View More View Less
  • 1 Sugarcane Research Station Kunraghat, Gorakhpur 273008 UP India
  • 2 Institute of Pesticides and Environmental Protection Belgrade Serbia
  • 3 University of Bologna DiSTA-Plant Pathology, Alma Mater Studiorum Bologna Italy
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $20.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $542.00

During recent years, increasing attention has been devoted to the development of field floriculture, particularly for benefit of small farming businesses that produce seedlings of perennial ornamental plants for the domestic market and for export to neighboring countries. Like other segments of agricultural economies, this industry is threatened by plant diseases, including those associated to phytoplasma infection. Phytoplasmas cause diseases in several commercial cut flower and ornamental plant causing serious economic losses all around the world. Therefore, phytoplasma diseases are the major constraints in profitable ornamental plants production and lowers its quantum and quality gaining international importance because of unspecific symptoms, various losses and diverse epidemiology throughout the world. Epidemics of these diseases have compelled withdrawal of many floriculture plant varieties from cultivation such as gladiolus, lily, chrysanthemum and rose. Symptoms of general yellowing and stunting of plants, proliferation of shoots, phyllody, virescence, reduced size of flowers and reddening of leaves were observed in diverse ornamental plants in botanical gardens and various floriculture farms. Knowledge of the diversity of phytoplasmas has been expanded by recent studies as well as the availability of molecular tools for pathogen identification. The diversity of the potential reservoir of disease has been increased with the discovery of new phytoplasmas hosts. Ornamental plant phytoplasmas showed wide geographical distribution. The ‘ Ca . P. asteris’ belonging to 16SrI group is the major group associated with ornamentals worldwide, so far more than 42 ornamental plant species were reported as phytoplasma infected. Basing on the sequences retrieved from GenBank identified phytoplasmas mainly belong to 16SrI, 16SrII, 16SrIII, 16SrV, 16SrVI, 16SrVII, 16SrIX, 16SrX, 16SrXII, 16SrXIII and 16SrXV groups. In this review, detailed information on occurrence, symptomatology, molecular characterization, transmission, taxonomy, genetic diversity and management approaches on phytoplasma infecting ornamental plants have been discussed.

  • Ajayakumar, P. V., Samad, A., Shasany, A. K., Gupta, M. K., Alam, M. and Rastogi, S. (2007): First record of a ‘ Candidatus phytoplasma’ associated with little leaf disease of Portulaca grandiflora . Australasian Plant Disease Notes 2, 67–69.

    Rastogi S. , 'First record of a ‘Candidatus phytoplasma’ associated with little leaf disease of Portulaca grandiflora ' (2007 ) 2 Australasian Plant Disease Notes : 67 -69.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Albouy, J. (1966): Le problème des “germs fins” du glaïeul. Annale Epiphyties 17, 81–91.

    Albouy J. , 'Le problème des “germs fins” du glaïeul ' (1966 ) 17 Annale Epiphyties : 81 -91.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Alma, A., Bosco, D., Danielli, A., Bertaccini, A., Vibio, M. and Arzone, A. (1997): Identification of phytoplasmas in eggs, nymphs and adults of Scaphoideus titanus Ball reared on healthy plants. InsectMolecular Biology 6, 115–121.

    Arzone A. , 'Identification of phytoplasmas in eggs, nymphs and adults of Scaphoideus titanus Ball reared on healthy plants ' (1997 ) 6 InsectMolecular Biology : 115 -121.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Al-Saady, N. A. and Khan, A. J. (2006): Phytoplasmas that can infect diverse plant species worldwide. Physiol. Mol. Biol. Plant 12, 263–281.

    Khan A. J. , 'Phytoplasmas that can infect diverse plant species worldwide ' (2006 ) 12 Physiol. Mol. Biol. Plant : 263 -281.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Al-Saady, N.A., Khan, A. J., Calari, A., Al-Subhi, A.M. and Bertaccini, A. (2008): ’ Candidatus Phytoplasma omanense’, a phytoplasma associated with witches’ broom of Cassia italica (Mill.) Lam. in Oman. International J. of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58, 461–466.

    Bertaccini A. , '’Candidatus Phytoplasma omanense’, a phytoplasma associated with witches’ broom of Cassia italica (Mill.) Lam. in Oman ' (2008 ) 58 International J. of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology : 461 -466.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Al-Zadjali, A. D., Natsuaki, T. and Okunda, S. (2007): Detection identification and molecular characterization of a phytoplasma associated with Arabian jasmine ( Jasminum sambac L.). J. Phytopatology 155, 211–219.

    Okunda S. , 'Detection identification and molecular characterization of a phytoplasma associated with Arabian jasmine (Jasminum sambac L.) ' (2007 ) 155 J. Phytopatology : 211 -219.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Amelio, R. D’., Massa, N., Gamabro, E., Agostino, G. D., Sampò, S., Berta, G., Faoro, F., Iriti, M., Bosco, D. and Marzachì, C. (2007): Preliminary results on the evaluation of the effects of elicitors of plant resistance on Chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasma infection. Bulletin of Insectology 60, 317–318.

    Marzachì C. , 'Preliminary results on the evaluation of the effects of elicitors of plant resistance on Chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasma infection ' (2007 ) 60 Bulletin of Insectology : 317 -318.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Anonymous (2004): IRPCM, ‘ Candidatus Phytoplasma’, a taxon for the wall-less, non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects. International J. of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 54, 1243–1255.

  • Begtrup, J. and Thomsen, A. (1984): Mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO) and their distribution in Denmark. Tidsskrift for Planteavl 88, 299–210.

    Thomsen A. , 'Mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO) and their distribution in Denmark ' (1984 ) 88 Tidsskrift for Planteavl : 299 -210.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Behncken, G. M. (1984): Orosius lotophagorum subsp. Ryukyuensis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a new vector of a little leaf disease in Australia. Plant Pathology 13, 35–36.

    Behncken G. M. , 'Orosius lotophagorum subsp. Ryukyuensis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a new vector of a little leaf disease in Australia ' (1984 ) 13 Plant Pathology : 35 -36.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bellardi, M. G., Vicchi, V. and Bertaccini, A. (1985): Mycoplasma disease of Gladiolus . Informatore Fitopatologico 35, 35–39.

    Bertaccini A. , 'Mycoplasma disease of Gladiolus ' (1985 ) 35 Informatore Fitopatologico : 35 -39.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bellardi, M. G. and Bertaccini, A. (1990): Electron microscopy of virescent Gloxinia plants. Acta Horticulturae 266, 509–515.

    Bertaccini A. , 'Electron microscopy of virescent Gloxinia plants ' (1990 ) 266 Acta Horticulturae : 509 -515.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bellardi, M. G. and Bertaccini, A. (1998): Avversità delle piante ornamentali: virosi e fitoplasmosi. L’Informatore Agrario, Verona 189 p.

    Bertaccini A. , '', in Avversità delle piante ornamentali: virosi e fitoplasmosi , (1998 ) -.

  • Bellardi, M. G., Benni, A., Paltrinieri, S. and Bertaccini, A. (2007): A severe disease induced by ‘ Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’ in Digitalis lanata Ehrh. Bulletin of Insectology 60, 275–276.

    Bertaccini A. , 'A severe disease induced by ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’ in Digitalis lanata Ehrh ' (2007 ) 60 Bulletin of Insectology : 275 -276.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Berges, R., Rott, M. and Seemüller, E. (2000): Range of phytoplasma concentrations in various host plants as determined by competitive polymerase chain reaction. Phytopathology 90, 1145–1152.

    Seemüller E. , 'Range of phytoplasma concentrations in various host plants as determined by competitive polymerase chain reaction ' (2000 ) 90 Phytopathology : 1145 -1152.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bertaccini, A. and Marani, F. (1980): Mycoplasma-like organisms in Gladiolus sp. plants with malformed and virescent flowers. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 19, 121–128.

    Marani F. , 'Mycoplasma-like organisms in Gladiolus sp. plants with malformed and virescent flowers ' (1980 ) 19 Phytopathologia Mediterranea : 121 -128.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bertaccini, A. and Marani, F. (1982): Electron microscopy of two viruses and mycoplasma-like organism in lilies with deformed flowers. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 21, 8–14.

    Marani F. , 'Electron microscopy of two viruses and mycoplasma-like organism in lilies with deformed flowers ' (1982 ) 21 Phytopathologia Mediterranea : 8 -14.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bertaccini, A., Marani, F. and Rapetti, F. (1988): Phyllody and virescence in Ranunculus hybrids. Acta Horticulturae 234, 123–128.

    Rapetti F. , 'Phyllody and virescence in Ranunculus hybrids ' (1988 ) 234 Acta Horticulturae : 123 -128.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bertaccini, A. (1990): Cyclamen: a new host of mycoplasma-like organisms. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 29, 213–214.

    Bertaccini A. , 'Cyclamen: a new host of mycoplasma-like organisms ' (1990 ) 29 Phytopathologia Mediterranea : 213 -214.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bertaccini, A., Davis, R. E. and Lee, I-M. (1990a): Distinctions among mycoplasma like organisms (MLOs) in Gladiolus, Ranunculus, Brassica and Hydrangea through detection with nonradioactive cloned DNA-probes. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 29, 107–113.

    Lee I.-M. , 'Distinctions among mycoplasma like organisms (MLOs) in Gladiolus, Ranunculus, Brassica and Hydrangea through detection with nonradioactive cloned DNA-probes ' (1990 ) 29 Phytopathologia Mediterranea : 107 -113.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bertaccini, A., Davis, R. E., Lee, I-M., Conti, M., Dally, E. L. and Douglas, S.M. (1990b): Detection of Chrysanthemum yellows mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO) by dot-hybridization and Southern blot analysis. Plant Disease 74, 40–43.

    Douglas S.M. , 'Detection of Chrysanthemumyellows mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO) by dot-hybridization and Southern blot analysis ' (1990 ) 74 Plant Disease : 40 -43.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bertaccini, A., Bellardi, M. G., Vibio, M., Lee, I-M. and Davis, R. E. (1992a): Detection of mycoplasma-like organisms in gladiolus using microscopy and DNA-probes. Acta Horticulturae 325, 703–708.

    Davis R. E. , 'Detection of mycoplasma-like organisms in gladiolus using microscopy and DNA-probes ' (1992 ) 325 Acta Horticulturae : 703 -708.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bertaccini, A., Davis, R. E., Hammond, R.W., Bellardi, M. G., Vibio, M. and Lee, I-M. (1992b): Sensitive detection of mycoplasma-like organisms in field collected and in vitro propagated plants of Brassica, Hydrangea and Chrysanthemum by polymerase chain reaction. Annals of Applied Biology 121, 593–599.

    Lee I.-M. , 'Sensitive detection of mycoplasma-like organisms in field collected and in vitro propagated plants of Brassica, Hydrangea and Chrysanthemum by polymerase chain reaction ' (1992 ) 121 Annals of Applied Biology : 593 -599.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bertaccini, A., Bellardi, M. G. and Vibio, M. (1993): La virescenza dell’ortensia. Informatore Fitopatologico 7/8, 2–16.

    Vibio M. , 'La virescenza dell’ortensia ' (1993 ) 7/8 Informatore Fitopatologico : 2 -16.

  • Bertaccini, A., Vibio, M. and Bellardi, M. G. (1994): Impiego di PCR per l’idividuazione di micoplasmi in cormi di gladiolio. Informatore Fitopatologico 10, 34–36.

    Bellardi M. G. , 'Impiego di PCR per l’idividuazione di micoplasmi in cormi di gladiolio ' (1994 ) 10 Informatore Fitopatologico : 34 -36.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bertaccini, A., Bellardi, M.G. and Vibio, M. (1996a): Virus diseases of ornamental shrubs. X. Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. Infected by viruses and phytoplasmas. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 35, 129–132.

