View More View Less
  • 1 Mansoura University Faculty of Agriculture, Zoology Department Mansoura 35516 Egypt
  • 2 Mansoura University Faculty of Agriculture, Entomology Department Mansoura 35516 Egypt
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $20.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $542.00

The effect of prey stages of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae on the functional response of the coccinellid predator Stethorus gilvifrons was studied at 25±1 °C, 65±10% rh, and 16:8 h (L:D photoperiod). The functional response of S. gilvifrons female, to increasing prey stage density from 10–100 preys per patch, was of the curvilinear shape depicting Roger’s type II response with the highest consumption rate of larval prey stage. Results of the maximum likelihood analyses confirmed this type. By plotting a type II functional response model and polynomial logistic regression model to the numbers and proportions of consumed stages of T. urticae, respectively, the resulting regression lines fitted the data well. However, a composite waving form that appeared to be a decelerating (type II) response at low to medium prey densities and an accelerating (type III) response at high prey densities. We assume that the small size of experimental arena or predator feeding behaviour at low and high prey densities may have induced the modified type II response. A sensitivity analysis of the functional response model shows the crucial effect of prey stages on predation rates by S. gilvifrons. Theoretically, based on the lowest handling time for S. gilvifrons on larval stage of T. urticae, the maximum numbers of mites that could consume by a single female of S. gilvifrons within 24 h period were 77.42 larvae. These results improve our understanding of the interaction among S. gilvifrons and T. urtica stages and provide insights into the control of T. urticae.

  • Afshari, G. A. (1999): A survey on the ladybirds belong to genus Stethorus and study on the biology, prey consumption and population dynamics of Stethorus gilvifrons in sugarcane farms in Khuzestan, Iran. M. Sc. Thesis, Ahvaz, Iran, 179 p.

  • Alatawi, F. J., Opit, G. P., Margolies, D. C. and Nechols, J. R. (2005): Within-plant distribution of two-spotted spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) on impatiens: Development of a presence-absence sampling. Plant Journal of Economic Entomology 98, 1040–1047.

    Nechols J. R. , 'Within-plant distribution of two-spotted spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) on impatiens: Development of a presence-absence sampling ' (2005 ) 98 Plant Journal of Economic Entomology : 1040 -1047.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Allahyari, H., Azmayeshfard, P. and Nozari, J. (2004): Effects of host on functional response of offspring in two populations of Trissolcus grandis on the sunn pest. — Journal of Applied Entomology 128, 39–43.

    Nozari J. , 'Effects of host on functional response of offspring in two populations of Trissolcus grandis on the sunn pest ' (2004 ) 128 Journal of Applied Entomology : 39 -43.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Atlihan, R., Bora, M. K., Alper, Y. and Hayrettin, O. (2010): Functional response of the coccinellid predator Adalia fasciatopunctata revelierei to walnut aphid (Callaphis juglandis). Phytoparasitica 38, 23–29.

    Hayrettin O. , 'Functional response of the coccinellid predator Adalia fasciatopunctata revelierei to walnut aphid (Callaphis juglandis) ' (2010 ) 38 Phytoparasitica : 23 -29.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bailey, P. and Caon, G. (1986): Predation on two spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae) by Haplothrips victoriensis Bagnall (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and Stethorus nigripes Kapur (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on seed Lucerne crops in South Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 34, 515–525.

    Caon G. , 'Predation on two spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae) by Haplothrips victoriensis Bagnall (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and Stethorus nigripes Kapur (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on seed Lucerne crops in South Australia ' (1986 ) 34 Australian Journal of Zoology : 515 -525.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bayoumy, M. H. M., Abd El-Kareim, A. I., Abdel-Salam, A. H., Abdel-Baky, N. F. and Schopf. A. (2009): Functional responses of Encarsia perniciosi and Encarsia citrina to Quadraspidiotus perniciosus in response to temperature. Journal of Agricultural Sciences 34, 9673–9687.

