrophy, and differing patterns of ventricular remodeling following myocardial infarctions of varying size ' (2004 ) 43 J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. : 2124 -2131.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gallagher KP, Kumada T, Koziol JA, McKown D, Kemper WS, Ross J, Jr.: Significance of regional wall thickening abnormalities relative to transmural myocardial perfusion in anesthetized dogs. Circulation 62, 1266–1274 (1980)

    Ross J. , 'Significance of regional wall thickening abnormalities relative to transmural myocardial perfusion in anesthetized dogs ' (1980 ) 62 Circulation : 1266 -1274.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Garcia-Dorado D, Theroux P, Elizaga J, Galinanes M, Solares J, Riesgo M, Gomez MJ, Garcia-Dorado A, Fernandez Aviles F: Myocardial reperfusion in the pig heart model: infarct size and duration of coronary occlusion. Cardiovasc. Res. 21, 537–544 (1987)

    Fernandez Aviles F. , 'Myocardial reperfusion in the pig heart model: infarct size and duration of coronary occlusion ' (1987 ) 21 Cardiovasc. Res. : 537 -544.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Garot J, Unterseeh T, Teiger E, Champagne S, Chazaud B, Gherardi R, Hittinger L, Gueret P, Rahmouni A: Magnetic resonance imaging of targeted catheter-based implantation of myogenic precursor cells into infarcted left ventricular myocardium. J. Am. Coll. Cardio. 41, 1841–1846 (2003)

    Rahmouni A. , 'Magnetic resonance imaging of targeted catheter-based implantation of myogenic precursor cells into infarcted left ventricular myocardium ' (2003 ) 41 J. Am. Coll. Cardio. : 1841 -1846.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gavira JJ, Perez-Ilzarbe M, Abizanda G, Garcia-Rodriguez A, Orbe J, Paramo JA, Belzunce M, Rabago G, Barba J, Herreros J, Panizo A, de Jalon JA, Martinez-Caro D, Prosper F: A comparison between percutaneous and surgical transplantation of autologous skeletal myoblasts in a swine model of chronic myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc. Res. 71, 744–753 (2006)

    Prosper F. , 'A comparison between percutaneous and surgical transplantation of autologous skeletal myoblasts in a swine model of chronic myocardial infarction ' (2006 ) 71 Cardiovasc. Res. : 744 -753.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gerber BL, Rochitte CE, Melin JA, McVeigh ER, Bluemke DA, Wu KC, Becker LC, Lima JA: Microvascular obstruction and left ventricular remodeling early after acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 101, 2734–2741 (2000)

    Lima J.A. , 'Microvascular obstruction and left ventricular remodeling early after acute myocardial infarction ' (2000 ) 101 Circulation : 2734 -2741.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Glick G: Importance of the carotid sinus baroreceptors in the regulation of myocardial performance. J. Clin. Invest. 50, 1116–1123 (1971)

    Glick G. , 'Importance of the carotid sinus baroreceptors in the regulation of myocardial performance ' (1971 ) 50 J. Clin. Invest. : 1116 -1123.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gross DR (1994): Cardiovascular effects of inhalant anaesthetic agents. In: Gross DR. Animal Models in Cardiovascular Research, Second revised ed., Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine, Vol. 153, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 235–301

  • Gross DR (1994): General principles of animal selection, preoperative care, preanesthesia, chemical restraint and analgesia. In: Gross DR. Animal Models in Cardiovascular Research, Second revised ed., Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine, Vol. 153, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 421–461

  • Haessler R, Kuzume K, Chien GL, Wolff RA, Davis RF, Van Winkle DM: Anaesthetics alter the magnitude of infarct limitation by ischaemic preconditioning. Cardiovasc. Res. 28, 1574–1580 (1994)

    Winkle D.M. , 'Anaesthetics alter the magnitude of infarct limitation by ischaemic preconditioning ' (1994 ) 28 Cardiovasc. Res. : 1574 -1580.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Harris AS: Delayed development of ventricular ectopic rhythms following experimental coronary occlusion. Circulation 1, 1318–1328 (1950)