    Vibio M. , 'Virus diseases of ornamental shrubs. X. Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. Infected by viruses and phytoplasmas ' (1996 ) 35 Phytopathologia Mediterranea : 129 -132.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bertaccini, A., Vibio, M., Bellardi, M. and Danielli, A. (1996b): Identification of phytoplasmas in Alstroemeria . Acta Horticulturae 432, 312–319.

    Danielli A. , 'Identification of phytoplasmas in Alstroemeria ' (1996 ) 432 Acta Horticulturae : 312 -319.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bertaccini, A., Kaminska, M., Botti, S. and Martini, M. (2002): Molecular evidence for mixed phytoplasma infection in lily plants. Acta Horticulturae 568, 35–41.

    Martini M. , 'Molecular evidence for mixed phytoplasma infection in lily plants ' (2002 ) 568 Acta Horticulturae : 35 -41.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bertaccini, A., Franova, J., Botti, S. and Tabanelli, D. (2005): Molecular characterization of phytoplasmas in lilies with fasciation in the Czech Republic. FEMS Microbiology Letters 249, 79–85.

    Tabanelli D. , 'Molecular characterization of phytoplasmas in lilies with fasciation in the Czech Republic ' (2005 ) 249 FEMS Microbiology Letters : 79 -85.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bertaccini, A., Bellardi, M. G., Botti, S., Paltrinieri, S. and Restuccia, P. (2006): Phytoplasma infection in Asclepias physocarpa . Acta Horticulturae 722, 229–234.

    Restuccia P. , 'Phytoplasma infection in Asclepias physocarpa ' (2006 ) 722 Acta Horticulturae : 229 -234.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bertaccini, A. (2007): Phytoplasmas: diversity, taxonomy, and epidemiology. Frontiers in Bioscience 12, 673–689.

    Bertaccini A. , 'Phytoplasmas: diversity, taxonomy, and epidemiology ' (2007 ) 12 Frontiers in Bioscience : 673 -689.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bertaccini, A., Calari, A. and Felker, P. (2007): Developing a method for phytoplasma identification in cactus pear samples from California. Bulletin of Insectology 60, 257–258.

    Felker P. , 'Developing a method for phytoplasma identification in cactus pear samples from California ' (2007 ) 60 Bulletin of Insectology : 257 -258.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Blomquist, C. L. and Kirkpatrick, B. C. (2002): Identification of phytoplasma taxa and insect vectors of peach yellow leaf roll disease in California. Plant Disease 86, 759–763.

    Kirkpatrick B. C. , 'Identification of phytoplasma taxa and insect vectors of peach yellow leaf roll disease in California ' (2002 ) 86 Plant Disease : 759 -763.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bongnam, C., Jeongsoo, K. and Myeongil, J. (2007): Phytoplasma disease in field grown Chrysanthemum (Dendrathema grandiflorum) . Hort. Environ. and Biotech. 48, 81–84.

    Myeongil J. , 'Phytoplasma disease in field grown Chrysanthemum (Dendrathema grandiflorum) ' (2007 ) 48 Hort. Environ. and Biotech. : 81 -84.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bos, L. and Perquin, F.W. (1975): Rose bud proliferation, a disorder of unknown etiology. Netherlands J. Plant Pathology 81, 187–198.

    Perquin F.W. , 'Rose bud proliferation, a disorder of unknown etiology ' (1975 ) 81 Netherlands J. Plant Pathology : 187 -198.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bosco, D., Minucci, C., Boccardo, G. and Conti, M. (1997): Differential acquisition of chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasma by three leafhopper species. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 83, 219–224.

    Conti M. , 'Differential acquisition of chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasma by three leafhopper species ' (1997 ) 83 Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata : 219 -224.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bosco, D., Leoncini, P. and Marzachì, C. (2002): Aspects of phytoplasma-vector interactions: replication of CY in two leafhopper vector species and effects of the mollicute on leafhopper fitness. Proceedings of the 11th International Auchenorrhyncha Congress. Potsdam/Berlin, Germany, 47–48.

  • Bosco, D., Galetto, L., Leoncine, P., Saracco, P., Raccah, B. and Marzachì, C. (2007): Pattern of Chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasma multiplication in three leafhopper vector species (Cicadellidae Detocephalinae). Bulletin of Insectology 60, 227–228.

    Marzachì C. , 'Pattern of Chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasma multiplication in three leafhopper vector species (Cicadellidae Detocephalinae) ' (2007 ) 60 Bulletin of Insectology : 227 -228.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bové, J. M. (1984): Wall-less prokaryotes of plants. Ann. Rev. Phytopathology 22, 361–396.

    Bové J. M. , 'Wall-less prokaryotes of plants ' (1984 ) 22 Ann. Rev. Phytopathology : 361 -396.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Brierley, P. and Smith, F. F. (1954): New records of virus diseases of ornamental plants. Plant Disease Reporter 38, 739–741.

    Smith F. F. , 'New records of virus diseases of ornamental plants ' (1954 ) 38 Plant Disease Reporter : 739 -741.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cai, H., Chen, H. R., Kong, B. H., Yang, G. H. and Liu, T. (2007): First report of a phytoplasma associated with Christmas cactus witches’ broom. Plant Pathology 56, 346.

    Liu T. , 'First report of a phytoplasma associated with Christmas cactus witches’ broom ' (2007 ) 56 Plant Pathology : 346 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Carginale, V., Luca, V. D., Capasso, C., Baldi, M. R., Maria, G., Pastore, M., Bertaccini, A., Carraro, L. and Capasso, A. (2007): Effect of pear decline phytoplasma on gene expression in Catharanthus roseus . Bulletin of Insectology 60, 213–214.

    Capasso A. , 'Effect of pear decline phytoplasma on gene expression in Catharanthus roseus ' (2007 ) 60 Bulletin of Insectology : 213 -214.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Carling, D. E. and Millikan, D. F. (1978): Banded filaments associated with the aster yellows MLO in Vinca rosea . Canadian J. of Microbiology 24, 1417–1418.

    Millikan D. F. , 'Banded filaments associated with the aster yellows MLO in Vinca rosea ' (1978 ) 24 Canadian J. of Microbiology : 1417 -1418.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Carraro, L., Osler, R., Refatti, E. and Poggi-Pollini, C. (1988): Transmission of the possible agent of apple proliferation to Vinca rosea by dodder. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale 24 S. IV: 43–52.

    Poggi-Pollini C. , 'Transmission of the possible agent of apple proliferation to Vinca rosea by dodder ' (1988 ) 24 Rivista di Patologia Vegetale : 43 -52.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Carraro, L., Osler, R., Loi, N. and Favali, M.A. (1991): Transmission characteristics of the clover phyllody agent by dodder. J. of Phytopathology 133, 15–22.

    Favali M.A. , 'Transmission characteristics of the clover phyllody agent by dodder ' (1991 ) 133 J. of Phytopathology : 15 -22.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Carraro, L., Osler, R., Refatti, E. and Favali, M. A. (1992): Natural diffusion and experimental transmission of plum leptonecrosis. Acta Horticulturae 309, 285–290.

    Favali M. A. , 'Natural diffusion and experimental transmission of plum leptonecrosis ' (1992 ) 309 Acta Horticulturae : 285 -290.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Carraro, L., Ermacora, P., Loi, N. and Osler, R. (2004): The recovery phenomenon in apple proliferation-infected apple trees. J. of Plant Pathology 86, 141–146.

    Osler R. , 'The recovery phenomenon in apple proliferation-infected apple trees ' (2004 ) 86 J. of Plant Pathology : 141 -146.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cervantes-Diaz, L., Zavaleta-Mejia, E., Rojas-Martinez, R. I., Alanis-Martinez, I., Ochoa-Martinez, D. L. and Sanchez-Garcia, P. (2004): First report of phytoplasma occurrence in Alstroemeria sp. Plants in Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatologia 22, 134–139.

    Sanchez-Garcia P. , 'First report of phytoplasma occurrence in Alstroemeria sp ' (2004 ) 22 Plants in Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatologia : 134 -139.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chaturvedi, Y., Singh, M., Rao, G. P., Snehi, S. K. and Raj, S. K. (2009a): First report of association of ‘ Candidatus phytoplasma asteris’ (16SrI group) with little leaf disease of rose (Rosa alba) in India. Plant Pathology 58, 788.

    Raj S. K. , 'First report of association of ‘Candidatus phytoplasma asteris’ (16SrI group) with little leaf disease of rose (Rosa alba) in India ' (2009 ) 58 Plant Pathology : 788 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chaturvedi, Y., Tewari, A. K., Upadhyaya, P. P., Prabhuji, S. K. and Rao, G. P. (2009b): Association of ‘ Candidatus phytoplasma asteris’ with little leaf and phyllody disease of Catharanthus roseus in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Medicinal Plants 1, 103–108.

    Rao G. P. , 'Association of ‘Candidatus phytoplasma asteris’ with little leaf and phyllody disease of Catharanthus roseus in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India ' (2009 ) 1 Medicinal Plants : 103 -108.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chaturvedi, Y., Singh, M., Snehi, S. K., Raj, S. K. and Rao, G. P. (2010): Association of ‘ Candidatus phytoplasma asteris (16SrIgroup) with yellows and little leaf disease of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in India. Plant Pathology Doi: 10.1111/of 1365-3059. 2010. 02263. X.

  • Chen, M. H. and Hiruki, C. (1978): The preservation of membranes of tubular bodies associated with mycoplasma like organisms by tannic acid. Canadian J. Botany 56, 2878–2882.

    Hiruki C. , 'The preservation of membranes of tubular bodies associated with mycoplasma like organisms by tannic acid ' (1978 ) 56 Canadian J. Botany : 2878 -2882.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chen, Z.Y., Shen, J.Y., Peng, B. Z., Zheng, G. B. and Chen, M.Y. (1984): Mycoplasma associated with periwinkle phyllody disease. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica 14, 233–234.

    Chen M.Y. , 'Mycoplasma associated with periwinkle phyllody disease ' (1984 ) 14 Acta Phytopathologica Sinica : 233 -234.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cheo, P. (1970): Rose wilt or dieback-a new virus disease attacks rose in California. Lasca Leaves 20, 88–89.

    Cheo P. , 'Rose wilt or dieback-a new virus disease attacks rose in California ' (1970 ) 20 Lasca Leaves : 88 -89.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Christensen, N. M., Axelsen, K. B., Nicolaisen, M. and Schulz, A. (2004): Phytoplasmas and their interactions with hosts. Trends in Plant Science 11, 526–535.

    Schulz A. , 'Phytoplasmas and their interactions with hosts ' (2004 ) 11 Trends in Plant Science : 526 -535.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chung, B. N. and Choi, G. S. (2002): Elimination of aster yellows phytoplasma from Dendranthema grandiflorum by application of oxytetracycline as a foliar spray. Plant Pathology J. 18, 93–97.

    Choi G. S. , 'Elimination of aster yellows phytoplasma from Dendranthema grandiflorum by application of oxytetracycline as a foliar spray ' (2002 ) 18 Plant Pathology J. : 93 -97.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chung, B. N. and Jeong, M. I. (2003): Detection and molecular characterization of a Stolbur phytoplasma in Lilium oriental hybrids. Plant Pathology J. 19, 106–110.

    Jeong M. I. , 'Detection and molecular characterization of a Stolbur phytoplasma in Lilium oriental hybrids ' (2003 ) 19 Plant Pathology J. : 106 -110.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chung, B. N. (2008): Phytoplasma detection in Chrysanthemum and lily. In: N.A. Harrison, G. P. Rao and C. Marcone (eds): Characterization, Diagnosis and Management of Phytoplasmas. Studium Press LLC, Texas, USA. pp. 175–194.

    Chung B. N. , '', in Characterization, Diagnosis and Management of Phytoplasmas , (2008 ) -.

  • Clark, M. F. and Davies, D. L. (1984): Mycoplasma detection and characterization. In Report East Malling Research Station, 108–109.