    Schopf A. , 'Functional responses of Encarsia perniciosi and Encarsia citrina to Quadraspidiotus perniciosus in response to temperature ' (2009 ) 34 Journal of Agricultural Sciences : 9673 -9687.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Berry, J. S., Holtzer, T. O., Innis, G. S. and Logan, J. A. (1988): Simple order of prey preference technique for modelling the predator functional response. Experimental Applied of Acarology 5, 207–224.

    Logan J. A. , 'Simple order of prey preference technique for modelling the predator functional response ' (1988 ) 5 Experimental Applied of Acarology : 207 -224.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Britto, E. P. J., Gondim Jr., M. G. C., Torres, J. B., Fiaboe, K. K. M., Moraes, G. J. and Knapp, M. (2009): Predation and reproductive output of the ladybird beetle Stethorus tridens preying on tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi. BioControl 54, 363–398 (doi: 10.1007/s10526-008-9178-5).

    Knapp M. , 'Predation and reproductive output of the ladybird beetle Stethorus tridens preying on tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi ' (2009 ) 54 BioControl : 363 -398.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Byeon, Y. W., Tudam, M., Kim, J. H. and Choi, M. Y. (2011): Functional responses of aphid parasitoids, Aphi dius colemani (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Aphelinus asychis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Biocontrol Sciences and Technology 21, 57–70.

    Choi M. Y. , 'Functional responses of aphid parasitoids, Aphi dius colemani (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Aphelinus asychis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) ' (2011 ) 21 Biocontrol Sciences and Technology : 57 -70.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Congdon, J. D., Dunham, A. E. and van Loben Sels, R. C. (1993): Delayed sexual maturity and demographics of blanding’s turtles (Emydoidea blandingii): implications for conservation and management of long-lived organisms. Conservation Biology 7, 826–833.

    Loben Sels R. C. , 'Delayed sexual maturity and demographics of blanding’s turtles (Emydoidea blandingii): implications for conservation and management of long-lived organisms ' (1993 ) 7 Conservation Biology : 826 -833.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • De Clercq, P., Mohaghegh, J. and Tirry, L. (2000): Effect of host plant on the functional response of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Biological Control 18, 65–70.

    Tirry L. , 'Effect of host plant on the functional response of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) ' (2000 ) 18 Biological Control : 65 -70.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fathipour, Y., Hosseini, A., Talebi, A. and Moharramipour, S. (2006): Functional response and mutual interference of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) on Brevicoryne brassicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Entomological Fennica 17, 90–97.

    Moharramipour S. , 'Functional response and mutual interference of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) on Brevicoryne brassicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) ' (2006 ) 17 Entomological Fennica : 90 -97.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fiaboe, K. K. M., Gondim, M. G. C., de Moraes, G. J., Ogol, C. K. P. O. and Knapp, M. (2007): Bionomics of the acarophagous ladybird beetle Stethorus tridens fed Tetranychus evansi. Journal of Applied Entomology 131, 355–361.

    Knapp M. , 'Bionomics of the acarophagous ladybird beetle Stethorus tridens fed Tetranychus evansi ' (2007 ) 131 Journal of Applied Entomology : 355 -361.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gotoh, T., Nozawa, M. and Yamaguchi, K. (2004): Prey consumption and functional response of three acarophagous species to eggs of the two-spotted spider mite in the laboratory. Applied Entomology and Zoology 39, 97–105.

    Yamaguchi K. , 'Prey consumption and functional response of three acarophagous species to eggs of the two-spotted spider mite in the laboratory ' (2004 ) 39 Applied Entomology and Zoology : 97 -105.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Haji-Zadeh, J., Kamali, G. K. and Assadi, H. B. (1993): Investigations on the functional response and populations fluctuations of Stethorus gilvifrons on red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) in Karaj vicinity [Iran]. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology 61, 32–34.

