View More View Less
  • 1 Punjab Agricultural University Rice Section, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics 141004 Ludhiana India
  • 2 Punjab Agricultural University Department of Entomology 141004 Ludhiana India
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $20.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $542.00

The four methods of rice crop establishment viz., conventional transplanting, bed transplanting, furrow transplanting and puddled direct seeding were evaluated during two wet seasons to determine their effect on the abundance and the diversity of natural enemy populations in rice agro-ecosystem. Population counts of natural enemy fauna (insect predators/parasitoids and spiders) were recorded from randomly selected two quadrates of 1 m2 per replication at 10 days intervals starting from 40 days up to 110 days after crop establishment. Over the years in all the crop establishment methods insect predator/parasitoid population of (Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Coenagrionidae, Coccinellidae and Carabidae) were significantly more in puddled direct seeding followed by transplanted crop than other methods. Spider predator population (Tetragnathidae, Araneidae, Oxyopidae, Salticidae, Lycosidae, Metidae and Tomisidae) were significantly more in bed transplanting than in other crop establishment methods. Overall natural enemy fauna (insect predators/parasitoids and spider predators) were significantly more in bed transplanting and puddled direct seeding. The diversity index across years and observation days was high in case of bed transplanting, which was due to high evenness index in the crop establishment method.

  • Anonymous (2013): Package of practices for Kharif crops. Ludhiana: Punjab Agricultural University. pp. 1–23.

    '', in Package of practices for Kharif crops , (2013 ) -.

  • Arida G. S. and Shepard B. M. (1990): Parasitism and predation of rice leaffolders, Marasmia patnalis (Bradlay) and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Laguna Province, Philippines. J. Agric. Ent. 7, 113–118.

    Shepard B. M. , 'Parasitism and predation of rice leaffolders, Marasmia patnalis (Bradlay) and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Laguna Province, Philippines ' (1990 ) 7 J. Agric. Ent. : 113 -118.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bhuiyan S. I., Sattar M. A. and Khan M. A. K. (2005): Improving water use efficiency in rice irrigation through wet seeding. Irri. Sci. 16, 1–8.

    Khan M. A. K. , 'Improving water use efficiency in rice irrigation through wet seeding ' (2005 ) 16 Irri. Sci. : 1 -8.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chauhan B. S., Mahajan G., Sardana V., Timsina J. and Jat M. L. (2012): Productivity and sustainability of the rice-wheat cropping system in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of Indian subcontinent: problems, opportunities, and strategies. Adv. Agron. 117, 315–369.

    Jat M. L. , 'Productivity and sustainability of the rice-wheat cropping system in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of Indian subcontinent: problems, opportunities, and strategies ' (2012 ) 117 Adv. Agron. : 315 -369.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dale D. (1994): Insect pests of the rice plant — their biology and ecology. In: E. A. Heinrichs (ed.): Biology and Management of Rice Insects. Philippines: International Rice Research Institute and Wiley Eastern Limited.

    Dale D. , '', in Biology and Management of Rice Insects , (1994 ) -.

  • Dhaliwal G. S., Jindal V. and Dhawan A. K. (2010): Insect pest problems and crop losses: changing trends. Indian J. Ecol. 37, 1–7.

    Dhawan A. K. , 'Insect pest problems and crop losses: changing trends ' (2010 ) 37 Indian J. Ecol. : 1 -7.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gomez K. A. and Gomez A. A. (1984): Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2nd ed. Wiley-Interscience, New York, USA. 653 p.

    Gomez A. A. , '', in Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research , (1984 ) -.

  • Gurr G. M., Liu J., Read D. M. Y., Catindig J. L. A., Cheng J. A., Lan L. P. and Heong K. L. (2011): Parasitoids of Asian rice planthopper (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) pests and prospects for enhancing biological control by ecological engineering. Ann. Appl. Biol. 158, 149–176.

    Heong K. L. , 'Parasitoids of Asian rice planthopper (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) pests and prospects for enhancing biological control by ecological engineering ' (2011 ) 158 Ann. Appl. Biol. : 149 -176.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Heong K. L. and Hardy B. (2009): Planthoppers: new threats to the sustainability of intensive rice production systems in Asia. Philippines: International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos.

    Hardy B. , '', in Planthoppers: new threats to the sustainability of intensive rice production systems in Asia , (2009 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hira G. S. (2009): Water management in Northern states and the food security of India. J. Crop Improv. 23, 136–157.

    Hira G. S. , 'Water management in Northern states and the food security of India ' (2009 ) 23 J. Crop Improv. : 136 -157.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Katti G., Pasalu I. C., Varma N. R. G. and Dhandapani N. (2001): Quantification of natural biological control in rice ecosystem for possible exploitation in rice IPM. Indian J. Ent. 63, 439–448.