  • Clark, M. F., Davies, D. L., Buss, S. L. and Morton, A. (1989): Serological discrimination among mycoplasmalike organisms using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Acta Horticulturae 234, 107–113.

    Morton A. , 'Serological discrimination among mycoplasmalike organisms using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies ' (1989 ) 234 Acta Horticulturae : 107 -113.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Connors, I. L. (1941): 20th Annual Report of the Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 1940. pp. 1–7.

  • Conti, M., D’Agostino, G., Casetta A. and Mela, L. (1988): Some characteristics of Chrysanthemum yellows disease. Acta Horticulturae 234, 129–136.

    Mela L. , 'Some characteristics of Chrysanthemum yellows disease ' (1988 ) 234 Acta Horticulturae : 129 -136.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cortés-Martínez, N. E., Moctezuma, E. V., Molina, L. X. Z. and Aguilar-Rios, J. (2007): A new phytoplasma associated with a zigzag line pattern in leaves of Lilum spp. In Mexico. Bulletin of Insectology 60, 283–284.

    Aguilar-Rios J. , 'A new phytoplasma associated with a zigzag line pattern in leaves of Lilum spp. In Mexico ' (2007 ) 60 Bulletin of Insectology : 283 -284.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cousin, M. T., Maillet, P. L., Gourret, J. P., Grison, C. and Staron, T. (1968): Presence de particules de type “mycoplasme” dans le phloeme de plantes infectées par trois maladies de type “Jaunisse europeenne” le stolbur de la tomate, 1’aster yellows du glaïeul, la phyllodie du bifli. Etude cytologique et ultrastructurale. Premiers essais à le lutte chemique. C.R. Hebd. Sc. Acad. Agr. Fr. 54, 887–895.

    Staron T. , 'Presence de particules de type “mycoplasme” dans le phloeme de plantes infectées par trois maladies de type “Jaunisse europeenne” le stolbur de la tomate, 1’aster yellows du glaïeul, la phyllodie du bifli. Etude cytologique et ultrastructurale ' (1968 ) 54 Premiers essais à le lutte chemique. C.R. Hebd. Sc. Acad. Agr. Fr : 887 -895.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cousin, M. T. and Abadie, M. (1982): Action of mycoplasmas on the anther. Light and electron microscope study. Station de Pathologie Vegetale 5, 41–57.

    Abadie M. , 'Action of mycoplasmas on the anther. Light and electron microscope study ' (1982 ) 5 Station de Pathologie Vegetale : 41 -57.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cousin, M. T. and Sharma, A. K. (1986): Association of mycoplasma like organisms (MLOs) with mild type of Hydrangea virescence: a study with 60–1000 nm thick sections. J. of Phytopathology 115, 274–282.

    Sharma A. K. , 'Association of mycoplasma like organisms (MLOs) with mild type of Hydrangea virescence: a study with 60–1000 nm thick sections ' (1986 ) 115 J. of Phytopathology : 274 -282.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cozza, R., Bernardo, L., Calari, A., Silvestro, G., Duduk, B. and Bertaccini, A. (2008): Molecular identification of ‘ Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’ inducing histological anomalies in Silene nicaeensis . Phytoparasitica 36, 290–293.

    Bertaccini A. , 'Molecular identification of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’ inducing histological anomalies in Silene nicaeensis ' (2008 ) 36 Phytoparasitica : 290 -293.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dabek, A. J. (1982): Transmission experiments on coconut lethal yellowing disease with Deltocephalus flavicosta Stal, a leafhopper vector of periwinkle phyllody in Jamaica. Phytopathology Z. 103, 109–119.

    Dabek A. J. , 'Transmission experiments on coconut lethal yellowing disease with Deltocephalus flavicosta Stal, a leafhopper vector of periwinkle phyllody in Jamaica ' (1982 ) 103 Phytopathology Z. : 109 -119.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dale, P. J. and Cheyne, V. A. (1993): The elimination of clover diseases by shoot tip culture. Annals of Applied Biology 123, 25–32.

    Cheyne V. A. , 'The elimination of clover diseases by shoot tip culture ' (1993 ) 123 Annals of Applied Biology : 25 -32.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Davis, R. E., Lee, I-M., Dally, E. L., Delwitt, N. and Douglas, S. M. (1988): Cloned nucleic acid hybridization probes in detection and classification of mycoplasma like organisms (MLOs). Acta Horticulturae 234, 115–122.

    Douglas S. M. , 'Cloned nucleic acid hybridization probes in detection and classification of mycoplasma like organisms (MLOs) ' (1988 ) 234 Acta Horticulturae : 115 -122.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Davis, R. E., Lee, I-M., Douglas, S. M. and Dally, E. L. (1990): Molecular cloning and detection of chromosomal and extrachromosomal DNA of the mycoplasma like organism associated with little leaf disease in periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) . Phytopathology 80, 789–793.

    Dally E. L. , 'Molecular cloning and detection of chromosomal and extrachromosomal DNA of the mycoplasma like organism associated with little leaf disease in periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) ' (1990 ) 80 Phytopathology : 789 -793.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Davis, R. E., Dally, E. L., Bertaccini, A., Credi, R., Osler, R., Carraro, L., Lee, I-M. and Barba, M. (1992): Cloned DNA-probes for specific detection of Italian periwinkle virescence mycoplasma-like organism (MLO) and investigation of genetic relatedness with other MLO. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 31, 5–12.

    Barba M. , 'Cloned DNA-probes for specific detection of Italian periwinkle virescence mycoplasma-like organism (MLO) and investigation of genetic relatedness with other MLO ' (1992 ) 31 Phytopathologia Mediterranea : 5 -12.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Davies, D. L. and Clark, M. F. (1994): Maintenance of mycoplasma-like organisms occurring in Pyrus species by micropropagation and their elimination by tetracycline therapy. Plant Pathology 43, 819–823.

    Clark M. F. , 'Maintenance of mycoplasma-like organisms occurring in Pyrus species by micropropagation and their elimination by tetracycline therapy ' (1994 ) 43 Plant Pathology : 819 -823.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Davino, S., Calari, A., Davino, M., Tessitori, M., Bertaccini, A. and Bellardi, M. G. (2007): Virescence of ten weeks stock associated to phytoplasma infection in Sicily. Bulletin of Insectology 60, 279–280.

    Bellardi M. G. , 'Virescence of ten weeks stock associated to phytoplasma infection in Sicily ' (2007 ) 60 Bulletin of Insectology : 279 -280.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Deng, S. J. and Hiruki, C. (1990): Molecular cloning and detection of DNA of the mycoplasma like organism associated with clover proliferation. Canadian J. of Plant Pathology 12, 383–388.

    Hiruki C. , 'Molecular cloning and detection of DNA of the mycoplasma like organism associated with clover proliferation ' (1990 ) 12 Canadian J. of Plant Pathology : 383 -388.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Deng, S. and Hiruki, C. (1991): Amplification of 16S rRNA genes from culturable and non-culturable mollicutes. J. Microbiological Methods 14, 53–61.

    Hiruki C. , 'Amplification of 16S rRNA genes from culturable and non-culturable mollicutes ' (1991 ) 14 J. Microbiological Methods : 53 -61.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Devergne, J. C. and Coujon, C. (1975): Ètude d’anomalies de croissance chez le rosier de serre. Annales de Phytopathologie 7, 71–79.

    Coujon C. , 'Ètude d’anomalies de croissance chez le rosier de serre ' (1975 ) 7 Annales de Phytopathologie : 71 -79.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Doi, Y., Teranaka, M., Yora, K. and Asuyama, H. (1967): Mycoplasma or PLT group-like micro-organisms found in the phloem elements of plants infected with mulberry dwarf, potato witches’ broom, aster yellow or Paulownia witches’ broom. Annals of Phytopathological Society of Japan 33, 259–266.

    Asuyama H. , 'Mycoplasma or PLT group-like micro-organisms found in the phloem elements of plants infected with mulberry dwarf, potato witches’ broom, aster yellow or Paulownia witches’ broom ' (1967 ) 33 Annals of Phytopathological Society of Japan : 259 -266.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Duduk, B., Duki≥, N. Bulaji≥, A., Krsti≥, B. and Bertaccini, A. (2006): Stolbur phytoplasmas infecting chrysanthemum plants in Serbia. Pesticide and Phytomedicine 21, 107–112.

    Bertaccini A. , 'Stolbur phytoplasmas infecting chrysanthemum plants in Serbia ' (2006 ) 21 Pesticide and Phytomedicine : 107 -112.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Duduk, B., Mejia, J. F., Calari, A. and Bertaccini, A. (2008): Identification of 16SrIX group phytoplasmas infecting Colombian periwinkles and molecular characterization on several genes. IOM17th International Congress, Tienjin, China, 6–11 July 2008, 112, 83.

    Bertaccini A. , 'Identification of 16SrIX group phytoplasmas infecting Colombian periwinkles and molecular characterization on several genes ' (2008 ) 112 IOM17th International Congress, Tienjin, China, 6–11 July 2008 : 83 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Eastman, C. E., Schultz, G. A., Fletcher, J., Hemmanti, K. and Oldfield, G. N. (1984): Virescence of horseradish in Illinois. Plant Disease 68, 968–971.

    Oldfield G. N. , 'Virescence of horseradish in Illinois ' (1984 ) 68 Plant Disease : 968 -971.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Epstein, A. H. and Hill, J. (1995): The biology of rose rosette disease: a mite-associated disease of uncertain etiology. J. of Phytopathology 143, 353–360.

    Hill J. , 'The biology of rose rosette disease: a mite-associated disease of uncertain etiology ' (1995 ) 143 J. of Phytopathology : 353 -360.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Favali, M.A., Fossati, F., Toppi, L. S. D. and Musetti, R. (2008): Catharanthus roseus phytoplasmas. In: N.A. Harrison, G. P. Rao and C. Marcone (eds): Characterization, Diagnosis and Management of Phytoplasmas, Studium Press LLC, Texas, USA. pp. 195–218.

    Musetti R. , '', in Characterization, Diagnosis and Management of Phytoplasmas , (2008 ) -.

  • Fraitag, J. M. and Tompkins, C. M. (1963): Corkscrew symptoms caused by western aster yellows virus on Gladiolus . Plant Disease Reporter 47, 617–621.

    Tompkins C. M. , 'Corkscrew symptoms caused by western aster yellows virus on Gladiolus ' (1963 ) 47 Plant Disease Reporter : 617 -621.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fry, P. R. and Hammett, K. R.W. (1971): Rose wilt virus in New Zealand. J. ofAgriculture Research 14, 735–743.

    Hammett K. R.W. , 'Rose wilt virus in New Zealand ' (1971 ) 14 J. ofAgriculture Research : 735 -743.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Galetto, L., Bosco, D., Fletcher, J. and Marzachì, C. (2007): Production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific against membrane proteins of ‘ Candidatus phytoplasma asteris’, Chrysanthemum yellows isolate. Bulletin of Insectology 60, 211–212.

    Marzachì C. , 'Production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific against membrane proteins of ‘Candidatus phytoplasma asteris’, Chrysanthemum yellows isolate ' (2007 ) 60 Bulletin of Insectology : 211 -212.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Garnier, M., Foissac, X., Gaurivaud, P., Laigret, F., Renaudin, J., Saillard, C. and Bové, J. M. (2001): Mycoplasmas, plants, insect vectors: a matrimonial triangle. C. R. Acad. Sci. 324, 923–928.

    Bové J. M. , 'Mycoplasmas, plants, insect vectors: a matrimonial triangle ' (2001 ) 324 C. R. Acad. Sci. : 923 -928.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Granata, G., Paltrinieri, S., Botti, S. and Bertaccini, A. (2006): Aetiology of Opuntia ficus-indica malformations and stunting disease. Annals of Applied Biology 149, 317–325.

