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  • 1 Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 102, Hungary
  • 2 Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 102, Hungary
  • 3 Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 102, Hungary
  • 4 Institute for Plant Diseases, University of Bonn, Nussallee 9, D-53115 Bonn, Germany
  • 5 Institute for Plant Protection and Plant Diseases, University of Hannover, Herrenhauser Str. 2, D-36234 Hannover 21, Germany
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The N-methylated resistance inducers act within two concentration ranges characterized by suppression of infection rates. Between these active ranges there is always an inactive range (5-7 decimal dilutions) characterized in general by a high rate of infection. This unique phenomenon is called the double immune response, which means a non-linear effect. If the time interval between pre-treatment and inoculation increases the active concentration values for the double immune response shift towards original higher dose values because of the continuous metabolism of methylated inducer in the host plant. The inactive range between the two active dose values remains the same. The multiple pre-treatment of plants with the inducer gives contrasting results: the active dose ranges shifted towards the original lower values. It seems that the two active concentrations of the inducer are always the same. Methylated inducers are potential formaldehyde (HCHO) generators. HCHO generates a time- and dose-dependent immunostimulating activity. HCHO (mainly in bound form) and H2O2 can interact and the singlet oxygen and excited HCHO can be formed. The singlet oxygen may participate in the oxidation of water molecules and in biological systems previously unknown oxidants including dihydrogen trioxide and ozone, can be generated. It seems that these reactive molecules-from HCHO to O3- form the biochemical basis of the double immune response of plants to pathogens.

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