    Harris A.S. , 'Delayed development of ventricular ectopic rhythms following experimental coronary occlusion ' (1950 ) 1 Circulation : 1318 -1328.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • He G, Zhang H, Wei H, Wang Y, Zhang X, Tang Y, Wei Y, Hu S: In vivo imaging of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplanted into myocardium using magnetic resonance imaging: a novel method to trace the transplanted cells. Int. J. Cardiol. 114, 4–10 (2007)

    Hu S. , 'In vivo imaging of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplanted into myocardium using magnetic resonance imaging: a novel method to trace the transplanted cells ' (2007 ) 114 Int. J. Cardiol. : 4 -10.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hearse DJ, Sutherland FJ: Experimental models for the study of cardiovascular function and disease. Pharmacol. Res. 41, 597–603 (2000)

    Sutherland F.J. , 'Experimental models for the study of cardiovascular function and disease ' (2000 ) 41 Pharmacol. Res. : 597 -603.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Helmius G: Myocardial infarction without coronary occlusion. A study with a new experimental method in sheep. Ups. J. Med. Sci. Suppl. 29, 1–28 (1980)

    Helmius G. , 'Myocardial infarction without coronary occlusion. A study with a new experimental method in sheep ' (1980 ) 29 Ups. J. Med. Sci. Suppl. : 1 -28.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hong H, Aksenov S, Guan X, Fallon JT, Waters D, Chen C: Remodeling of small intramyocardial coronary arteries distal to a severe epicardial coronary artery stenosis. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vas. Biol. 22, 2059–2065 (2002)

    Chen C. , 'Remodeling of small intramyocardial coronary arteries distal to a severe epicardial coronary artery stenosis ' (2002 ) 22 Arterioscler. Thromb. Vas. Biol. : 2059 -2065.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hosenpud JD, Yung NN, Morton MJ: Left ventricular pressure-volume relations shift to the left after long-term loss of pericardial restraint. Circulation 68, 155–163 (1983)

    Morton M.J. , 'Left ventricular pressure-volume relations shift to the left after long-term loss of pericardial restraint ' (1983 ) 68 Circulation : 155 -163.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Huang SY, Lin JH, Lin EC, Yang PC, Tsou HL: Effects of birth season, breed, sex, and sire family on cardiac morphology determined in pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) by use of echocardiography. Comp. Med. 51, 545–549 (2001)

    Tsou H.L. , 'Effects of birth season, breed, sex, and sire family on cardiac morphology determined in pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) by use of echocardiography ' (2001 ) 51 Comp. Med. : 545 -549.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Huang Z, Ge J, Sun A, Wang Y, Zhang S, Cui J, Qian J, Zou Y: Ligating LAD with its whole length rather than diagonal branches as coordinates is more advisable in establishing stable myocardial infarction model of swine. Exp. Anim. 59, 431–439 (2010)

    Zou Y. , 'Ligating LAD with its whole length rather than diagonal branches as coordinates is more advisable in establishing stable myocardial infarction model of swine ' (2010 ) 59 Exp. Anim. : 431 -439.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Iaizzo P (2009): Animal models in myocardial ischaemia, physiology and devices. In: Iaizzo P: Handbook of cardiac anatomy, physiology and devices, Second edition, Springer Science+Business Media, pp. 235–301

  • Jacobson ED, Swan KG: Hydraulic occluder for chronic electromagnetic blood flow determinations. J. Appl. Physiol. 21, 1400–1402 (1966)

    Swan K.G. , 'Hydraulic occluder for chronic electromagnetic blood flow determinations ' (1966 ) 21 J. Appl. Physiol. : 1400 -1402.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jiga LP, Cristian H, Blidisel A, Sandra F, Nistor A, Hoinoiu B, Dornean V, Ionac M: Thoracoscopic approach of the internal mammary artery (IMA): a training model in pigs. Microsurgery 28, 375–379 (2008)

    Ionac M. , 'Thoracoscopic approach of the internal mammary artery (IMA): a training model in pigs ' (2008 ) 28 Microsurgery : 375 -379.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Karagueuzian HS, Fenoglio JJ, Jr., Weiss MB, Wit AL: Protracted ventricular tachicardia induced by premature stimulation of the canine heart after coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion. Circ. Res. 44, 833–846 (1979)

    Wit A.L. , 'Protracted ventricular tachicardia induced by premature stimulation of the canine heart after coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion ' (1979 ) 44 Circ. Res. : 833 -846.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Karsner HT, Dwyer JE: Studies in infarction: IV. Experimental bland infarction of the myocardium, myocardial regeneration and cicatrization. J. Med. Res. 34, 21–40 (1916)