    Bertaccini A. , 'Aetiology of Opuntia ficus-indica malformations and stunting disease ' (2006 ) 149 Annals of Applied Biology : 317 -325.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Grieve, B. J. (1931): Rose wilt and dieback. A virus disease occurring in Australia. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 8, 107–121.

    Grieve B. J. , 'Rose wilt and dieback. A virus disease occurring in Australia ' (1931 ) 8 Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. : 107 -121.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Griffiths, H. M., Gundersen, D. E., Sinclair, W. A., Lee, I-M. and Davis, R. E. (1994): Mycoplasma-like organisms from milkweed, goldenrod, and Spiraea represent two new 16S rRNA sub-groups and three new strain subclusters related to peach X-disease. Canadian J. Plant Pathology 16, 255–266.

    Davis R. E. , 'Mycoplasma-like organisms from milkweed, goldenrod, and Spiraea represent two new 16S rRNA sub-groups and three new strain subclusters related to peach X-disease ' (1994 ) 16 Canadian J. Plant Pathology : 255 -266.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Griffiths, H. M., Sinclair, W.A., Smart, C. D. and Davis, R. E. (1999): The phytoplasma associated with ash yellows and lilac witches’ broom: ‘ Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini’. International J. Systematic Bacteriology 49, 1605–1614.

    Davis R. E. , 'The phytoplasma associated with ash yellows and lilac witches’ broom: ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini’ ' (1999 ) 49 International J. Systematic Bacteriology : 1605 -1614.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Grimaldi, V. and Grasso, S. (1988): Mycoplasma disease of Dimophotheca sinuata and Catharanthus roseus in Sicily. Acta Horticulturae 234, 137–143.

    Grasso S. , 'Mycoplasma disease of Dimophotheca sinuata and Catharanthus roseus in Sicily ' (1988 ) 234 Acta Horticulturae : 137 -143.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Groen, N. P.A. and Slogteren, D. H. M. van (1980): Symptoms and control of yellows or witches’ broom disease on gladioli in the field. Bloembollencultuur 91, 327–328.

    Slogteren D. H. M. v. , 'Symptoms and control of yellows or witches’ broom disease on gladioli in the field ' (1980 ) 91 Bloembollencultuur : 327 -328.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gumpf, D. J. and Weathers, L. G. (1974): Detection of a new infectious disease of roses in California. Acta Horticulturae 36, 53–57.

    Weathers L. G. , 'Detection of a new infectious disease of roses in California ' (1974 ) 36 Acta Horticulturae : 53 -57.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gundersen, D. E., Lee, I-M., Rehner, S.A., Davis, R. E. and Kingsbury, D. T. (1994): Phylogeny of mycoplasmalike organisms (phytoplasmas): a basis for their classification. J. of Bacteriology 176, 5244–5254.

    Kingsbury D. T. , 'Phylogeny of mycoplasmalike organisms (phytoplasmas): a basis for their classification ' (1994 ) 176 J. of Bacteriology : 5244 -5254.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gundersen, D. E. and Lee, I-M. (1996): Ultrasensitive detection of phytoplasmas by nested-PCR assays using two universal primer pairs. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 35, 144–151.

    Lee I.-M. , 'Ultrasensitive detection of phytoplasmas by nested-PCR assays using two universal primer pairs ' (1996 ) 35 Phytopathologia Mediterranea : 144 -151.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Habili, N., Farrokhi, N. and Randles, J.W. (2007): First detection of ‘ Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense’ in Liquidambar styraciflua in Australia. Plant Pathology 56, 346.

    Randles J.W. , 'First detection of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense’ in Liquidambar styraciflua in Australia ' (2007 ) 56 Plant Pathology : 346 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Haggis, G. H. and Sinha, R. C. (1978): Scanning electron microscopy of mycoplasma like organisms after freeze fracture of plant tissues affected with clover phyllody and aster yellows. Phytopathology 68, 677–680.

    Sinha R. C. , 'Scanning electron microscopy of mycoplasma like organisms after freeze fracture of plant tissues affected with clover phyllody and aster yellows ' (1978 ) 68 Phytopathology : 677 -680.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hanboonsong, Y., Choosai, C., Panyim, S. and Damak, S. (2002): Transovarial transmission of sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma in the insect vector Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura). Insect Molecular Biology 11, 97–103.

    Damak S. , 'Transovarial transmission of sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma in the insect vector Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) ' (2002 ) 11 Insect Molecular Biology : 97 -103.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Harju, V.A., Skelton, A. L., Monger, W.A., Jarvis, B. and Mumford, R.A. (2008): Identification of an X-disease (16SrIII) group phytoplasma (’ Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni’) infecting delphiniums in the UK. Plant Pathology 57, 769.

    Mumford R.A. , 'Identification of an X-disease (16SrIII) group phytoplasma (’Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni’) infecting delphiniums in the UK ' (2008 ) 57 Plant Pathology : 769 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Harrison, N. A. and Helmick, E. E. (2008): First report of a ‘ Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’-related strain associated with little leaf disease of Helianthus debilis in Florida, USA. Plant Pathology 57, 772.

    Helmick E. E. , 'First report of a ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’-related strain associated with little leaf disease of Helianthus debilis in Florida, USA ' (2008 ) 57 Plant Pathology : 772 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Harrison, N.A., Rao, G. P. and Marcone, C. (2008): Characterization, Diagnosis and Management of Phytoplasmas. Studium Press LLC, U.S.A. pp. 1–399.

    Marcone C. , '', in Characterization, Diagnosis and Management of Phytoplasmas , (2008 ) -.

  • Harrison, N. A., Helmick, E. E. and Elliott M. L. (2009): First report of a phytoplasma-associated lethal decline of Sabal palmetto in Florida, USA. Plant Pathology 58, 792.

    Elliott M. L. , 'First report of a phytoplasma-associated lethal decline of Sabal palmetto in Florida, USA ' (2009 ) 58 Plant Pathology : 792 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Heinrich, M., Botti, S., Caprara, L., Arthofer, W., Strommer, S., Hanzer, V., Katinger, H., Laimer da Câmara Machado, M. and Bertaccini, A. (2001): Improved detection methods for fruit tree phytoplasmas. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 19, 169–179.

    Bertaccini A. , 'Improved detection methods for fruit tree phytoplasmas ' (2001 ) 19 Plant Molecular Biology Reporter : 169 -179.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Heintz, W. (1989): Transmission of a new mycoplasma-like organism (MLO) from Cuscuta odorata (Ruiz et Pav.) to herbaceous plants and attempts to its elimination in the vector. J. of Phytopathology 125, 171–186.

    Heintz W. , 'Transmission of a new mycoplasma-like organism (MLO) from Cuscuta odorata (Ruiz et Pav.) to herbaceous plants and attempts to its elimination in the vector ' (1989 ) 125 J. of Phytopathology : 171 -186.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hemmati, K. and Mc Lean, D. L. (1980): Ultrastructure and morphological characteristics of mycoplasma-like organisms associated with tulelake aster yellows. Phytopathology Z. 99, 146–154.

    Mc Lean D. L. , 'Ultrastructure and morphological characteristics of mycoplasma-like organisms associated with tulelake aster yellows ' (1980 ) 99 Phytopathology Z. : 146 -154.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hibben, C. R., Lewis, C.A. and Costello, J. D. (1986): Mycoplasma-like organisms, cause of lilac witches’ broom. Plant Disease 70, 342–345.

    Costello J. D. , 'Mycoplasma-like organisms, cause of lilac witches’ broom ' (1986 ) 70 Plant Disease : 342 -345.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hibben, C. R. and Franzen, L.M. (1989): Susceptibility of lilacs to mycoplasma-like organisms. J. Environ. Hort. 7, 163–167.

    Franzen L.M. , 'Susceptibility of lilacs to mycoplasma-like organisms ' (1989 ) 7 J. Environ. Hort. : 163 -167.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hibben, C. R., Sinclair, W. A., Davis, R. E. and Alexander, J. H. (1991): Relatedness of mycoplasma-like organisms associated with ash yellows and lilac witches’ broom. Plant Disease 75, 1227–1230.

    Alexander J. H. , 'Relatedness of mycoplasma-like organisms associated with ash yellows and lilac witches’ broom ' (1991 ) 75 Plant Disease : 1227 -1230.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hindal, D. F., Amrine, J.W., Williams, R. L. and Stasny, T.A. (1988): Rose rosette disease on multiflora rose ( Rosa multiflora ) in Indian and Kentucky. Weed Technology 2, 442–444.

    Stasny T.A. , 'Rose rosette disease on multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) in Indian and Kentucky ' (1988 ) 2 Weed Technology : 442 -444.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hiruki, C. (1986): Little-leaf disease of Brugmansia candida a new disease associated with mycoplasma-like organisms. Annals of Phytopathological Society of Japan 52, 675–682.

    Hiruki C. , 'Little-leaf disease of Brugmansia candida a new disease associated with mycoplasma-like organisms ' (1986 ) 52 Annals of Phytopathological Society of Japan : 675 -682.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hiruki, C. and Rocha, A. D.A. (1986): Histochemical diagnosis of mycoplasma infections in Catharanthus roseus by means of a fluorescent DNA-binding agent, 4′;-6′diamidino-2-phenylindole-2 HC1 (DAPI). Canadian J. of Plant Pathology 8, 185–188.

    Rocha A. D.A. , 'Histochemical diagnosis of mycoplasma infections in Catharanthus roseus by means of a fluorescent DNA-binding agent, 4′;-6′diamidino-2-phenylindole-2 HC1 (DAPI) ' (1986 ) 8 Canadian J. of Plant Pathology : 185 -188.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hiruki, C., Romg, X. D. and Deng, S. J. (1994): Hydrangea virescence, a disease associated with mycoplasma like organisms in Canada. Acta Horticulturae 377, 325–333.

    Deng S. J. , 'Hydrangea virescence, a disease associated with mycoplasma like organisms in Canada ' (1994 ) 377 Acta Horticulturae : 325 -333.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hollings, M. (1961): Virus and its effect on some ornamental shrubs. Nurseryman, Seedsman and Glasshouse Grower, pp. 930–931.

    Hollings M. , '', in Virus and its effect on some ornamental shrubs , (1961 ) -.

  • Hong, C., Aolin, L. X., Baohoa, K. and Hairu, C. (2005): Detection and identification of phytoplasma associated with sunshine tree witches’ broom. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica 35, 19–23.

    Hairu C. , 'Detection and identification of phytoplasma associated with sunshine tree witches’ broom ' (2005 ) 35 Acta Phytopathologica Sinica : 19 -23.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hristova, M. (1974): Rose virus diseases. Plant Science 10, 121–129.

    Hristova M. , 'Rose virus diseases ' (1974 ) 10 Plant Science : 121 -129.

  • Ishiie, T., Doi, Y., Yora, K. and Asuyama, H. (1967): Suppressive effects of antibiotics of tetracycline group on symptom development of mulberry dwarf disease. Annals of Phytopathological Society of Japan 33, 267–275.

    Asuyama H. , 'Suppressive effects of antibiotics of tetracycline group on symptom development of mulberry dwarf disease ' (1967 ) 33 Annals of Phytopathological Society of Japan : 267 -275.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Israel, H.W., Horst, R. K., Mcgovern, R. J., Kawamoto, S. O., Weaber, K. F., Bucci, S. J. and Paduch-Cichal, E. (1988): Chrysanthemum phloem necrosis: microscopy of the putative pathogen. Acta Horticulturae 234, 145–155.

    Paduch-Cichal E. , 'Chrysanthemum phloem necrosis: microscopy of the putative pathogen ' (1988 ) 234 Acta Horticulturae : 145 -155.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jarausch, W., Jarausch-Wehrheim, B., Danet, J. L., Broquaire, J. M., Dosba, F., Saillard, C. and Garnier, M. (2001): Detection and identification of European stone fruit yellows and other phytoplasmas in the surroundings of apricot chlorotic leaf roll-affected orchards in southern France. European J. Plant Pathology 107, 209–217.