    Assadi H. B. , 'Investigations on the functional response and populations fluctuations of Stethorus gilvifrons on red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) in Karaj vicinity [Iran] ' (1993 ) 61 Applied Entomology and Phytopathology : 32 -34.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hassel, M. P., Lawton, J. H. and Beddington, J. R. (1977): Sigmoid functional response by invertebrate predators and parasitoids. Journal of Animal Ecology 46, 249–262.

    Beddington J. R. , 'Sigmoid functional response by invertebrate predators and parasitoids ' (1977 ) 46 Journal of Animal Ecology : 249 -262.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hassell, M. P. (2000): The Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Host Parasitoid Interactions. Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution. Oxford University Press, London, UK, 198 p.

    Hassell M. P. , '', in The Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Host Parasitoid Interactions. Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution , (2000 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hazzard, R. V. and Ferro, D. N. (1991): Feeding responses of adults Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to eggs of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and green peach aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology 20, 644–651.

    Ferro D. N. , 'Feeding responses of adults Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to eggs of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and green peach aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) ' (1991 ) 20 Environmental Entomology : 644 -651.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Holling, C. S. (1959): Some characteristics of simple types of predation and parasitism. Canadian Entomology 91, 385–398.

    Holling C. S. , 'Some characteristics of simple types of predation and parasitism ' (1959 ) 91 Canadian Entomology : 385 -398.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Holling, C. S. (1961): Principles of insect predation. Annual Review of Entomology 6, 163–183.

    Holling C. S. , 'Principles of insect predation ' (1961 ) 6 Annual Review of Entomology : 163 -183.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Holling, C. S. (1965): Functional response of predators to prey density and its role in mimicry and population regulation. Memoirs of Entomological Society of Canada 45, 3–60.

    Holling C. S. , 'Functional response of predators to prey density and its role in mimicry and population regulation ' (1965 ) 45 Memoirs of Entomological Society of Canada : 3 -60.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Houck, M. A. (1991): Time and resource partitioning in Stethorus punctum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Environmental Entomology 20, 494–497.

    Houck M. A. , 'Time and resource partitioning in Stethorus punctum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) ' (1991 ) 20 Environmental Entomology : 494 -497.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hu, Y. S., Wang, Z. M., Ning, C. L., Pi, Z. Q. and Gao, G. Q. (1989): The functional response of Harmonia (Leis) axyridis to their prey of Cinara sp. Natural Enemies of Insects 11, 164–168.

    Gao G. Q. , 'The functional response of Harmonia (Leis) axyridis to their prey of Cinara sp ' (1989 ) 11 Natural Enemies of Insects : 164 -168.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Huffaker, C. B., van de Vrie, M. and McMurtry, J. A. (1970): Ecology of tetranychid mites and their natural enemies: a review. II. Tetranychid populations and their possible control by predators: an evaluation. Hilgardia 40, 391–458.

    McMurtry J. A. , 'Ecology of tetranychid mites and their natural enemies: a review. II. Tetranychid populations and their possible control by predators: an evaluation ' (1970 ) 40 Hilgardia : 391 -458.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Isikber, A. A. (2005): Functional response of two coccinellid predators, Scymnus levaillanti and Cycloneda sanuinea, to the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Turkish Journal of Agriculture Forest 29, 347–355.

    Isikber A. A. , 'Functional response of two coccinellid predators, Scymnus levaillanti and Cycloneda sanuinea, to the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii ' (2005 ) 29 Turkish Journal of Agriculture Forest : 347 -355.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Juliano, S. A. (2001): Non-linear curve fitting: Predation and functional response curves. In: S. M. Scheiner and J. Gurevitch (eds): Design and Analysis of Ecological Experiments. 2nd edition. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp. 178–196.

    Juliano S. A. , '', in Design and Analysis of Ecological Experiments , (2001 ) -.

  • Koch, R. L., Hutchison, W. D., Venette, R. C. and Heimpel, G. E. (2003): Susceptibility of immature monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae), to predation by Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Biological Control 28, 265–270.