    Dwyer J.E. , 'Studies in infarction: IV. Experimental bland infarction of the myocardium, myocardial regeneration and cicatrization ' (1916 ) 34 J. Med. Res. : 21 -40.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kersten JR, Schmeling TJ, Pagel PS, Gross GJ, Warltier DC: Isoflurane mimics ischemic preconditioning via activation of K(ATP) channels: reduction of myocardial infarct size with an acute memory phase. Anesthesiology 87, 361–370 (1997)

    Warltier D.C. , 'Isoflurane mimics ischemic preconditioning via activation of K(ATP) channels: reduction of myocardial infarct size with an acute memory phase ' (1997 ) 87 Anesthesiology : 361 -370.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Khouri EM, Gregg DE: An inflatable cuff for zero determination in blood flow studies. J. Appl. Physiol. 23, 395–397 (1967)

    Gregg D.E. , 'An inflatable cuff for zero determination in blood flow studies ' (1967 ) 23 J. Appl. Physiol. : 395 -397.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kim CB, Braunwald E: Potential benefits of late reperfusion of infarcted myocardium. The open artery hypothesis. Circulation 88, 2426–2436 (1993)

    Braunwald E. , 'Potential benefits of late reperfusion of infarcted myocardium. The open artery hypothesis ' (1993 ) 88 Circulation : 2426 -2436.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kim RJ, Chen EL, Lima JA, Judd RM: Myocardial Gd-DTPA kinetics determine MRI contrast enhancement and reflect the extent and severity of myocardial injury after acute reperfused infarction. Circulation 94, 3318–3326 (1996)

    Judd R.M. , 'Myocardial Gd-DTPA kinetics determine MRI contrast enhancement and reflect the extent and severity of myocardial injury after acute reperfused infarction ' (1996 ) 94 Circulation : 3318 -3326.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kim RJ, Fieno DS, Parrish TB, Harris K, Chen EL, Simonetti O, Bundy J, Finn JP, Klocke FJ, Judd RM: Relationship of MRI delayed contrast enhancement to irreversible injury, infarct age, and contractile function. Circulation 100, 1992–2002 (1999)

    Judd R.M. , 'Relationship of MRI delayed contrast enhancement to irreversible injury, infarct age, and contractile function ' (1999 ) 100 Circulation : 1992 -2002.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kim RJ, Wu E, Rafael A, Chen EL, Parker MA, Simonetti O, Klocke FJ, Bonow RO, Judd RM: The use of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to identify reversible myocardial dysfunction. N. Engl. J. Med. 343, 1445–1453 (2000)

    Judd R.M. , 'The use of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to identify reversible myocardial dysfunction ' (2000 ) 343 N. Engl. J. Med. : 1445 -1453.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kirschner R, Toth L, Varga-Szemes A, Simor T, Suranyi P, Kiss P, Ruzsics B, Toth A, Baker R, Brott BC, Litovsky S, Elgavish A, Elgavish GA: Differentiation of acute and four-week old myocardial infarct with Gd(ABE-DTTA)-enhanced CMR. J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. 12, 22 (2010)

    Elgavish G.A. , 'Differentiation of acute and four-week old myocardial infarct with Gd(ABE-DTTA)-enhanced CMR ' (2010 ) 12 J. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson. : 22 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kirschner R, Varga-Szemes A, Brott BC, Litovsky S, Elgavish A, Elgavish GA, Simor T: Quantification of myocardial viability distribution with Gd(DTPA) bolus-enhanced, signal intensity-based percent infarct mapping. Magn. Reson. Imaging 29, 650–658 (2011)

    Simor T. , 'Quantification of myocardial viability distribution with Gd(DTPA) bolus-enhanced, signal intensity-based percent infarct mapping. Magn. Reson ' (2011 ) 29 Imaging : 650 -658.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kirschner R, Varga-Szemes A, Simor T, Suranyi P, Kiss P, Ruzsics B, Brott BC, Elgavish A, Elgavish GA: Acute infarct selective MRI contrast agent. Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 28, 285–293 (2011)

    Elgavish G.A. , 'Acute infarct selective MRI contrast agent ' (2011 ) 28 Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging : 285 -293.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kloner RA: Does reperfusion injury exist in humans? J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 21, 537–545 (1993)