    Garnier M. , 'Detection and identification of European stone fruit yellows and other phytoplasmas in the surroundings of apricot chlorotic leaf roll-affected orchards in southern France ' (2001 ) 107 European J. Plant Pathology : 209 -217.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jones, P. and Arocha, Y. (2006): A natural infection of Hebe is associated with an isolate of ‘ Candidatus phytoplasma asteris’ causing a yellowing and little-leaf disease in the UK. Plant Pathology 55, 821.

    Arocha Y. , 'A natural infection of Hebe is associated with an isolate of ‘Candidatus phytoplasma asteris’ causing a yellowing and little-leaf disease in the UK ' (2006 ) 55 Plant Pathology : 821 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kaminska, M. and Malinowski, T. (1996): Etiology of yellows and witches’ broom symptoms in some ornamental plants. Acta Horticulturae 432, 96–106.

    Malinowski T. , 'Etiology of yellows and witches’ broom symptoms in some ornamental plants ' (1996 ) 432 Acta Horticulturae : 96 -106.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kaminska, M., Korbin, M., Komorowska, B. and Pulawska, J. (1998): Stunting and flower buds deficiency of Lilium sp.: a new phytoplasma associated disease. Acta Physiol. Plant. 20, 49–53.

    Pulawska J. , 'Stunting and flower buds deficiency of Lilium sp.: a new phytoplasma associated disease ' (1998 ) 20 Acta Physiol. Plant. : 49 -53.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kaminska, M. and Korbin, M. (1999): Graft and dodder transmission of phytoplasma affecting lily to experimental hosts. Acta Physiol. Plant. 21, 21–26.

    Korbin M. , 'Graft and dodder transmission of phytoplasma affecting lily to experimental hosts ' (1999 ) 21 Acta Physiol. Plant. : 21 -26.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kaminska, M., Rudzinska-Langwald, A. and Korbin, M. (1999): Occurrence and identification of aster yellows related phytoplasma in Gladiolus in Poland. Acta Physiol. Plant. 21, 419–425.

    Korbin M. , 'Occurrence and identification of aster yellows related phytoplasma in Gladiolus in Poland ' (1999 ) 21 Acta Physiol. Plant. : 419 -425.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kaminska, M. and Korbin, M. (2000): Phytoplasma infection in Lilium sp. plants. Phytopathol. Pol. 20, 45–57.

    Korbin M. , 'Phytoplasma infection in Lilium sp. plants ' (2000 ) 20 Phytopathol. Pol. : 45 -57.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kaminska, M., Dziekanowska, D. and Rudzinska-Langwald, A. (2001a): Detection of phytoplasma infection in rose, with degeneration symptoms. J. of Phytopathology 149, 3–10.

    Rudzinska-Langwald A. , 'Detection of phytoplasma infection in rose, with degeneration symptoms ' (2001 ) 149 J. of Phytopathology : 3 -10.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kaminska, M., Śliwa, H. and Rudzinska-Langwald, A. (2001b): The association of phytoplasma with stunting, leaf necrosis and witches’ broom symptoms in magnolia plants. J. of Phytopathology 149, 719–724.

    Rudzinska-Langwald A. , 'The association of phytoplasma with stunting, leaf necrosis and witches’ broom symptoms in magnolia plants ' (2001 ) 149 J. of Phytopathology : 719 -724.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kaminska, M. and Śliwa, H. (2003): Effect of antibiotics on the symptoms of stunting disease of Magnolia liliiflora plants. J. of Phytopathology 151, 59–63.

    Śliwa H. , 'Effect of antibiotics on the symptoms of stunting disease of Magnolia liliiflora plants ' (2003 ) 151 J. of Phytopathology : 59 -63.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kaminska, M., Śliwa, H., Malinowski, T. and Skrzypczak, C. Z. (2003): The association of aster yellows phytoplasma with rose dieback disease in Poland. J. of Phytopathology 151, 469–476.

    Skrzypczak C. Z. , 'The association of aster yellows phytoplasma with rose dieback disease in Poland ' (2003 ) 151 J. of Phytopathology : 469 -476.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kaminska, M. and Śliwa, H. (2004): First report of phytoplasma belonging to apple proliferation group in roses in Poland. Plant Disease 88, 1283.

    Śliwa H. , 'First report of phytoplasma belonging to apple proliferation group in roses in Poland ' (2004 ) 88 Plant Disease : 1283 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kaminska, M., Śliwa, H. and Rudzinska-Langwald, A. (2004a): Phytoplasma diseases of ornamental crops. Progress in Plant Protection 44, 776–779.

    Rudzinska-Langwald A. , 'Phytoplasma diseases of ornamental crops ' (2004 ) 44 Progress in Plant Protection : 776 -779.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kaminska, M., Śliwa, H. and RudzińskaLangwald, A. (2004b): First report of shoot proliferation of bleeding heart (Dicentra Spectabilis) in Poland, associated with phytoplasma infection. Plant Pathology 53, 801.

    RudzińskaLangwald A. , 'First report of shoot proliferation of bleeding heart (Dicentra Spectabilis) in Poland, associated with phytoplasma infection ' (2004 ) 53 Plant Pathology : 801 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kaminska, M., Śliwa, H. and Malinowski, T. (2006): Occurrence of rose degeneration symptoms in rose plant in Poland; presumed phytoplasmal aetiology of rose proliferation and dieback. Proc. 11th IS on Virus Disease in Ornamental Plants, C. A. Chang (ed.) Acta Hort. 722, 163–174.

  • Kaminska, M. (2008): Phytoplasma in ornamental Plants. In: N. A. Harrison, G. P. Rao and C. Marcone (eds): Characterization, Diagnosis and Management of phytoplasmas, Studium Press LLC, Texas, USA. pp. 195–218.

    Kaminska M. , '', in Characterization, Diagnosis and Management of phytoplasmas , (2008 ) -.

  • Kaminska, M. and Śliwa, H. (2008a): Mixed infection of dahlia in Poland with apple proliferation and aster yellows phytoplasmas. Plant Pathology 57, 363.

    Śliwa H. , 'Mixed infection of dahlia in Poland with apple proliferation and aster yellows phytoplasmas ' (2008 ) 57 Plant Pathology : 363 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kaminska, M. and Śliwa, H. (2008b): First report of ‘ Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’ in oriental lilies and its association with leaf scorch in Poland. Plant Pathology 57, 363.

    Śliwa H. , 'First report of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’ in oriental lilies and its association with leaf scorch in Poland ' (2008 ) 57 Plant Pathology : 363 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kar, R. K., Kabi, T. and Pattnaik, H. (1983): Chemotherapy of periwinkle little leaf disease. Current Science 52, 496–497.

    Pattnaik H. , 'Chemotherapy of periwinkle little leaf disease ' (1983 ) 52 Current Science : 496 -497.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kawakita, H., Saiki, T., Wei, W., Mitsuhasi, W., Watanabe, K. and Sato, M. (2000): Identification of mulberry dwarf phytoplasmas in genital organs and eggs of the leafhopper Hishimonoides sellatiformis . Phytopathology 90, 909–914.

    Sato M. , 'Identification of mulberry dwarf phytoplasmas in genital organs and eggs of the leafhopper Hishimonoides sellatiformis ' (2000 ) 90 Phytopathology : 909 -914.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kesumawati, E., Kimata, T., Uemachi, T., Hosokawa, M. and Yazawa, S. (2006): Correlation of phytoplasma concentration in Hydrangea macrophylla with green-flowering stability. Scientia Horticulturae 108, 74–78.

    Yazawa S. , 'Correlation of phytoplasma concentration in Hydrangea macrophylla with green-flowering stability ' (2006 ) 108 Scientia Horticulturae : 74 -78.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Khadhair, A. H., Kawchuk, L. M., Taillon, R. C. and Botar, G. (1998): Detection and molecular characterization of an aster yellows phytoplasma in parsley. Canadian J. Botany 20, 55–61.

    Botar G. , 'Detection and molecular characterization of an aster yellows phytoplasma in parsley ' (1998 ) 20 Canadian J. Botany : 55 -61.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kim, Y. H., La, J. and Kim, Y. T. (1985): Transmission and hystochemical detection of mulberry dwarf mycoplasma in several herbaceous plants. Korean J. Plant Pathology 1, 184–189.

    Kim Y. T. , 'Transmission and hystochemical detection of mulberry dwarf mycoplasma in several herbaceous plants ' (1985 ) 1 Korean J. Plant Pathology : 184 -189.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kitajima, E.W. and Costa, A. S. (1979): Mycoplasma-like organisms associated with yellow-type diseases in cultivated plants and ornamentals in Sao Paulo state and the Federal district. Fitopatologia Brasileira 4, 317–327.

    Costa A. S. , 'Mycoplasma-like organisms associated with yellow-type diseases in cultivated plants and ornamentals in Sao Paulo state and the Federal district ' (1979 ) 4 Fitopatologia Brasileira : 317 -327.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lange, L., Lange, B. and Lange, M. (1978): Four imperfectly known diseases of Anemone nemorosa . Botanisk Tidsskrift 73, 112–123.

    Lange M. , 'Four imperfectly known diseases of Anemone nemorosa ' (1978 ) 73 Botanisk Tidsskrift : 112 -123.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lee, I-M. and Davis, R. E. (1983): Phloem-limited prokaryotes in sieve elements isolated by enzyme treatment of diseased plant tissues. Phytopathology 73, 1540–1543.

    Davis R. E. , 'Phloem-limited prokaryotes in sieve elements isolated by enzyme treatment of diseased plant tissues ' (1983 ) 73 Phytopathology : 1540 -1543.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lee, I-M., Davis, R. E. and Hiruki, C. (1991): Genetic relatedness among clover proliferation mycoplasma-like organisms (MLOs) and other MLOs investigated by nucleic acid hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses. Applied Environmental Microbiology 57, 3565–3569.

    Hiruki C. , 'Genetic relatedness among clover proliferation mycoplasma-like organisms (MLOs) and other MLOs investigated by nucleic acid hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses ' (1991 ) 57 Applied Environmental Microbiology : 3565 -3569.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lee, I-M. and Davis, R. E. (1992):Mycoplasmas which infect plants and insects. In: J. Maniloff, R. N. McElhaney, L. R. Finch and J. B. Baseman (eds): Mycoplasmas: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, USA. pp 379–390.

    Davis R. E. , '', in Mycoplasmas: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis , (1992 ) -.

  • Lee, I-M., Davis, R. E., Chen, T.A., Chiykowski, L. N., Fletcher, J., Hiruki, C. and Schaff, D.A. (1992): Agenotype-based system for identification and classification of mycoplasma-like organisms (MLOs) in the aster yellows MLO strain cluster. Phytopathology 82, 977–986.

    Schaff D.A. , 'Agenotype-based system for identification and classification of mycoplasma-like organisms (MLOs) in the aster yellows MLO strain cluster ' (1992 ) 82 Phytopathology : 977 -986.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lee, I-M., Hammond, R.W., Davis, R. E. and Gundersen, D. E. (1993): Universal amplification and analysis of pathogen 16S rDNA for classification and identification of mycoplasmas-like organisms. Phytopathology 83, 834–842.

    Gundersen D. E. , 'Universal amplification and analysis of pathogen 16S rDNA for classification and identification of mycoplasmas-like organisms ' (1993 ) 83 Phytopathology : 834 -842.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lee, I-M., Gundersen, D. E., Hammond, R.W. and Davis, R. E. (1994): Use of mycoplasma like organism (MLO) group-specific oligonucleotide primers for nested-PCR assays to detect mixed-MLO infections in a single host plant. Phytopathology 84, 559–566.

    Davis R. E. , 'Use of mycoplasma like organism (MLO) group-specific oligonucleotide primers for nested-PCR assays to detect mixed-MLO infections in a single host plant ' (1994 ) 84 Phytopathology : 559 -566.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lee, I-M., Bertaccini, A., Vibio, M. and Gundersen, D. E. (1995): Detection of multiple phytoplasmas in perennial fruit trees with decline symptoms in Italy. Phytopathology 85, 728–735.

