View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Plant Pathology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore-641003, Tamil Nadu, India
  • 2 Department of Plant Pathology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore-641003, Tamil Nadu, India
  • 3 Department of Plant Pathology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore-641003, Tamil Nadu, India
  • 4 Department of Plant Pathology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore-641003, Tamil Nadu, India
  • 5 Department of Plant Pathology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore-641003, Tamil Nadu, India
  • 6 Department of Plant Pathology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore-641003, Tamil Nadu, India
  • 7 Department of Plant Pathology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore-641003, Tamil Nadu, India
  • 8 Department of Plant Pathology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore-641003, Tamil Nadu, India
  • 9 Department of Biochemistry, Avinashilingam Deemed University Coimbatore-641043, Tamil Nadu, India
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $20.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $542.00

Five isolates of Trichoderma viride, Pseudomonas fluorescens and four isolates of Bacillus subtilis were evaluated for their ability to control Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of stem and stolon rot of peppermint (Mentha piperita Lin.). Of the various isolates of T. viride, P. fluorescens and B. subtilis tested, TVUV10, PFMMP and BSG3 showed the maximum inhibition of mycelial growth of R. solani. Among these isolates, P. fluorescens, PFMMP recorded the highest inhibition zone against R. solani in vitro and was very effective in reducing disease incidence in greenhouse condition. The effective isolates were evaluated for their ability to induce defense related enzymes and chemicals in plants. Increased activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), peroxidase (PO), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and total phenolics were recorded in the biocontrol agents pretreated peppermint plants challenged with R. solani. P. fluorescens isolate PFMMP recorded early and increased synthesis of all defense related enzymes and total phenol. Thus, the present study shows that application of biocontrol agents; induce defense related enzymes involved in phenyl propanoid pathway in addition to direct antagonism which collectively contribute for enhanced resistance against invasion of R. solani in M. piperita.

  • Ananthakumar, C. N. (1994): Biological control of root rots of ground nut caused by Sclerotium rolfsii sacc. using fluorescent Pseudomonads. M.Sc (Ag.) Thesis, submitted to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India.

  • Asaka, O. and Shoda, M. (1996): Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani causing damping-off of tomato with Bacillus subtilis RB 14. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62, 4081–4085.

    'Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani causing damping-off of tomato with Bacillus subtilis RB 14 ' () 62 Appl. Environ. Microbiol. : 4081 -4085.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Benhamou, N., Belanger, R. R. and Paulitz, T. C. (1996): Induction of differential host responses by Pseudomonas fluorescens in Ri T-DNA-transformed pea roots after challenge with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psi and Pythium ultimum. Phytopathology 86, 114–118.

    'Induction of differential host responses by Pseudomonas fluorescens in Ri T-DNA-transformed pea roots after challenge with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psi and Pythium ultimum. ' () 86 Phytopathology : 114 -118.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chet, I. (1984): Trichoderma — application, mode of action and potential as biocontrol agents of soil borne plant pathogenic fungi. In: I. Chet (ed.): Innovative Approaches to Plant Disease Control. John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 137–177.

    Innovative Approaches to Plant Disease Control , () 137 -177.

  • Chung, H. S. and Chol, W. B. (1990): Biological control of sesame damping off in the field by coating seed with antogonistic Trichoderma viride. Seed Sci. Technol. 18, 451–459.

    'Biological control of sesame damping off in the field by coating seed with antogonistic Trichoderma viride. ' () 18 Seed Sci. Technol. : 451 -459.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Daayf, F., Bel-Rhlidi, R. and Bélanger, R. R. (1997): Methyl ester of p-coumaric acid: A phytoalexin-like compound from long English cucumber leaves. J. Chem. Ecol. 23, 1517–1526.

    'Methyl ester of p-coumaric acid: A phytoalexin-like compound from long English cucumber leaves ' () 23 J. Chem. Ecol. : 1517 -1526.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • De Meyer, G. and Hofte, M. (1997): Salicylic acid production by the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 induces resistance to leaf infection by Botrytis cinerea on bean. Phytopathology 87, 588–593.

    'Salicylic acid production by the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 induces resistance to leaf infection by Botrytis cinerea on bean ' () 87 Phytopathology : 588 -593.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dickerson, D. P., Pascholati S. F., Hagerman, A. E., Butler, L. G. and Nicholson, R. L. (1984): Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and hydroxy cinnamate: CoA ligase in maize mesocotyls inoculated with Helminthosporium maydis or Helminthosporium carbonum. Physiol. Plant Pathol. 25, 111–123.

    'Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and hydroxy cinnamate: CoA ligase in maize mesocotyls inoculated with Helminthosporium maydis or Helminthosporium carbonum. ' () 25 Physiol. Plant Pathol. : 111 -123.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Edwards, S. G. and Sedon, B. (2001): Mode of antagonism of Brevibacillus brevis against Botrytis cineria. J. Appl. Microbiol. 91, 652–659.

    'Mode of antagonism of Brevibacillus brevis against Botrytis cineria. ' () 91 J. Appl. Microbiol. : 652 -659.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Elad, Y., Baker, R., Chet, I. and Henis, Y. (1983): Ultrastructural studies of the interaction between Trichoderma spp. and plant pathogenic fungi. Phytopath. Z. 107, 168–175.

    'Ultrastructural studies of the interaction between Trichoderma spp. and plant pathogenic fungi ' () 107 Phytopath. Z. : 168 -175.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gamliel, A. and Katan, J. (1993): Suppression of major and minor pathogens by pseudomonads in solarized soil and non-solarized soil. Phytopathology 83, 68–75.

    'Suppression of major and minor pathogens by pseudomonads in solarized soil and non-solarized soil ' () 83 Phytopathology : 68 -75.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gomez, K. A. and Gomez, A. A. (1984): Statistical Procedure for Agricultural Research. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

    Statistical Procedure for Agricultural Research , ().

  • Benhamou, N., Gagne, S., Quere, D. L. and Dehbi, L. (2000): Bacterial mediated induced resistance in cucumber, beneficial effect of endophytic bacterium Seratia plymuthica on the protection agasint infection by Pythium ultimum. Phytopathology 90, 45–50.

    'Bacterial mediated induced resistance in cucumber, beneficial effect of endophytic bacterium Seratia plymuthica on the protection agasint infection by Pythium ultimum. ' () 90 Phytopathology : 45 -50.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chen, C., Belanger, R. R., Benhamou, N. and Paullitz, T. C. (2000): Defense enzymes induced in cucumber roots by treatment with plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 56, 13–23.

    'Defense enzymes induced in cucumber roots by treatment with plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) ' () 56 Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. : 13 -23.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Johnson, D. A. and Santo, G. S. (2001): Development of wilt in mint in response to infection by two pathotypes of Verticillium dahliae and co. infection by Pratylenchus penetrans. Plant Dis. 85, 1189–1192.

    'Development of wilt in mint in response to infection by two pathotypes of Verticillium dahliae and co. infection by Pratylenchus penetrans. ' () 85 Plant Dis. : 1189 -1192.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Johnson, D. A., Douhan, L. I. and Greary, B. (2002): Report of Colletotrichum cocodes associated with Mentha. Plant Dis. 86, 695.

  • Katan, J. (1987): Soil solarization. In: I. Chet (ed.): Innovative Approaches to Plant Disease Control. John Wiley, Chichester, pp. 77–105.

    Innovative Approaches to Plant Disease Control , () 77 -105.

  • Kumar, S., Kahol, A. P., Pata, D. D., Rar, T. M., Sinqii, S. and Tyagi, B. R. (1997): Cultivation of menthol mint in India. Farm Bulletin No. 4. pp. 13–20 (CIMAP, Lucknow).

  • Loganathan, R. (2003): Development of bioformulations for the management of major fungal-nematode complex diseases of cabbage and cauliflower in Tamil Nadu. M. Sc. (Ag.) Thesis, submitted to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India.

  • Maurhofer, M., Hase, C., Meuwly, P., Metraux, J. P., and Defago, G. (1994): Induction of systemic resistance of tobacco to tobacco necrosis virus by the root-colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHAO: influence of the gacA gene and of pyoverdine production. Phytopathology 84, 139–146.

    'Induction of systemic resistance of tobacco to tobacco necrosis virus by the root-colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHAO: influence of the gacA gene and of pyoverdine production ' () 84 Phytopathology : 139 -146.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mayer, A. M., Harel, E. and Shaul, R. B. (1965): Assay of catechol oxidase, a critical comparison of methods. Phytochemistry 5, 783–789.

    'Assay of catechol oxidase, a critical comparison of methods ' () 5 Phytochemistry : 783 -789.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hammerschmidt, R., Nuckles, E. M. and Kuc, J. (1982): Association of enhanced peroxidase activity with induced systemic resistance of cucumber to Colletotrichum lagenarium. Physiol. Plant Pathol. 20, 73–82.