    Kloner R.A. , 'Does reperfusion injury exist in humans? ' (1993 ) 21 J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. : 537 -545.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kohn F, Sharifi AR, Simianer H: Modeling the growth of the Goettingen minipig. J. Anim. Sci. 85, 84–92 (2007)

    Simianer H. , 'Modeling the growth of the Goettingen minipig ' (2007 ) 85 J. Anim. Sci. : 84 -92.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kordenat RK, Kezdi P, Stanley EL: A new catheter technique for producing experimental coronary thrombosis and selective coronary visualization. Am. Heart J. 83, 360–364 (1972)

    Stanley E.L. , 'A new catheter technique for producing experimental coronary thrombosis and selective coronary visualization ' (1972 ) 83 Am. Heart J. : 360 -364.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kornowski R, Hong MK, Gepstein L, Goldstein S, Ellahham S, Ben-Haim SA, Leon MB: Preliminary animal and clinical experiences using an electromechanical endocardial mapping procedure to distinguish infarcted from healthy myocardium. Circulation 98, 1116–1124 (1998)

    Leon M.B. , 'Preliminary animal and clinical experiences using an electromechanical endocardial mapping procedure to distinguish infarcted from healthy myocardium ' (1998 ) 98 Circulation : 1116 -1124.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kornowski R, Leon MB, Fuchs S, Vodovotz Y, Flynn MA, Gordon DA, Pierre A, Kovesdi I, Keiser JA, Epstein SE: Electromagnetic guidance for catheter-based transendocardial injection: a platform for intramyocardial angiogenesis therapy. Results in normal and ischemic porcine models. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 35, 1031–1039 (2000)

    Epstein S.E. , 'Electromagnetic guidance for catheter-based transendocardial injection: a platform for intramyocardial angiogenesis therapy. Results in normal and ischemic porcine models ' (2000 ) 35 J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. : 1031 -1039.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kren L, Meluzin J, Pavlovsky Z, Mayer J, Kala P, Groch L, Hornacek I, Rauser P, Vlasin M: Experimental model of myocardial infarction: Histopathology and reperfusion damage revisited. Pathol. Res. Pract. 206, 647–650 (2010)

    Vlasin M. , 'Experimental model of myocardial infarction: Histopathology and reperfusion damage revisited ' (2010 ) 206 Pathol. Res. Pract. : 647 -650.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Krombach GA, Kinzel S, Mahnken AH, Gunther RW, Buecker A: Minimally invasive close-chest method for creating reperfused or occlusive myocardial infarction in swine. Invest. Radiol. 40, 14–18 (2005)

    Buecker A. , 'Minimally invasive close-chest method for creating reperfused or occlusive myocardial infarction in swine ' (2005 ) 40 Invest. Radiol. : 14 -18.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Leiman BC, Katz J, Butler BD: Mechanisms of succinylcholine-induced arrhythmias in hypoxic or hypoxic: hypercarbic dogs. Anesth. Analg. 66, 1292–1297 (1987)

    Butler B.D. , 'Mechanisms of succinylcholine-induced arrhythmias in hypoxic or hypoxic: hypercarbic dogs ' (1987 ) 66 Anesth. Analg. : 1292 -1297.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lima JA, Judd RM, Bazille A, Schulman SP, Atalar, Zerhouni EA: Regional heterogeneity of human myocardial infarcts demonstrated by contrast-enhanced MRI. Potential mechanisms. Circulation 92, 1117–1125 (1995)

    Zerhouni E.A. , 'Regional heterogeneity of human myocardial infarcts demonstrated by contrast-enhanced MRI. Potential mechanisms ' (1995 ) 92 Circulation : 1117 -1125.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Markovitz LJ, Savage EB, Ratcliffe MB, Bavaria JE, Kreiner G, Iozzo RV, Hargrove WC, 3rd, Bogen DK, Edmunds LH, Jr.: Large animal model of left ventricular aneurysm. An. Thorac. Surg. 48, 838–845 (1989)

    Edmunds L.H. , 'Large animal model of left ventricular aneurysm ' (1989 ) 48 An. Thorac. Surg. : 838 -845.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Maroko PR, Kjekshus JK, Sobel BE, Watanabe T, Covell JW, Ross J, Jr., Braunwald E: Factors influencing infarct size following experimental coronary artery occlusions. Circulation 43, 67–82 (1971)