    Gundersen D. E. , 'Detection of multiple phytoplasmas in perennial fruit trees with decline symptoms in Italy ' (1995 ) 85 Phytopathology : 728 -735.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lee, I-M., Klopmeyer, M., Bartoszyk, I. M., Gundersen-Rindal, D. E., Chou, T. S., Thomson, K. L. and Eisenreich, R. (1997): Phytoplasma induced free-branching in commercial Poinsettia cultivars. Nature Biotechnology 15, 178–182.

    Eisenreich R. , 'Phytoplasma induced free-branching in commercial Poinsettia cultivars ' (1997 ) 15 Nature Biotechnology : 178 -182.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lee, I-M., Gundersen-Rindal, D. E., Davis, R. E. and Bartoszyk, M. (1998): Revised classification scheme of phytoplasmas based on RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein gene sequences. International J. of Systematic Bacteriology 48, 1153–1169.

    Bartoszyk M. , 'Revised classification scheme of phytoplasmas based on RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein gene sequences ' (1998 ) 48 International J. of Systematic Bacteriology : 1153 -1169.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lee, I-M., Davis, R. E. and Gundersen-Rindal, D. E. (2000): Phytoplasma: phytopathogenic mollicutes. Annual Revue of Microbiology 54, 221–255.

    Gundersen-Rindal D. E. , 'Phytoplasma: phytopathogenic mollicutes ' (2000 ) 54 Annual Revue of Microbiology : 221 -255.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lee, I-M., Bottner, K. D., Dally, E. L. and Davis, R. E. (2008): First report of Purple Coneflower phyllody associated with a 16SrI-B phytoplasma in Maryland. Plant Disease 92, 654.

    Davis R. E. , 'First report of Purple Coneflower phyllody associated with a 16SrI-B phytoplasma in Maryland ' (2008 ) 92 Plant Disease : 654 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lepka, P., Stitt, M., Moll, E. and Seemüller, E. (1999): Effect of phytoplasmal infection on concentration and translocation of carbohydrates and amino acids in periwinkle and tobacco. Physiology and Molecular Plant Pathology 55, 59–68.

    Seemüller E. , 'Effect of phytoplasmal infection on concentration and translocation of carbohydrates and amino acids in periwinkle and tobacco ' (1999 ) 55 Physiology and Molecular Plant Pathology : 59 -68.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lorenz, K-H., Schneider, B., Ahrens, U. and Seemüller, E. (1995): Detection of the apple proliferation and pear decline phytoplasmas by PCR amplification of ribosomal and nonribosomal DNA. Phytopathology 85, 771–776.

    Seemüller E. , 'Detection of the apple proliferation and pear decline phytoplasmas by PCR amplification of ribosomal and nonribosomal DNA ' (1995 ) 85 Phytopathology : 771 -776.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mafia, R. G., Barreto, R.W., Vanetti, C.A., Hodgetts, J., Dickinson, M. and Alfenas, A. C. (2008): A phytoplasma associated with witches’ broom disease of Tabebuia pentaphylla in Brazil. Plant Pathology 57, 365.

    Alfenas A. C. , 'A phytoplasma associated with witches’ broom disease of Tabebuia pentaphylla in Brazil ' (2008 ) 57 Plant Pathology : 365 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Magie, R. O., Floyed, F., Smith, F. and Brierley, P. (1952): Occurrence of western aster yellows virus infection in Gladiolus in Eastern United States. Plant Disease Reporter 36, 468–470.

    Brierley P. , 'Occurrence of western aster yellows virus infection in Gladiolus in Eastern United States ' (1952 ) 36 Plant Disease Reporter : 468 -470.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Marwitz, R., Petzold, H. and Ozel, M. (1974): Studies on the transfer of the possible causal agent of apple proliferation to a herbaceous host. Phytopathology Z. 81, 85–91.

    Ozel M. , 'Studies on the transfer of the possible causal agent of apple proliferation to a herbaceous host ' (1974 ) 81 Phytopathology Z. : 85 -91.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Marwitz, R., Peterzold, H. and Kuhne, H. (1984): Mycoplasmas in primulas. Report on new types of disease symptom. GbtGw 84, 608–612.

    Kuhne H. , 'Mycoplasmas in primulas. Report on new types of disease symptom ' (1984 ) 84 GbtGw : 608 -612.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Marwitz, R. (1990): Diversity of yellows disease agents in plant infections. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Suppl. 20, 431–434.

    Marwitz R. , 'Diversity of yellows disease agents in plant infections ' (1990 ) 20 Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Suppl. : 431 -434.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Marzachì, C., Alma, A, D’Aquilio, M., Minuto, G. and Boccardo, G. (1999): Detection and identification of phytoplasmas infecting cultivated and wild plants in Liguria (Italian Riviera). J. Plant Pathology 81, 127–136.

    Boccardo G. , 'Detection and identification of phytoplasmas infecting cultivated and wild plants in Liguria (Italian Riviera) ' (1999 ) 81 J. Plant Pathology : 127 -136.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mc Coy, R. E. and Thomas, D. L. (1980): Periwinkle witches’ broom on South Florida. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 93, 179–181.

    Thomas D. L. , 'Periwinkle witches’ broom on South Florida ' (1980 ) 93 Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society : 179 -181.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mc Coy, R. E., Caudwell, A., Chang, C. J., Chen, T. A., Chiykowski, L. N., Cousin, M. T., Dale, J. L., deLeeuw, G. T. N., Golino, D.A., Hackettt, K. J., Kirkpatrick, B. C., Marwitz, R., Petzold, H., Sinha, R. C., Suguira, M., Whitcomb, R. F., Yang, I. L., Zhu, B. M. and Seemuller, E. (1989): Plant diseases associated with mycoplasma-like organisms. In: R. F. Whitcomb and J. G. Tully (eds): The Mycoplasmas, Vol. V, Academic Press, San Diego, USA. pp. 545–640.

    Seemuller E. , '', in The Mycoplasmas , (1989 ) -.

  • Mertelik, J., Navratil, M., Kloudova, K., Valova, P. and Safarova, D. (2008): Phytoplasma in Rhododendron. In: N. A. Harrison, G. P. Rao and C. Marcone (eds): Characterization, Diagnosis and Management of Phytoplasmas, Studium Press LLC, Texas, USA. pp. 195–218.

    Safarova D. , '', in Characterization, Diagnosis and Management of Phytoplasmas , (2008 ) -.

  • Min, H. and Hu, S. B. (2009): A phytoplasma associated with an outbreak of an unusual disease of Chrysanthemum in China in 2008. Plant Disease 93, 840.

    Hu S. B. , 'A phytoplasma associated with an outbreak of an unusual disease of Chrysanthemum in China in 2008 ' (2009 ) 93 Plant Disease : 840 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Misra, S., Sharma, A. K. and Cousin, M. T. (1985): Phyllody disease of Phlox drummondii Hook in Rajasthan, India, associated with mycoplasma-like organism-study on thin-thick sections. International J. of Tropical Plant Diseases 3, 7–13.

    Cousin M. T. , 'Phyllody disease of Phlox drummondii Hook in Rajasthan, India, associated with mycoplasma-like organism-study on thin-thick sections ' (1985 ) 3 International J. of Tropical Plant Diseases : 7 -13.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Montano, H. G., Davis, R. E., Dally, E. L., Hogenhout, S., Pimentel, J. P. and Brioso, P. S. (2001): ’ Candidatus phytoplasma brasiliense’, a new phytoplasma taxon associated with hibiscus witches’ broom disease. International J. of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 51, 1109–1118.

    Brioso P. S. , '’Candidatus phytoplasma brasiliense’, a new phytoplasma taxon associated with hibiscus witches’ broom disease ' (2001 ) 51 International J. of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology : 1109 -1118.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Morgenstern, B. (1999): DIALIGN 2, improvement of the segment-to-segment approach to multiple sequence alignment. Bioinformatics 15, 203–210.

    Morgenstern B. , 'DIALIGN 2, improvement of the segment-to-segment approach to multiple sequence alignment ' (1999 ) 15 Bioinformatics : 203 -210.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Moreno, P., Llacer, G. and Medina, V. (1985): Description and comparison of several yellow disease on Vinca rosea . Agricola, 28(suppl.), 287–310.

    Medina V. , 'Description and comparison of several yellow disease on Vinca rosea ' (1985 ) 28 Agricola : 287 -310.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Musetti, R., Favali, M. A., Carraro, L. and Osler, R. (1992): An attempt to differentiate by microscopic methods two plant mycoplasma-like organisms. Cytobios 72, 71–82.

    Osler R. , 'An attempt to differentiate by microscopic methods two plant mycoplasma-like organisms ' (1992 ) 72 Cytobios : 71 -82.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Musetti, R. and Favali, M.A. (1999): Histological and ultrastructural comparative study between Prunus varieties of different susceptibility to plum leptonecrosis. Cytobios 99, 73–82.

    Favali M.A. , 'Histological and ultrastructural comparative study between Prunus varieties of different susceptibility to plum leptonecrosis ' (1999 ) 99 Cytobios : 73 -82.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Musetti, R., Favali, M. and Pressacco, L. (2000): Histopathology and polyphenol content in plants infected by phytoplasmas. Cytobios 102, 133–147.

    Pressacco L. , 'Histopathology and polyphenol content in plants infected by phytoplasmas ' (2000 ) 102 Cytobios : 133 -147.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Musetti, R., Loi, N., Carraro, L. and Ermacora, P. (2002): Application of immunoelectron microscopy techniques in the diagnosis of phytoplasma diseases. Microscopy and Research Technique 56, 462–464.

    Ermacora P. , 'Application of immunoelectron microscopy techniques in the diagnosis of phytoplasma diseases ' (2002 ) 56 Microscopy and Research Technique : 462 -464.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Musetti, R., Olizzotto, R., Grisan, S., Martini, M., Borselli, S., Carraro, L. and Osler, R. (2007): Effects induced by fungal endophytes in Catharanthus roseus tissues infected by phytoplasmas. Bulletin of Insectology 60, 293–294.

    Osler R. , 'Effects induced by fungal endophytes in Catharanthus roseus tissues infected by phytoplasmas ' (2007 ) 60 Bulletin of Insectology : 293 -294.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Navalinskiene, M. and Samuitiene, M. (2004): Identification of tobacco mosaic tobamo virus and 16SrI-M phytoplasma sub group in Phlox drummondii plants. Botanica Lithuanica 10, 223–231.

    Samuitiene M. , 'Identification of tobacco mosaic tobamo virus and 16SrI-M phytoplasma sub group in Phlox drummondii plants ' (2004 ) 10 Botanica Lithuanica : 223 -231.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Nicolaisen, M. and Christensen, N.M. (2007): Phytoplasma induced changes in gene expression in Poinsettia. Bulletin of Insectology 60, 215–216.

    Christensen N.M. , 'Phytoplasma induced changes in gene expression in Poinsettia ' (2007 ) 60 Bulletin of Insectology : 215 -216.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ogilvie, L. and Guterman, C. E. F. (1929): A mosaic disease of the easter lily. Phytopathology 19, 311–316.

    Guterman C. E. F. , 'A mosaic disease of the easter lily ' (1929 ) 19 Phytopathology : 311 -316.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Okuda, S. (1977): Studies on the causal agents of yellows or witches’ broom diseases of plants. Special Bulletin of the College of Agriculture Utsunomiya University 32, p. 70.

    Okuda S. , 'Studies on the causal agents of yellows or witches’ broom diseases of plants ' (1977 ) 32 Special Bulletin of the College of Agriculture Utsunomiya University : 70 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Okuda, S., Prince, J. P., Davis, R. E., Dally, E. L., Lee, I-M., Mogen, B. and Kato, S. (1997): Two groups of phytoplasmas from Japan distinguished on the basis of amplification and restriction analysis of 16S rDNA. Plant Disease 81, 301–305.