    'Association of enhanced peroxidase activity with induced systemic resistance of cucumber to Colletotrichum lagenarium. ' () 20 Physiol. Plant Pathol. : 73 -82.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hoffland, E., Hakulinem, J. and Van Pelt, J. A. (1996): Comparison of systemic resistance induced by avirulent and nonpathogenic Pseudomonas species. Phytopathology 86, 757–762.

    'Comparison of systemic resistance induced by avirulent and nonpathogenic Pseudomonas species ' () 86 Phytopathology : 757 -762.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Howell, C. R., Hanson, L. E., Stipanovic, R. D. and Puckhaber, L. S. (2000): Induction of terpenoid synthesis in cotton roots and control of Rhizoctonia solani by seed treatment with Trichoderma virens. Phytopathology 90, 248–252.

    'Induction of terpenoid synthesis in cotton roots and control of Rhizoctonia solani by seed treatment with Trichoderma virens. ' () 90 Phytopathology : 248 -252.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Meena, B., Radhajeyalakshmi, R., Marimuthu, T., Vidhyasekaran, P., Doraisamy, S., Velazhahan, R. (2000): Induction of pathogenesis-related proteins, phenolics and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in groundnut by Pseudomonas fluorescens. J. Plant Dis. Protect. 107, 514–527.

    'Induction of pathogenesis-related proteins, phenolics and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in groundnut by Pseudomonas fluorescens. ' () 107 J. Plant Dis. Protect. : 514 -527.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Merin Babu (2002): Studies on epidemiological and management of stolon rot of mentha. M. Sc. Thesis, Department of Plant Pathology, TNAU, Coimbatore. Tamil Nadu, India.

  • M'Piga, P., Belanger, R. R., Paulitz, T. C. and Benhamou, N. (1997): Increased resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici in tomato plants treated with the endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 63–28. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 50, 301–320.

    'Increased resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici in tomato plants treated with the endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 63–28 ' () 50 Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. : 301 -320.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Papavizas, G. S. (1985): Trichoderma and Gliocladium biology, ecology and potential for the biocontrol. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 23, 23–54.

    'Trichoderma and Gliocladium biology, ecology and potential for the biocontrol ' () 23 Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. : 23 -54.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Radjacommare, R., Nandakumar, R., Kandan, A., Suresh, S., Bharathi, M., Raguchander, T. and Samiyappan, R. (2002): Pseudomonas fluorescens based bioformulation for the management of sheath blight and leaffolder in rice. Crop Protect. 21, 671–677.

    'Pseudomonas fluorescens based bioformulation for the management of sheath blight and leaffolder in rice ' () 21 Crop Protect. : 671 -677.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rajeev Pant and Mukhopadhyay, A. N. (2001): Integrated management of seed and seedling rot complex of soybean. Indian Phytopathol. 54, 346–350.

    'Integrated management of seed and seedling rot complex of soybean ' () 54 Indian Phytopathol. : 346 -350.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Viswanathan, R. and Samiyappan, R. (1999): Induction of systemic resistance by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria against red rot disease caused by Collectotrichum falcatum went in sugarcane. Proc. Sugar Technol. Assoc. India 61, 24–39.

    'Induction of systemic resistance by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria against red rot disease caused by Collectotrichum falcatum went in sugarcane ' () 61 Proc. Sugar Technol. Assoc. India : 24 -39.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wei, G., Kloepper, J. W. and Tuzun, S. (1996): Induced systemic resistance to cucumber diseases and increased plant growth by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under field conditions. Phytopathology 86, 221–224.

    'Induced systemic resistance to cucumber diseases and increased plant growth by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under field conditions ' () 86 Phytopathology : 221 -224.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Weindling, R. (1932): Trichoderma as a mycoparasite of Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. Phytopathology 22, 837–845.

    'Trichoderma as a mycoparasite of Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. ' () 22 Phytopathology : 837 -845.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yeole, R. D. and Dube, H. C. (2000): Siderophore-mediated antibiosis of rhizobacterial fluorescent pseudomonads against certain soil borne fungal plant pathogens. J. Mycol. Plant Pathol. 30, 335–338.

    'Siderophore-mediated antibiosis of rhizobacterial fluorescent pseudomonads against certain soil borne fungal plant pathogens ' () 30 J. Mycol. Plant Pathol. : 335 -338.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zdor, R. E. and Anderson, A. J. (1992): Influence of root colonizing bacteria on the defense responses in bean. Plant Soil 140, 99–107.

    'Influence of root colonizing bacteria on the defense responses in bean ' () 140 Plant Soil : 99 -107.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zhender, G. W., Murphy, J. F., Sikora, E. J. and Kloepper, W. (2001): Application of Rhizobacteria for induced resistance. Euro. J. Plant Pathol. 107, 39–50.