    Dhandapani N. , 'Quantification of natural biological control in rice ecosystem for possible exploitation in rice IPM ' (2001 ) 63 Indian J. Ent. : 439 -448.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kaur S., Brar K. S. and Shenhmar M. (2003): Abundance of spiders in rice ecosystem in Punjab. J. Insect Sci. 16, 90–91.

    Shenhmar M. , 'Abundance of spiders in rice ecosystem in Punjab ' (2003 ) 16 J. Insect Sci. : 90 -91.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Khush G. S. and Virk P. S. (2005): IR varieties and their impact. International Rice Research Institute. pp. 1–163.

    Virk P. S. , '', in IR varieties and their impact , (2005 ) -.

  • Krishnaiah N. V., Lakshmi V. J., Pasalu I. C., Katti G. and Padmavathi C. (2008): Insecticides in rice IPM past, present and future. Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad, India. pp. 1–146.

    Padmavathi C. , '', in Insecticides in rice IPM past, present and future , (2008 ) -.

  • Mahal M. S., Kajal V. K., Kaur R. and Singh R. (2006): Integration of chemical and biocontrol approaches for the management of leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee and stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas Walker on basmati rice. J. Bio. Control 20, 1–6.

    Singh R. , 'Integration of chemical and biocontrol approaches for the management of leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee and stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas Walker on basmati rice ' (2006 ) 20 J. Bio. Control : 1 -6.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mahal M. S., Sarao P. S. and Kajal V. (2011): Evaluation of management techniques for the control of insect-pests of Basmati rice in Punjab. Oryza: An Int. J. Rice 48, 238–243.

    Kajal V. , 'Evaluation of management techniques for the control of insect-pests of Basmati rice in Punjab ' (2011 ) 48 Oryza: An Int. J. Rice : 238 -243.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Muralidharan K. and Pasalu I. C. (2006): Assessments of crop losses in rice ecosystems due to stem borer damage (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Crop Prot. 25, 409–417.

    Pasalu I. C. , 'Assessments of crop losses in rice ecosystems due to stem borer damage (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) ' (2006 ) 25 Crop Prot. : 409 -417.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Naklange K., Fukai S. and Nathabut K. (1996): Growth of rice cultivars by direct seeding and transplanting under upland and low land conditions. Field Crop Res. 48, 115–123.

    Nathabut K. , 'Growth of rice cultivars by direct seeding and transplanting under upland and low land conditions ' (1996 ) 48 Field Crop Res. : 115 -123.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Oyediran I. O. and Heinrichs E. A. (2001): Arthropod populations and rice yield in direct-seeded and transplanted lowland rice in West Africa. Int. J. Pest Mgmt. 47, 195–200.

    Heinrichs E. A. , 'Arthropod populations and rice yield in direct-seeded and transplanted lowland rice in West Africa ' (2001 ) 47 Int. J. Pest Mgmt. : 195 -200.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Padmavathi, Ch., Mahender R. K., Subba Rao L. V., Surekha K., Srinivas Prasad M., Ravindra Babu V. and Pasalu I. C. (2009): Influence of SRI method of rice cultivation on insect pest incidence and arthropod diversity. Oryza: An Int. J. Rice 46, 227–230.

    Pasalu I. C. , 'Influence of SRI method of rice cultivation on insect pest incidence and arthropod diversity ' (2009 ) 46 Oryza: An Int. J. Rice : 227 -230.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pielou E. J. (1966): The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections. J. Theor. Biol. 13, 131–144.

    Pielou E. J. , 'The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections ' (1966 ) 13 J. Theor. Biol. : 131 -144.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Puri S. N., Murthy K. S. and Sharma O. P. (1999): Pest problems in India- current status. Indian J. Pl. Prot. 27, 20–31.

    Sharma O. P. , 'Pest problems in India- current status ' (1999 ) 27 Indian J. Pl. Prot. : 20 -31.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ravi G., Rajendran R., Raju N., Murlidharan V., Chandrasekaran B. and Balasubramanian V. (2006): Impact of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) on insect pests and arthropod biodiversity: A case study in irrigated rice ecosystem. In: Proceeding of the 26th Int. Rice Congress, New Delhi. pp. 421–422.

    Balasubramanian V. , '', in Proceeding of the 26th Int. Rice Congress, New Delhi , (2006 ) -.

  • Sain M., Bentur J. S. and Kalode M. B. (2001): Influence of agronomic and cultural practices on rice hopper pests and their natural enemies. J. Appl. Zoo. Res. 12, 8–13.