    Braunwald E. , 'Factors influencing infarct size following experimental coronary artery occlusions ' (1971 ) 43 Circulation : 67 -82.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Maxwell MP, Hearse DJ, Yellon DM: Species variation in the coronary collateral circulation during regional myocardial ischaemia: a critical determinant of the rate of evolution and extent of myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc. Res. 21, 737–746 (1987)

    Yellon D.M. , 'Species variation in the coronary collateral circulation during regional myocardial ischaemia: a critical determinant of the rate of evolution and extent of myocardial infarction ' (1987 ) 21 Cardiovasc. Res. : 737 -746.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Michaelsson M, Ho SY (2000): Introduction: Normal hearts — a comparison. In: Congenital heart malformations in mammals. Imperial College Press, Singapore, pp. 421–461

    Ho S.Y. , '', in Congenital heart malformations in mammals , (2000 ) -.

  • Myers DD, Jr.: Nonhuman primate models of thrombosis. Thromb. Res. 129Suppl. 2, S65–69 (2012)

    Myers D.D. , 'Nonhuman primate models of thrombosis ' (2012 ) 129 Thromb. Res. : S65 -69.

  • Naslund U, Haggmark S, Johansson G, Marklund SL, Reiz S: A closed-chest myocardial occlusion-reperfusion model in the pig: techniques, morbidity and mortality. Eur. Heart J. 13, 1282–1289 (1992)

    Reiz S. , 'A closed-chest myocardial occlusion-reperfusion model in the pig: techniques, morbidity and mortality ' (1992 ) 13 Eur. Heart J. : 1282 -1289.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Naslund U, Haggmark S, Johansson G, Pennert K, Reiz S, Marklund SL: Effects of reperfusion and superoxide dismutase on myocardial infarct size in a closed chest pig model. Cardiovasc. Res. 26, 170–178 (1992)

    Marklund S.L. , 'Effects of reperfusion and superoxide dismutase on myocardial infarct size in a closed chest pig model ' (1992 ) 26 Cardiovasc. Res. : 170 -178.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Papp L, Allo G, Szabo Z, Juhasz-Nagy A: Natural history of acute regional myocardial ischaemia revealed by infrared thermography in the canine heart. Acta Morphol. Hung. 33, 123–142 (1985)

    Juhasz-Nagy A. , 'Natural history of acute regional myocardial ischaemia revealed by infrared thermography in the canine heart ' (1985 ) 33 Acta Morphol. Hung. : 123 -142.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Perez de Prado A, Cuellas-Ramon C, Regueiro-Purrinos M, Gonzalo-Orden JM, Perez-Martinez C, Altonaga JR, Garcia-Iglesias MJ, Orden-Recio MA, Garcia-Marin JF, Fernandez-Vazquez F: Closed-chest experimental porcine model of acute myocardial infarction-reperfusion. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Methods 60, 301–306 (2009)

    Fernandez-Vazquez F. , 'Closed-chest experimental porcine model of acute myocardial infarction-reperfusion ' (2009 ) 60 J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Methods : 301 -306.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Peukert D, Laule M, Kaufels N, Schnorr J, Taupitz M, Hamm B, Dewey M: A minimally invasive method for induction of myocardial infarction in an animal model using tungsten spirals. Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 25, 529–535 (2009)

    Dewey M. , 'A minimally invasive method for induction of myocardial infarction in an animal model using tungsten spirals ' (2009 ) 25 Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging : 529 -535.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pfeffer MA, Braunwald E: Ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction. Experimental observations and clinical implications. Circulation 81, 1161–1172 (1990)

    Braunwald E. , 'Ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction. Experimental observations and clinical implications ' (1990 ) 81 Circulation : 1161 -1172.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Price HL, Ohnishi ST: Effects of anesthetics on the heart. Fed. Proc. 39, 1575–1579 (1980)

    Ohnishi S.T. , 'Effects of anesthetics on the heart ' (1980 ) 39 Fed. Proc. : 1575 -1579.