    'Application of Rhizobacteria for induced resistance ' () 107 Euro. J. Plant Pathol. : 39 -50.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zieslin, N. and Ben-Zaken, R. (1993): Peroxidase activity and presence of phenolic substances in peduncles of rose flowers. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 31, 333–339.

    'Peroxidase activity and presence of phenolic substances in peduncles of rose flowers ' () 31 Plant Physiol. Biochem. : 333 -339.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Podile, A. R. and Dube, H. C. (1985): Effect of Bacillus subtilis. AF 1 on the growth of vascular wilt fungi. Current Sci. 54, 1282–1283.

    'Effect of Bacillus subtilis. AF 1 on the growth of vascular wilt fungi ' () 54 Current Sci. : 1282 -1283.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Podile, A. R. and Lakshmi, V. D. V. (1998): Seed bacterization with Bacillus subtilis AF 1 increases phenylalanine ammonia lyase and reduces the incidence of Fusarial wilt in pigeon pea. J. Phytopathol. 146, 255–259.

    'Seed bacterization with Bacillus subtilis AF 1 increases phenylalanine ammonia lyase and reduces the incidence of Fusarial wilt in pigeon pea ' () 146 J. Phytopathol. : 255 -259.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Prashanthi, S. K., Srikant Kulkarni and Anahosur, K. H. (2000): Management of safflower root rot caused by Rhizoctonia bataticola by antagonistic microorganisms. Plant Dis. Res. 15, 146–150.

    'Management of safflower root rot caused by Rhizoctonia bataticola by antagonistic microorganisms ' () 15 Plant Dis. Res. : 146 -150.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ramamoorthy, V. and Samiyappan, R. (2001): Induction of defense-related genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens treated chilli plants in response to infection by Colletotrichum capsici. J. Mycol. Plant Pathol. 31, 146–155.

    'Induction of defense-related genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens treated chilli plants in response to infection by Colletotrichum capsici. ' () 31 J. Mycol. Plant Pathol. : 146 -155.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ramamoorthy, V., Raguchander, T. and Samiyappan, R. (2002): Enhancing resistance in tomato and hot pepper to Pythium diseases by seed treatment with fluorescent pseudomonads. Euro. J Plant Pathol. 108, 429–441.

    'Enhancing resistance in tomato and hot pepper to Pythium diseases by seed treatment with fluorescent pseudomonads ' () 108 Euro. J Plant Pathol. : 429 -441.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schmiedeknecht, G., Issoufou, I., Junge, H. and Bochow, H. (2001): Use of Bacillus subtilis as biocontrol agents. V. Biological control of diseases on diseases on maize and sunflowers. Z. Pflanzenkr. Pflanzenschutz 108, 500–512.

    'Use of Bacillus subtilis as biocontrol agents. V. Biological control of diseases on diseases on maize and sunflowers ' () 108 Z. Pflanzenkr. Pflanzenschutz : 500 -512.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shukla, P. K., Haseeb, A. S. and Sharma, S. (1998): Soil texture, root lesion nematodes and yield of peppermint (Mentha piperita). J. Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants 6, 1–8.

    'Soil texture, root lesion nematodes and yield of peppermint (Mentha piperita) ' () 6 J. Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants : 1 -8.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Singh, P., Vadudeva, R. S. and Bajaj, B. S. (1965): Seed bacterization and biological activity of bulbiformin. Ann. Appl. Biol. 55, 89–97.

    'Seed bacterization and biological activity of bulbiformin ' () 55 Ann. Appl. Biol. : 89 -97.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tuzun, S. (2001): The relationship between pathogen-induced systemic resistance (ISR) and multigenic (horizontal) resistance in plants. Euro. J. Plant Pathol. 107, 85–93.

    'The relationship between pathogen-induced systemic resistance (ISR) and multigenic (horizontal) resistance in plants ' () 107 Euro. J. Plant Pathol. : 85 -93.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Vasudeva, R. S., Singh, G. P. and Iyengan, M. R. S. (1962): Biological activity of bulbiformin in soil. Ann. Appl. Biol. 50, 113–119.

    'Biological activity of bulbiformin in soil ' () 50 Ann. Appl. Biol. : 113 -119.

  • Vidhyasekaran, P., Rabindran, R., Muthamilan, M., Nayar, K., Rajappan, K., Subramanian, N. and Vasumathi, K. (1997): Development of powder formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens for control of rice blast. Plant Pathol. 46, 291–297.

    'Development of powder formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens for control of rice blast ' () 46 Plant Pathol. : 291 -297.

    • Search Google Scholar