    Heimpel G. E. , 'Susceptibility of immature monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae), to predation by Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) ' (2003 ) 28 Biological Control : 265 -270.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mills, N. J. and Lacan, I. (2004): Ratio-dependence in the functional response of insect parasitoids: evidence from Trichogramma minutum foraging for eggs in small host patches. Ecological Entomology 29, 208–216.

    Lacan I. , 'Ratio-dependence in the functional response of insect parasitoids: evidence from Trichogramma minutum foraging for eggs in small host patches ' (2004 ) 29 Ecological Entomology : 208 -216.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mohaghegh, J., De Clercq, P. and Tirry, L. (2001): Functional response of the predators Podisus maculiventris (say) and Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) to the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): effect of temperature. Journal of Applied Entomology 125, 131–134.

    Tirry L. , 'Functional response of the predators Podisus maculiventris (say) and Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) to the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): effect of temperature ' (2001 ) 125 Journal of Applied Entomology : 131 -134.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mori, K., Nozawa, M., Arai, K. and Gotoh, T. (2005): Life-history traits of the acaraphagous lady beetle, Stethorus japonicus at three constant temperatures. BioControl 50, 35–51.

    Gotoh T. , 'Life-history traits of the acaraphagous lady beetle, Stethorus japonicus at three constant temperatures ' (2005 ) 50 BioControl : 35 -51.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Munyaneza, J. and Obrycki, J. J. (1997): Functional response of Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to Colorado potato beetle eggs (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Biological Control 8, 215–224.

    Obrycki J. J. , 'Functional response of Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to Colorado potato beetle eggs (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) ' (1997 ) 8 Biological Control : 215 -224.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Nwilene, F. E. and Nachman, G. (1996): Functional responses of Iphiseius degenerans and Neoseiulus teke (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to changes in the density of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Acari: Tetranychidae). Experimental Applied Acarology 20, 259–271.

    Nachman G. , 'Functional responses of Iphiseius degenerans and Neoseiulus teke (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to changes in the density of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Acari: Tetranychidae) ' (1996 ) 20 Experimental Applied Acarology : 259 -271.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Obrycki, J. J. (1998): Predaceous coccinellidae in biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 43, 295–321.

    Obrycki J. J. , 'Predaceous coccinellidae in biological control ' (1998 ) 43 Annual Review of Entomology : 295 -321.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ofuya, T. I. and Akingbohungbe, A. E. (1988): Functional and numerical responses of Cheilomenes lunata (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feeding on the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae). Insect Science Application, 9, 543–546.

    Akingbohungbe A. E. , 'Functional and numerical responses of Cheilomenes lunata (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feeding on the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) ' (1988 ) 9 Insect Science Application : 543 -546.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Overmeer, W. P. J. (1985): Rearing and handling. In: W. Helle and M. W. Sabelis (eds): Spider Mites, Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Vol. 1b, pp. 162–170.

    Overmeer W. P. J. , '', in Spider Mites, Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control , (1985 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Roger, D. (1972): Random search and insect population models. Journal of Animal Ecology 41, 369–383.

    Roger D. , 'Random search and insect population models ' (1972 ) 41 Journal of Animal Ecology : 369 -383.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Roy, M., Brodeur, J. and Cloutier, C. (2003): Effect of temperature on intrinsic rates of natural increase (rm) of a coccinellid and its spider mite prey. BioControl 48, 57–72

    Cloutier C. , 'Effect of temperature on intrinsic rates of natural increase (rm) of a coccinellid and its spider mite prey ' (2003 ) 48 BioControl : 57 -72.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sarmento, R. A., Pallini, A., Venzon, M., Souza, F. F., Molina-Rugama, A. J. and Oliveira, C. L. (2007): Functional response of the predator Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to different prey types. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 50, 121–126.

    Oliveira C. L. , 'Functional response of the predator Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to different prey types ' (2007 ) 50 Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology : 121 -126.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • SAS Institute (2000): SAS/STAT user’s guide. Version 9.1 edition. SAS Institute Cary, NC.