  • Reffelmann T, Sensebat O, Birnbaum Y, Stroemer E, Hanrath P, Uretsky BF, Schwarz ER: A novel minimal-invasive model of chronic myocardial infarction in swine. Coron. Artery Dis. 15, 7–12 (2004)

    Schwarz E.R. , 'A novel minimal-invasive model of chronic myocardial infarction in swine ' (2004 ) 15 Coron. Artery Dis. : 7 -12.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Reimer KA, Lowe JE, Rasmussen MM, Jennings RB: The wavefront phenomenon of ischemic cell death. 1. Myocardial infarct size vs duration of coronary occlusion in dogs. Circulation 56, 786–794 (1977)

    Jennings R.B. , 'The wavefront phenomenon of ischemic cell death. 1. Myocardial infarct size vs duration of coronary occlusion in dogs ' (1977 ) 56 Circulation : 786 -794.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Roger VL, Weston SA, Gerber Y, Killian JM, Dunlay SM, Jaffe AS, Bell MR, Kors J, Yawn BP, Jacobsen SJ: Trends in incidence, severity, and outcome of hospitalized myocardial infarction. Circulation 121, 863–869 (2010)

    Jacobsen S.J. , 'Trends in incidence, severity, and outcome of hospitalized myocardial infarction ' (2010 ) 121 Circulation : 863 -869.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Saeed M, Martin AJ, Saloner D, Do L, Wilson M: Noninvasive MR characterization of structural and functional components of reperfused infarct. Acta Radiol. 51, 1093–1102 (2010)

    Wilson M. , 'Noninvasive MR characterization of structural and functional components of reperfused infarct ' (2010 ) 51 Acta Radiol. : 1093 -1102.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Saeed M, Weber O, Lee R, Do L, Martin A, Saloner D, Ursell P, Robert P, Corot C, Higgins CB: Discrimination of myocardial acute and chronic (scar) infarctions on delayed contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging with intravascular magnetic resonance contrast media. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 48, 1961–1968 (2006)

    Higgins C.B. , 'Discrimination of myocardial acute and chronic (scar) infarctions on delayed contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging with intravascular magnetic resonance contrast media ' (2006 ) 48 J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. : 1961 -1968.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Salazar AE: Experimental myocardial infarction. Induction of coronary thrombosis in the intact closed-chest dog. Circ. Res. 9, 1351–1356 (1961)

    Salazar A.E. , 'Experimental myocardial infarction. Induction of coronary thrombosis in the intact closed-chest dog ' (1961 ) 9 Circ. Res. : 1351 -1356.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sapru HN, Krieger AJ: Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of some anesthetics in the decerebrate rat. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 53, 151–158 (1979)

    Krieger A.J. , 'Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of some anesthetics in the decerebrate rat ' (1979 ) 53 Eur. J. Pharmacol. : 151 -158.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Savage RM, Guth B, White FC, Hagan AD, Bloor CM: Correlation of regional myocardial blood flow and function with myocardial infarct size during acute myocardial ischemia in the conscious pig. Circulation 64, 699–707 (1981)

    Bloor C.M. , 'Correlation of regional myocardial blood flow and function with myocardial infarct size during acute myocardial ischemia in the conscious pig ' (1981 ) 64 Circulation : 699 -707.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schuleri KH, Boyle AJ, Centola M, Amado LC, Evers R, Zimmet JM, Evers KS, Ostbye KM, Scorpio DG, Hare JM, Lardo AC: The adult Gottingen minipig as a model for chronic heart failure after myocardial infarction: focus on cardiovascular imaging and regenerative therapies. Comp. Med. 58, 568–579 (2008)

    Lardo A.C. , 'The adult Gottingen minipig as a model for chronic heart failure after myocardial infarction: focus on cardiovascular imaging and regenerative therapies ' (2008 ) 58 Comp. Med. : 568 -579.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schulz R, Post H, Vahlhaus C, Heusch G: Ischemic preconditioning in pigs: a graded phenomenon: its relation to adenosine and bradykinin. Circulation 98, 1022–1029 (1998)

    Heusch G. , 'Ischemic preconditioning in pigs: a graded phenomenon: its relation to adenosine and bradykinin ' (1998 ) 98 Circulation : 1022 -1029.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shell WE, Kjekshus JK, Sobel BE: Quantitative assessment of the extent of myocardial infarction in the conscious dog by means of analysis of serial changes in serum creatine phosphokinase activity. J. Clin. Invest. 50, 2614–2625 (1971)