    Kalode M. B. , 'Influence of agronomic and cultural practices on rice hopper pests and their natural enemies ' (2001 ) 12 J. Appl. Zoo. Res. : 8 -13.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sarao P. S. and Mahal M. S. (2008): Natural enemy fauna and their diversity in rice agroecosystem under different plant spacings. Indian J. Ecol. 35, 162–165.

    Mahal M. S. , 'Natural enemy fauna and their diversity in rice agroecosystem under different plant spacings ' (2008 ) 35 Indian J. Ecol. : 162 -165.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sarao P. S. and Mahal M. S. (2012): Evaluation of rice germplasm for resistance to a leaffolder, stemborer and planthopper under field and glasshouse conditions in India. Int. J. Tropical Insect Sc. 32, 126–135.

    Mahal M. S. , 'Evaluation of rice germplasm for resistance to a leaffolder, stemborer and planthopper under field and glasshouse conditions in India ' (2012 ) 32 Int. J. Tropical Insect Sc. : 126 -135.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Settle W. H., Ariawan H., Astuti E. T., Cahyana W., Hakim A. L., Hindayana D., Lestari A. S. and Pajarningsih S. (1996): Managing tropical rice pests through conservation of generalist natural enemies and alternative prey. Ecology 77, 1975–1988.

    Pajarningsih S. , 'Managing tropical rice pests through conservation of generalist natural enemies and alternative prey ' (1996 ) 77 Ecology : 1975 -1988.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shannon C. E. and Weaver W. (1949): The Mathematical Theory of Communication. USA: University of Illinois press, Urbana.

    Weaver W. , '', in The Mathematical Theory of Communication , (1949 ) -.

  • Shepard B. M. and Arida G. S. (1986): Parasitism and predation of yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs in transplanted and direct seeded rice. J. Entomol. Sci. 21, 26–32.

    Arida G. S. , 'Parasitism and predation of yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs in transplanted and direct seeded rice ' (1986 ) 21 J. Entomol. Sci. : 26 -32.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Southwood T. R. E. (1978): Ecological Methods with Particular Reference to the Study of Insect Populations. London: The English Language Book Society.

    Southwood T. R. E. , '', in Ecological Methods with Particular Reference to the Study of Insect Populations , (1978 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tanaka K., Endo S. and Kazano H. (2000): Toxicity of insecticides to predators of rice planthoppers: spiders, the mirid bug and the dryinid wasp. Appl. Ent. Zool. 35, 177–187.

    Kazano H. , 'Toxicity of insecticides to predators of rice planthoppers: spiders, the mirid bug and the dryinid wasp ' (2000 ) 35 Appl. Ent. Zool. : 177 -187.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Vorosmarty C. J., Green P., Salisbury J. and Lammers R. B. (2000): Global water resources: vulnerability from climate change and population growth. Science 289, 284–288.

    Lammers R. B. , 'Global water resources: vulnerability from climate change and population growth ' (2000 ) 289 Science : 284 -288.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wang H. Y., Yang Y., Su J. Y., Shen J. L., Gao C. F. and Zhu Y. C. (2008): Assessment of the impact of insecticides on Anagrus nilaparvatae (Pang et Wang) (Hymenoptera: Mymanidae), an egg parasitoid of the rice planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Crop Prot. 27, 514–522.

    Zhu Y. C. , 'Assessment of the impact of insecticides on Anagrus nilaparvatae (Pang et Wang) (Hymenoptera: Mymanidae), an egg parasitoid of the rice planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) ' (2008 ) 27 Crop Prot. : 514 -522.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Way M. J. and Heong K. L. (1994): The role of bio-diversity in the dynamics and management of rice insect pests of tropical irrigated rice-a review. Bulletin Ent. Res. 86, 567–587.

    Heong K. L. , 'The role of bio-diversity in the dynamics and management of rice insect pests of tropical irrigated rice-a review ' (1994 ) 86 Bulletin Ent. Res. : 567 -587.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Weerakoon W. M. W, Mutunayake M. M. P., Bandara C., Rao A. N., Bhandari D. C. and Ladha J. K. (2011): Direct-seeded rice cultivation in Sri Lanka: Lessons from farmers. Field Crops Res. 121, 53–63.

    Ladha J. K. , 'Direct-seeded rice cultivation in Sri Lanka: Lessons from farmers ' (2011 ) 121 Field Crops Res. : 53 -63.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ye G. Y., Yao H. W., Shu Q. Y., Cheng X., Hu C., Xia Y. W., Gao M. W. and Altosaar I. (2003): High levels of stable resistance in transgenic rice with a synthetic cry 1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner to rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) under field conditions. Crop Prot. 22, 171–178.

    Altosaar I. , 'High levels of stable resistance in transgenic rice with a synthetic cry 1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner to rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) under field conditions ' (2003 ) 22 Crop Prot. : 171 -178.

    • Search Google Scholar