    Kato S. , 'Two groups of phytoplasmas from Japan distinguished on the basis of amplification and restriction analysis of 16S rDNA ' (1997 ) 81 Plant Disease : 301 -305.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Parrella, G., Paltrinieri, S., Botti, S. and Bertaccini, A. (2008): Molecular identification of phytoplasmas from virescent ranunculus plants and from leafhoppers in southern Italian crops. J. Plant Pathology 90, 537–543.

    Bertaccini A. , 'Molecular identification of phytoplasmas from virescent ranunculus plants and from leafhoppers in southern Italian crops ' (2008 ) 90 J. Plant Pathology : 537 -543.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pettersson, M-L. and Tomenius, K. (1979): Mycoplasma-like organisms in marguerite, Chrysanthemumfrutescens hybr. Vaxtskyddsnotiser 43940, 95–99.

    Tomenius K. , 'Mycoplasma-like organisms in marguerite, Chrysanthemumfrutescens hybr ' (1979 ) 43940 Vaxtskyddsnotiser : 95 -99.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Petzold, H. and Marwitz, R. (1984): Fluorescence in sieve tubes of mycoplasma infected plants after fixation with aldehydes. German Federal Republic 91, 286–293.

    Marwitz R. , 'Fluorescence in sieve tubes of mycoplasma infected plants after fixation with aldehydes ' (1984 ) 91 German Federal Republic : 286 -293.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pisi, A. Bellardi, M. G., Rizzi, E., Scala, C. and Filippini, G. (1990): Ultrastructural study of Hydrangea leaf tissue infected by mycoplasma-like organisms. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 29, 168–174.

    Filippini G. , 'Ultrastructural study of Hydrangea leaf tissue infected by mycoplasma-like organisms ' (1990 ) 29 Phytopathologia Mediterranea : 168 -174.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ploaie, P. G., Petre, Z. and Ionica, M. (1977): Identification of some plant diseases with symptoms of proliferation, chlorosis and dwarfing associated with mycoplasma in Romania. Analele Institutulve de Cercetari pentree Protectia Plantelor 12, 17–25.

    Ionica M. , 'Identification of some plant diseases with symptoms of proliferation, chlorosis and dwarfing associated with mycoplasma in Romania ' (1977 ) 12 Analele Institutulve de Cercetari pentree Protectia Plantelor : 17 -25.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ploaie, P. G., Nicolaescu, M., Ionica, M. and Avram, M. (1981): Chlorosis and virescence of gladiolus, a new disease caused by organisms of the class Mollicutes-mycoplasmatales. Analele Institutului de Cercetari pentru Protectia Plantelor 16, 35–39.

    Avram M. , 'Chlorosis and virescence of gladiolus, a new disease caused by organisms of the class Mollicutes-mycoplasmatales ' (1981 ) 16 Analele Institutului de Cercetari pentru Protectia Plantelor : 35 -39.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pondrelli, M., Caprara, L., Bellardi, M. G. and Bertaccini, A. (2002): Role of different phytoplasmas in inducing poinsettia branching. Acta Horticulturae 568, 169–176.

    Bertaccini A. , 'Role of different phytoplasmas in inducing poinsettia branching ' (2002 ) 568 Acta Horticulturae : 169 -176.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Poncarová-Vorácková, Z., Fránová, J., Válová, P., Mertelik, J., Navrátil, M. and Nebesárová, J. (1998): Identification of phytoplasma infecting Lilium martagon in the Czech Republic. J. Phytopathology 146, 609–612.

    Nebesárová J. , 'Identification of phytoplasma infecting Lilium martagon in the Czech Republic ' (1998 ) 146 J. Phytopathology : 609 -612.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ragozzino, A. and Telesco, A. (1983): Gladiolus yellows in Campania. Informatore Fitopatologico 3, 75–78.

    Telesco A. , 'Gladiolus yellows in Campania ' (1983 ) 3 Informatore Fitopatologico : 75 -78.

  • Raj, S. K., Khan, M. S. and Snehi, S. K. (2007a): Association of ‘ Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’ with little leaf disease of desert rose. Plant Pathology 56, 1040.

    Snehi S. K. , 'Association of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’ with little leaf disease of desert rose ' (2007 ) 56 Plant Pathology : 1040 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Raj, S. K., Khan, M. S. and Kumar, S. (2007b): Molecular identification of ‘ Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’ associated with little leaf disease of Chrysanthemum morifolium . Plant Pathology 2, 21–22.

    Kumar S. , 'Molecular identification of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’ associated with little leaf disease of Chrysanthemum morifolium ' (2007 ) 2 Plant Pathology : 21 -22.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Raj, S. K., Snehi, S. K., Kumar, S., Banerji, B. K., Dwivedi, A. K., Roy, R. K. and Goel, A. K. (2009): First report of ‘ Candidatus phytoplasma asteris’ (16SrI group) associated with colour-breaking and malformation of floral spikes of gladiolus in India. Plant Pathology, 58, 1170.

    Goel A. K. , 'First report of ‘Candidatus phytoplasma asteris’ (16SrI group) associated with colour-breaking and malformation of floral spikes of gladiolus in India ' (2009 ) 58 Plant Pathology : 1170 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rao, B. L. S., Husain, A. and Manohar, S. K. (1983): Association of mycoplasma like bodies with little leaf disease of Periwinkle ( Catharanthus roseus G.) in India. Indian J. of Plant Pathology 1, 122–124.

    Manohar S. K. , 'Association of mycoplasma like bodies with little leaf disease of Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus G.) in India ' (1983 ) 1 Indian J. of Plant Pathology : 122 -124.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ribeiro, L. F. C., de Oliveira Amaral Mello, A. P., Bedendo, I. P. and Gioria, R. (2006): Phytoplasma associated with shoot proliferation in begonia. Scientia Agricola 63, 475–477.

    Gioria R. , 'Phytoplasma associated with shoot proliferation in begonia ' (2006 ) 63 Scientia Agricola : 475 -477.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rocha, A., D. A., Okhi, S. T. and Hiruki, C. (1986): Detection of mycoplasma like organisms in situ by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Phytopathology 76, 864–868.

    Hiruki C. , 'Detection of mycoplasma like organisms in situ by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy ' (1986 ) 76 Phytopathology : 864 -868.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rojas-Martinez, R. I., Zavaleta-Mejia, E., Martinez-Soriano, J. P. and Lee, I-M. (2003): Identification of the phytoplasma associated with Cosmos ( Cosmos bipinnatus cav.) phyllody and classification by RFLP analysis of 16S rDNA. Revista Mexicana de Fitopathologia 21, 83–86.

    Lee I.-M. , 'Identification of the phytoplasma associated with Cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus cav.) phyllody and classification by RFLP analysis of 16S rDNA ' (2003 ) 21 Revista Mexicana de Fitopathologia : 83 -86.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rudzinska-Langwald, A. and Kaminska, M. (2003): Changes of ultrastructure and cytoplasmic free calcium in Gladiolus × hybridus Van Houtte roots infected by aster yellows phytoplasma. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 72, 269–282.

    Kaminska M. , 'Changes of ultrastructure and cytoplasmic free calcium in Gladiolus × hybridus Van Houtte roots infected by aster yellows phytoplasma ' (2003 ) 72 Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae : 269 -282.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Samad, A., Ajaykumar, P. V., Shasany, A. K., Gupta, M. K., Alam, M. and Rastogi, S. (2008): Occurrence of a clover proliferation (16SrVI) group phytoplasma associated with little leaf disease of Portulaca grandiflora in India. Plant Disease 92, 832.

    Rastogi S. , 'Occurrence of a clover proliferation (16SrVI) group phytoplasma associated with little leaf disease of Portulaca grandiflora in India ' (2008 ) 92 Plant Disease : 832 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Samuitiene, M., Navalinskiene, M., Jomantiene, R. and Davis, R. E. (2004): Molecular detection and characterization of phytoplasmas infecting columbine ( Aquilegia L.) plants. Biologia 2, 15–17.

    Davis R. E. , 'Molecular detection and characterization of phytoplasmas infecting columbine (Aquilegia L.) plants ' (2004 ) 2 Biologia : 15 -17.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Samuitiene, M., Jomantiene, R., Valinus, D., Navalinskiene, M. and Davis, R. E. (2007): Phytoplasma strains detected in ornamental plants in Lithuania. Bulletin of Insectology 60, 137–138.

    Davis R. E. , 'Phytoplasma strains detected in ornamental plants in Lithuania ' (2007 ) 60 Bulletin of Insectology : 137 -138.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sawayanagi, T., Horikoshi, N., Kanheira, T., Shinhoara, M., Bertaccini, A., Cousin, M-T., Hiruki, C. and Namba, S. (1999): ’ Candidatus Phytoplasma japonicum’, a new phytoplasma taxon associated with Japanese hydrangea phyllody. International J. of Systematic Bacteriology 49, 1275–1285.

    Namba S. , '’Candidatus Phytoplasma japonicum’, a new phytoplasma taxon associated with Japanese hydrangea phyllody ' (1999 ) 49 International J. of Systematic Bacteriology : 1275 -1285.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schmitt, U., Peterzold, H. and Marwitz, R. (1983): On the pleomorphism of MLO in Catharanthus roseus (Vinca rosea) . Phytopathology Z. 108, 314–326.

    Marwitz R. , 'On the pleomorphism of MLO in Catharanthus roseus (Vinca rosea) ' (1983 ) 108 Phytopathology Z. : 314 -326.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schmitt, U., Peterzold, H. and Martwitz, R. (1987): Bud like structure of mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO) demonstrated by freeze-fracturing. Naturwissenschaften 74, 396–397.

    Martwitz R. , 'Bud like structure of mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO) demonstrated by freeze-fracturing ' (1987 ) 74 Naturwissenschaften : 396 -397.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schneider, B., Seemüller, E., Smart, C. D. and Kirkpatrick, B. C. (1995): Phylogenetic classification of plant pathogenic mycoplasma-like organisms or phytoplasmas. In: Razin, S. and Tully, J. G. (eds): Molecular and Diagnostic Procedures in Mycoplasmology, Vol. I. Molecular Characterization, Academic Press Inc., San Diego, California, USA. pp. 369–380.

    Kirkpatrick B. C. , '', in Molecular and Diagnostic Procedures in Mycoplasmology , (1995 ) -.

  • Seemüller, E., Schneider, B., Maureer, R., Ahrens, U., Daire, X., Kison, H., Lorenz, K. H., Firrao, G., Avinent, L., Sears, B. B. and Stackebrandt, E. (1994): Phylogenetic classification of phytopathogenic mollicutes by sequence analysis of 16SrDNA. International J. of Systematic Bacteriology 44, 440–446.

    Stackebrandt E. , 'Phylogenetic classification of phytopathogenic mollicutes by sequence analysis of 16SrDNA ' (1994 ) 44 International J. of Systematic Bacteriology : 440 -446.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sharma, A. K., Misra, S., Raychaudhury, S. P. and Parameswaran, N. (1985): Phyllody of marigold, a disease associated with mycoplasma-like organisms. International J. of Tropical Plant Diseases 3, 45–49.

    Parameswaran N. , 'Phyllody of marigold, a disease associated with mycoplasma-like organisms ' (1985 ) 3 International J. of Tropical Plant Diseases : 45 -49.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shaw, M. E., Kirkpatrick, B. C. and Golino, D. A. (1991): Causal agent of tomato big bud disease in California is the beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence agent. Phytopathology 81, 1210.

    Golino D. A. , 'Causal agent of tomato big bud disease in California is the beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence agent ' (1991 ) 81 Phytopathology : 1210 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shepardson, S. and Mc Crum, R. C. (1973): Effect of gibberellic acid on mycoplasma like organism-infected and healthy periwinkle. Plant Disease Reporter 63, 865–869.