    Sobel B.E. , 'Quantitative assessment of the extent of myocardial infarction in the conscious dog by means of analysis of serial changes in serum creatine phosphokinase activity ' (1971 ) 50 J. Clin. Invest. : 2614 -2625.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shofti R, Zaretzki A, Cohen E, Engel A, Bar-El Y: The sheep as a model for coronary artery bypass surgery. Lab. Anim. 38, 149–157 (2004)

    Bar-El Y. , 'The sheep as a model for coronary artery bypass surgery ' (2004 ) 38 Lab. Anim. : 149 -157.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Simor T, Suranyi P, Ruzsics B, Toth A, Toth L, Kiss P, Brott BC, Varga-Szemes A, Elgavish A, Elgavish GA: Percent infarct mapping for delayed contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging to quantify myocardial viability by Gd(DTPA). J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 32, 859–868 (2010)

    Elgavish G.A. , 'Percent infarct mapping for delayed contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging to quantify myocardial viability by Gd(DTPA) ' (2010 ) 32 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging : 859 -868.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sinusas AJ, Trautman KA, Bergin JD, Watson DD, Ruiz M, Smith WH, Beller GA: Quantification of area at risk during coronary occlusion and degree of myocardial salvage after reperfusion with technetium-99m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile. Circulation 82, 1424–1437 (1990)

    Beller G.A. , 'Quantification of area at risk during coronary occlusion and degree of myocardial salvage after reperfusion with technetium-99m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile ' (1990 ) 82 Circulation : 1424 -1437.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Smith G, Thorburn J, Vance JP, Brown DM: The effects of ketamine on the canine coronary circulation. Anaesthesia 34, 555–561 (1979)

    Brown D.M. , 'The effects of ketamine on the canine coronary circulation ' (1979 ) 34 Anaesthesia : 555 -561.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Suzuki Y, Lyons JK, Yeung AC, Ikeno F: In vivo porcine model of reperfused myocardial infarction: in situ double staining to measure precise infarct area/area at risk. Catheter Cardiovasc. Interv. 71, 100–107 (2008)

    Ikeno F. , 'In vivo porcine model of reperfused myocardial infarction: in situ double staining to measure precise infarct area/area at risk ' (2008 ) 71 Catheter Cardiovasc. Interv. : 100 -107.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sylven C, Sarkar N, Insulander P, Kenneback G, Blomberg P, Islam K, Drvota V: Catheter-based transendocardial myocardial gene transfer. J. Interv. Cardiol. 15, 7–13 (2002)

    Drvota V. , 'Catheter-based transendocardial myocardial gene transfer ' (2002 ) 15 J. Interv. Cardiol. : 7 -13.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tallheden T, Nannmark U, Lorentzon M, Rakotonirainy O, Soussi B, Waagstein F, Jeppsson A, Sjogren-Jansson E, Lindahl A, Omerovic E: In vivo MR imaging of magnetically labeled human embryonic stem cells. Life Sci. 79, 999–1006 (2006)

    Omerovic E. , 'In vivo MR imaging of magnetically labeled human embryonic stem cells ' (2006 ) 79 Life Sci. : 999 -1006.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tennant R: Studies in the pathology of vascular disease: studies on experimental coronary occlusion. Yale J. Biol. Med. 9, 60–64.8 (1936)

    Tennant R. , 'Studies in the pathology of vascular disease: studies on experimental coronary occlusion ' (1936 ) 9 Yale J. Biol. Med. : 60 -64.8.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Traber DL, Wilson RD, Priano L: A detailed study of the cardiopulmonary response to ketamine and its blockade by atropine. South Med. J. 63, 1077–1081 (1970)

    Priano L. , 'A detailed study of the cardiopulmonary response to ketamine and its blockade by atropine ' (1970 ) 63 South Med. J. : 1077 -1081.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tsagalou EP, Anastasiou-Nana MI, Charitos E, Siafakas CX, Drakos SG, Ntalianis A, Terrovitis JV, Mavrikakis EM, Doufas A, Nanas JN: Time course of fibrillation and defibrillation thresholds after an intravenous bolus of amiodarone - an experimental study. Resuscitation 61, 83–89 (2004)