    '', in SAS/STAT user’s guide. Version 9.1 edition , (2000 ) -.

  • Sohrabi, F. and Shishehbor, P. (2007): Functional and numerical responses of Stethorus gilvifrons Muslant feeding on strawberry spider mite, Tetranychus turkestani Ugarov and Nikolski. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 10, 4563–4566.

    Shishehbor P. , 'Functional and numerical responses of Stethorus gilvifrons Muslant feeding on strawberry spider mite, Tetranychus turkestani Ugarov and Nikolski ' (2007 ) 10 Pakistan Journal of Biological Science : 4563 -4566.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Solomon, M. (1949): The natural control of animal populations. Journal of Animal Ecology 41, 369–383.

    Solomon M. , 'The natural control of animal populations ' (1949 ) 41 Journal of Animal Ecology : 369 -383.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tanigoshi, L. K. and McMurtry, J. A. (1977): The dynamics of predation of Stethorus picipes (Coloptera: Coccinellidae) and Typhlodromus floridanus on the prey Oligonychus punicae (Acarina: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae). 1. Comparative life history and life table studies. Hilgardia 45, 237–261.

    McMurtry J. A. , 'The dynamics of predation of Stethorus picipes (Coloptera: Coccinellidae) and Typhlodromus floridanus on the prey Oligonychus punicae (Acarina: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae). 1. Comparative life history and life table studies ' (1977 ) 45 Hilgardia : 237 -261.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Trexler, J. C., Charles, E. M. and Travis, J. (1988): How can the functional response best be determined? Oecologia 76, 206–214.

    Travis J. , 'How can the functional response best be determined? ' (1988 ) 76 Oecologia : 206 -214.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ullah, I. (2000): Aspects of the biology of the ladybird beetle Stethorus vegans (Blackburn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Doctoral thesis, Centre For Horticulture and Plant Sciences, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury, Richmond, NSW Australia, xvii, 183 p.

    Ullah I. , '', in Aspects of the biology of the ladybird beetle Stethorus vegans (Blackburn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) , (2000 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Uygun, N. and Atlihan, R. (2000): The effect of temperature on development and fecundity of Scymnus levaillanti. BioControl 45, 453–462.

    Atlihan R. , 'The effect of temperature on development and fecundity of Scymnus levaillanti ' (2000 ) 45 BioControl : 453 -462.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • van Lenteren, J. C. and Bakker, K. (1976): Functional responses in invertebrates. Netherland Journal of Zoology 26, 567–572.

    Bakker K. , 'Functional responses in invertebrates ' (1976 ) 26 Netherland Journal of Zoology : 567 -572.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Vantornhout, I. (2006): Biology and ecology of the predatory mite Iphiseius degenerans (Berlese) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Ph.D. thesis, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium, 207 p.

    Vantornhout I. , '', in Biology and ecology of the predatory mite Iphiseius degenerans (Berlese) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) , (2006 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Veeravel, R. and Baskaran, P. (1997): Functional and numerical responses of Coccinella transversalis and Cheilomenes sexmaculata Fabr. feeding on the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glov. Insect Science and Its Application 17, 335–339.

    Baskaran P. , 'Functional and numerical responses of Coccinella transversalis and Cheilomenes sexmaculata Fabr. feeding on the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glov ' (1997 ) 17 Insect Science and Its Application : 335 -339.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wang, B. and Ferro, D. N. (1998): Functional responses of Trichogramma ostriniae (Hym., Trichogrammatidae) to Ostrinia nubilalis (Lep., Pyralidae) under laboratory and field conditions. Environmental Entomology 27, 752–758.

    Ferro D. N. , 'Functional responses of Trichogramma ostriniae (Hym., Trichogrammatidae) to Ostrinia nubilalis (Lep., Pyralidae) under laboratory and field conditions ' (1998 ) 27 Environmental Entomology : 752 -758.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zhang, Z. Q. (2003): Mite of Greenhouses. Identification, Biology, and Control. CABI Publishing, 244 p.