    Mc Crum R. C. , 'Effect of gibberellic acid on mycoplasma like organism-infected and healthy periwinkle ' (1973 ) 63 Plant Disease Reporter : 865 -869.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shin, H. D. and La, Y. L. (1984): Use of Dienes’ stain in diagnosis of plant mycoplasmal diseases and modification of diagnostic procedure. Korean J. Plant Protection 23, 215–220.

    La Y. L. , 'Use of Dienes’ stain in diagnosis of plant mycoplasmal diseases and modification of diagnostic procedure ' (1984 ) 23 Korean J. Plant Protection : 215 -220.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shiomi, T. and Sugiura, M. (1983): Water dropwort yellows and Chrysanthemum witche’s broom occurred in Ishikawa prefecture. Annals of Phytopathology Society Japan 49, 367–370.

    Sugiura M. , 'Water dropwort yellows and Chrysanthemum witche’s broom occurred in Ishikawa prefecture ' (1983 ) 49 Annals of Phytopathology Society Japan : 367 -370.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shishlova, Z. H. N. and Andreeva, L. G. (1979): Some biological features and diseases of Catharanthus roseus in geographic investigations in the Rostov botanic garden. Referativnyi Zhurnal 3, 108–110.

    Andreeva L. G. , 'Some biological features and diseases of Catharanthus roseus in geographic investigations in the Rostov botanic garden ' (1979 ) 3 Referativnyi Zhurnal : 108 -110.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Siddique, A. B.M. (2006): Phytoplasma associated with gerbera phyllody inAustralia. Jounal of Phytopathology 154, 730–732.

    Siddique A. B.M. , 'Phytoplasma associated with gerbera phyllody inAustralia ' (2006 ) 154 Jounal of Phytopathology : 730 -732.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sinha, R. C. and Benhamou, N. (1983): Detection of mycoplasma like organism antigens from aster yellows-diseased plants by two serological procedures. Phytopathology 73, 1199–1202.

    Benhamou N. , 'Detection of mycoplasma like organism antigens from aster yellows-diseased plants by two serological procedures ' (1983 ) 73 Phytopathology : 1199 -1202.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Slack, S.A., Traylor, J.A., Williams, H. E. and Nyland, G. (1976a): Rose leaf curl, a distinct component of a disease complex which resembles rose wilt. Plant Disease Reporter 60, 178–182.

    Nyland G. , 'Rose leaf curl, a distinct component of a disease complex which resembles rose wilt ' (1976 ) 60 Plant Disease Reporter : 178 -182.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Slack, S.A., Traylor, J.A., Nyland, G. and Williams, H. E. (1976b): Symptoms, indexing and transmission of rose spring dwarf disease. Plant Disease Reporter 60, 183–187.

    Williams H. E. , 'Symptoms, indexing and transmission of rose spring dwarf disease ' (1976 ) 60 Plant Disease Reporter : 183 -187.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Śliwa H. and Kaminska M. (2004): Experimental transmission of phytoplasmas from diseased magnolia to Catharanthus roseus test plants by grafting. Phytopathol. Pol. 32, 21–31.

    Kaminska M. , 'Experimental transmission of phytoplasmas from diseased magnolia to Catharanthus roseus test plants by grafting ' (2004 ) 32 Phytopathol. Pol. : 21 -31.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Smart, C. D., Schneider, B., Blomquist, C. L., Guerra, L. J., Harrison, N.A., Ahrens, U., Lorenz, K. H., Seemüller, E. and Kirkpatrick, B. C. (1996): Phytoplasma-specific PCR primers based on sequences of the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region. Applied Environmental Microbiology 62, 2988–2993.

    Kirkpatrick B. C. , 'Phytoplasma-specific PCR primers based on sequences of the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region ' (1996 ) 62 Applied Environmental Microbiology : 2988 -2993.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Smookler, M. and Dabush, S. (1974): Mycoplasma like bodies in tulips. Plant Disease Reporter 58, 1142.

    Dabush S. , 'Mycoplasma like bodies in tulips ' (1974 ) 58 Plant Disease Reporter : 1142 -.

  • Sobolev I., Weintrab, P. G., Gera, A., Tam, Y. and Spiegel, S. (2007): Phytoplasma infection in the four o’clock flower (Mirabilis jalapa) . Bulletin of Insectology 60, 281–282.

    Spiegel S. , 'Phytoplasma infection in the four o’clock flower (Mirabilis jalapa) ' (2007 ) 60 Bulletin of Insectology : 281 -282.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tamura, K., Dudley, J., Nei, M. and Kumar, S. (2007): MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24, 1596–1599.

    Kumar S. , 'MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0 ' (2007 ) 24 Molecular Biology and Evolution : 1596 -1599.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tedeschi, R., Ferrato, V., Rossi, J. and Alma, A. (2006): Possible phytoplasma transovarial transmission in the psyllids Cacopsylla melanoneura and Cacopsylla pruni . Plant Pathology 55, 18–24.

    Alma A. , 'Possible phytoplasma transovarial transmission in the psyllids Cacopsylla melanoneura and Cacopsylla pruni ' (2006 ) 55 Plant Pathology : 18 -24.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tessitori, M., Masenga, V. and Marzachì, C. (2006): First report of phytoplasma associated with abnormal proliferation of cladodes in cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) in Italy. Plant Pathology 55, 292.

    Marzachì C. , 'First report of phytoplasma associated with abnormal proliferation of cladodes in cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) in Italy ' (2006 ) 55 Plant Pathology : 292 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Thomas, B. J. (1979): Some degeneration and dieback diseases of the rose. Ann. Rep. Glasshouse Crops Res. Inst. 1979, 178–190.

    Thomas B. J. , 'Some degeneration and dieback diseases of the rose ' (1979 ) 1979 Ann. Rep. Glasshouse Crops Res. Inst. : 178 -190.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Thomas, B. J. (1981): Some degeneration and dieback diseases of the rose. Ann. Rep. Glasshouse Crops Res. Inst. 1981, 178–190.

    Thomas B. J. , 'Some degeneration and dieback diseases of the rose ' (1981 ) 1981 Ann. Rep. Glasshouse Crops Res. Inst. : 178 -190.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. and Gibson, T. J. (1994): CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 4673–4680.

    Gibson T. J. , 'CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice ' (1994 ) 22 Nucleic Acids Res. : 4673 -4680.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tipping, P.W. and Sindermann, A. B. (2000): Natural and augmented spread of rose rosette disease of multiflora rose in Maryland. Plant Disease 12, 1344.

    Sindermann A. B. , 'Natural and augmented spread of rose rosette disease of multiflora rose in Maryland ' (2000 ) 12 Plant Disease : 1344 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tolu, G., Botti, S., Garau, R., Prota, V.A., Sechi, A., Prota, U. and Bertaccini, A. (2006): Identification of 16SrIIE phytoplasmas in Calendula arvensis L., Solanum nigrum L. and Chenopodium spp. Plant Disease 90, 325–330.

    Bertaccini A. , 'Identification of 16SrIIE phytoplasmas in Calendula arvensis L., Solanum nigrum L. and Chenopodium spp ' (2006 ) 90 Plant Disease : 325 -330.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ulrychova, M., Peteru, E., Jokes, M. and Joskova, B. (1983): Mycoplasma-like organisms associated with stunting of Gypsophila paniculata L. Biologia Plantarum 25, 385–388.

    Joskova B. , 'Mycoplasma-like organisms associated with stunting of Gypsophila paniculata L ' (1983 ) 25 Biologia Plantarum : 385 -388.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Vaclavik, J., Ulrychova, M. and Jokes, M. (1986): Gladiolus “grassy top” disease recorded in Czechoslovakia and increased susceptibility of affected corms to Fusarium sp. Biologia Plantarum 28, 137–140.

    Jokes M. , 'Gladiolus “grassy top” disease recorded in Czechoslovakia and increased susceptibility of affected corms to Fusarium sp ' (1986 ) 28 Biologia Plantarum : 137 -140.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Verhoeven, M. and Horvat, F. (1972): La deformation des fleurs du lis: une grave maladie provoquee par un compexe de virus: methods d’identification. Ann. Phytopathol. 4, 311–323.

    Horvat F. , 'La deformation des fleurs du lis: une grave maladie provoquee par un compexe de virus: methods d’identification ' (1972 ) 4 Ann. Phytopathol. : 311 -323.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Verhoyen, M., Genot, M., Colin, J. and Horvat, F. (1979): Chrysanthemum yellows etiology. Phytopathology Z. 96, 59–64.

    Horvat F. , 'Chrysanthemum yellows etiology ' (1979 ) 96 Phytopathology Z. : 59 -64.

  • Vibio, M., Bertaccini, A., Lee, I-M., Davis, R. E. and Clark, M. F. (1994): Characterization of aster yellows and related European mycoplasma-like organisms maintained in periwinkle plants and shoot-tip culture. IOM Letters 3, 297–298.

    Clark M. F. , 'Characterization of aster yellows and related European mycoplasma-like organisms maintained in periwinkle plants and shoot-tip culture ' (1994 ) 3 IOM Letters : 297 -298.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Vibio, M., Bertaccini, A., Lee, I-M., Davis, R. E. and Clark, M. F. (1996): Differentiation and classification of aster yellows and related European phytoplasmas. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 35, 33–42.

    Clark M. F. , 'Differentiation and classification of aster yellows and related European phytoplasmas ' (1996 ) 35 Phytopathologia Mediterranea : 33 -42.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Vicchi, V. and Bellardi, M. G. (1988): The role of weeds in the epidemiology of Gladiolus viruses and MLO. Acta Horticulturae 234, 371–378.

    Bellardi M. G. , 'The role of weeds in the epidemiology of Gladiolus viruses and MLO ' (1988 ) 234 Acta Horticulturae : 371 -378.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wang, K. and Hiruki, C. (2005): Distinctions between phytoplasmas at the sub group level detected by heteroduplex mobility assay. Plant Pathology 54, 625–633.

    Hiruki C. , 'Distinctions between phytoplasmas at the sub group level detected by heteroduplex mobility assay ' (2005 ) 54 Plant Pathology : 625 -633.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yang, I. L. (1989): Dodder transmission and microscopic observations of red-bird cactus witches’ broom disease. J. Agric. Res. China 38, 463–467.

    Yang I. L. , 'Dodder transmission and microscopic observations of red-bird cactus witches’ broom disease ' (1989 ) 38 J. Agric. Res. China : 463 -467.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yue, H. N., Wu, Y. F., Shi, Y. Z., Wu, K. K. and Li, Y. R. (2008): First report of Paulownia witches’ broom phytoplasma in China. Plant Disease 92, 1134.

    Li Y. R. , 'First report of Paulownia witches’ broom phytoplasma in China ' (2008 ) 92 Plant Disease : 1134 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zajak, Z. (1979):Mycoplasma-like organisms in phloem of ( Phlox paniculata L.) with symptoms of flower greening. Referativny Zhurnal 3, 79–106.

    Zajak Z. , 'organisms in phloem of (Phlox paniculata L.) with symptoms of flower greening ' (1979 ) 3 Referativny Zhurnal : 79 -106.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zhang, C. P., Wu, K. K., Li, Z. N., Zhang, J., Wang, W. L. and Wu, Y. F. (2009): Occurrence of an aster yellows (16SrI) group phytoplasma associated with a leaf roll disease of shiny leaf yellow horn in China. Plant Pathology 58, 790.

    Wu Y. F. , 'Occurrence of an aster yellows (16SrI) group phytoplasma associated with a leaf roll disease of shiny leaf yellow horn in China ' (2009 ) 58 Plant Pathology : 790 -.

    • Search Google Scholar

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Aug 2020 6 1 1
Sep 2020 4 0 0
Oct 2020 7 1 2
Nov 2020 14 9 3
Dec 2020 13 0 0
Jan 2021 5 0 0
Feb 2021 0 0 0