    Nanas J.N. , 'Time course of fibrillation and defibrillation thresholds after an intravenous bolus of amiodarone - an experimental study ' (2004 ) 61 Resuscitation : 83 -89.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Uriuda Y, Wang QD, Hatori N, Nordlander R, Sjoquist PO, Mattsson C, Ryden L: Coronary thrombosis/thrombolysis in pigs: effects of heparin, ASA, and the thrombin inhibitor inogatran. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Methods 39, 81–89 (1998)

    Ryden L. , 'Coronary thrombosis/thrombolysis in pigs: effects of heparin, ASA, and the thrombin inhibitor inogatran ' (1998 ) 39 J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Methods : 81 -89.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • van der Spoel TI, Jansen of Lorkeers SJ, Agostoni P, van Belle E, Gyongyosi M, Sluijter J P, Cramer MJ, Doevendans PA, Chamuleau SA: Human relevance of pre-clinical studies in stem cell therapy: systematic review and meta-analysis of large animal models of ischaemic heart disease. Cardiovasc. Res. 91, 649–658 (2011)

    Chamuleau S.A. , 'Human relevance of pre-clinical studies in stem cell therapy: systematic review and meta-analysis of large animal models of ischaemic heart disease ' (2011 ) 91 Cardiovasc. Res. : 649 -658.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Verdouw PD, van den Doel MA, de Zeeuw S, Duncker DJ: Animal models in the study of myocardial ischaemia and ischaemic syndromes. Cardiovasc. Res. 39, 121–135 (1998)

    Duncker D.J. , 'Animal models in the study of myocardial ischaemia and ischaemic syndromes ' (1998 ) 39 Cardiovasc. Res. : 121 -135.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Weaver ME, Pantely GA, Bristow JD, Ladley HD: A quantitative study of the anatomy and distribution of coronary arteries in swine in comparison with other animals and man. Cardiovasc. Res. 20, 907–917 (1986)

    Ladley H.D. , 'A quantitative study of the anatomy and distribution of coronary arteries in swine in comparison with other animals and man ' (1986 ) 20 Cardiovasc. Res. : 907 -917.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Weiss ES, Ahmed SA, Welch MJ, Williamson R, Ter-Pogossian MM, Sobel BE: Quantification of infarction in cross sections of canine myocardium in vivo with positron emission transaxial tomography and 11C-palmitate. Circulation 55, 66–73 (1977)

    Sobel B.E. , 'Quantification of infarction in cross sections of canine myocardium in vivo with positron emission transaxial tomography and 11C-palmitate ' (1977 ) 55 Circulation : 66 -73.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wolf T, Gepstein L, Dror U, Hayam G, Shofti R, Zaretzky A, Uretzky G, Oron U, Ben-Haim SA: Detailed endocardial mapping accurately predicts the transmural extent of myocardial infarction. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 37, 1590–1597 (2001)

    Ben-Haim S.A. , 'Detailed endocardial mapping accurately predicts the transmural extent of myocardial infarction ' (2001 ) 37 J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. : 1590 -1597.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wu KC, Zerhouni EA, Judd RM, Lugo-Olivieri CH, Barouch LA, Schulman SP, Blumenthal RS, Lima JA: Prognostic significance of microvascular obstruction by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 97, 765–772 (1998)

    Lima J.A. , 'Prognostic significance of microvascular obstruction by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with acute myocardial infarction ' (1998 ) 97 Circulation : 765 -772.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wyatt HL, Meerbaum S, Heng MK, Rit J, Gueret P, Corday E: Experimental evaluation of the extent of myocardial dyssynergy and infarct size by two-dimensional echocardiography. Circulation 63, 607–614 (1981)

    Corday E. , 'Experimental evaluation of the extent of myocardial dyssynergy and infarct size by two-dimensional echocardiography ' (1981 ) 63 Circulation : 607 -614.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zhou L, Chen BP, Kluger J, Fan C, Chow MS: Effects of amiodarone and its active metabolite desethylamiodarone on the ventricular defibrillation threshold. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 31, 1672–1678 (1998)

    Chow M.S. , 'Effects of amiodarone and its active metabolite desethylamiodarone on the ventricular defibrillation threshold ' (1998 ) 31 J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. : 1672 -1678.

    • Search Google Scholar
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 288 288 35
Full Text Views 31 27 0
PDF Downloads 33 31 0