View More View Less
  • 1 Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, Morocco
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $20.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $542.00

The evolution of anthracnose symptoms on the aerial part (leaves, stems and strawberries) of three varieties Fortuna, Camarosa and Festival of strawberry plants inoculated with the conidial suspensions of Colletotrichum acutatum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates was followed. The severity index and infection coefficients increased in function of time. Seven days after inoculation they were low not exceeding 13.43% and 43.33, but they increased four weeks after inoculation, respectively, to 37.96% and 99 on strawberry plants of the Camarosa variety, 54.44% and 105 on those of Fortuna and 51.12% and 85 on those of Festival. At the sixth week, the severity index and infection coefficients became very high, reaching respectively 100% and 408 on Fortuna plants inoculated with C. gloeosporioides isolate (Coll3) followed by Coll2 (89.28% – 300), Coll1 (86.66% – 378) and Coll4 (80.45% – 198) of C. acutatum species. Similarly, the isolate Coll3 caused fruit rot; the percentage of rotten strawberries was 100% on Fortuna variety, 83.33% on Festival and 70.25% on Camarosa. A positive re-isolation of the tested Colletotrichum isolates has been noted from leaves of strawberry varieties and negative from crowns or the roots. A significant to moderate reduction in fresh and dry weights of the aerial part and roots was noted in inoculated strawberry plants compared to the control.

  • Abdel-Sattar, M. A., El-Marzoky, H. A. and Mohamed, A. I. (2008): Occurrence of soilborne diseases and root knot nematodes in strawberry plants grown on compacted rice straw bales compared with naturally infested soil. J. Plant Protection Research 48, 223235.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Adaskaveg, J. E. and Hartin, R. J. (1997): Characterization of Colletotrichum acutatum isolates causing anthracnose of almond and peach in California. Phytopathology 87, 979987.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Agostini, J. P., Timmer, L. W. and Mitchell, D. J. (1992): Morphological and pathological characteristics of strains of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Citrus. Phytopathology 82, 13771382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Akgül, D. S., Awan, Q. N., Güler, P. G. and Önelge, N. (2016): First report of anthracnose and stem end rot diseases caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Neofusicoccum australeon avocado fruits in Turkey. Plant Dis. 100, 1792 p.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Akhter, Md. S., Shahidul, A. S., Shafiqul, Md. I. S. and Lee, M. W. (2009): Identification of the fungal pathogen that causes strawberry anthracnose in Bangladesh and evaluation of in vitro fungicide activity. Mycobiology 37, 7781.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Amil-Ruiz, F., Blanco-Portales, R., Muñoz-Blanco, J. and Caballero, J. L. (2011): The strawberry plant defense mechanism: A molecular review. Plant Cell Physiol. 52, 18731903.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anonymous (2006): Diagnostic Xanthomonas fragariae. EPPO Bulletin 36, 135144.

  • Anonymous (2014): Note de veille-Filière fruits rouges. Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche Maritime –Direction de la Stratégie et des Statistiques. Note stratégique n 100, 117.

  • Anonymous (2015): Berry steady progress. Spécial Fruit Logistica, Agriculture du Maghreb 20–22.

  • Anonymous (2017): Morocco: Strawberry acreage grows from 10 to 3,660 hectares in 27 years. URL: http://www.freshplaza.com/article/186317/Morocco-Strawberry-acreage-grows-from-10-to-3,660-hectares-in- 27-years

  • Arauz, L. F. (2000): Mango anthracnose: Economic impact and current options from integrated management. Plant Disease 84, 600611.

  • Atta Aly, M. and Ezzat, M. A. (1999): Reducing quality loss of strawberries during local marketing and exportation by using different cool chains. In: D. Gerasopoulos (ed.): Post-harvest Losses of Perishable Horticultural Products in the Mediterranean Region. Chania : CIHEAM-IAMC, Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes 42, 3547.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bailey, J. A. and Jeger, M. J. (eds): (1992): Colletotrichum: Biology, Pathology and Control. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 388 p.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bell, J. A., Simpson, D. W. and Harris, D. C. (1997): Development of a method for screening strawberry germplasm for resistance to Phytophthora cactorum. Acta Hort. 439, 175180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Benyahia, H., Jrifi, A., Smaili, C., Afellah, M. and Timmer, L. W. (2003): First report of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing wither tip on twigs and tear stain on fruit of citrus in Morocco. Plant Pathol. 52, 798.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buddie, A., Martínez-Culebras, P., Bridge, P., García, M., Querol, A., Cannon, P. and Monte, E. (1999): Molecular characterization of Colletotrichum strains derived from strawberry. Mycological Research 103, 385394.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bull, C. T., Huerta, A. I. and Koike, S. T. (2009): First report of blossom blight of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) caused by Psendomonas marginalis. Plant Disease 93, 1350.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Calleja, E. J., Ilbery, B., Spence, N. J. and Mills, P. R. (2012): The effectiveness of phytosanitary controls in preventing the entry of Colletotrichum acutatum in the UK strawberry sector. Plant Pathology 62, 266278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ceja-Torres, L. F., Mora-Aguilera, G. and Mora-Aguilera, A. (2014): Agronomical management influence on the spatiotemporal progress of strawberry dry wilt in Michoacán, Mexico. African J. Agricultural Research 9, 513520.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chakraborty, S., Perrott, R., Charchar, M. J., Fernandes, C. D. and Kelemu, S. (1997): Biodiversity, epidemiology and virulence of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. II. Genetic and pathogenic diversity in isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides form eight species of Stylosanthes. Tropical Grasslands J. 31, 393401.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chattaoui, M., Raya, M. C., Bouri, M., Moral, J., Perez-Rodriguez, M., Trapero, A., Msallem, M. and Rhouma, A. (2016): Characterization of a Colletotrichum population causing anthracnose disease on Olive in northern Tunisia. J. Appl. Microbiol. 120, 13681381.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chrys, N. A. (2006): Mango anthracnose disease: Present status and future research priorities. Plant Pathology J. 5, 266273.

  • Curry, K. J., Abril, M., Avant, J. B. and Smith, B. J. (2002): Strawberry anthracnose: Histopathology of Colletotrichum acutatum and C. fragariae. Phytopathology 92, 10551063.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Darrow, G. M. (1966): The Strawberry; History, Breeding and Physiology (1st ed.). Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 555 p.

  • Dashwood, E. P., Fox, R. A. and Duncan, J. M. (1993): Effect of substrate and plant maturity on the incidence of infection of potato roots by pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungi. Mycological Research 97, 733745.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Los Santos, B., Barrau, C. and Romero, F. (2003): Strawberry fungal diseases. Food, Agriculture and Environment 1, 129132.

  • Dean, R., Van Kan, J. A. L., Pretorius, Z. A., Hammond-Kosack, K. E., Di Pietro, A., Spanu, P. D., Rudd, J. J., Dickman, M., Kahmann, R., Ellis, J. and Foster, G. D. (2012): The top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology. Mol. Plant Pathol. 13, 414430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Debode, J., Hemelrijck, W., Baeyen, S., Creemers, P., Heungens, K. and Maes, M. (2009): Quantitative detection and monitoring of Colletotrichum acutatum in strawberry leaves using real-time PCR. Plant Pathology 58, 504514.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delp, B. R. and Milholland, R. D. (1981): Susceptibility of strawberry cultivars and related species to Colletotrichum fragariae. Plant Dis. 65, 421423.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Denoyes, B. and Baudry, A. (1995): Species identification and pathogenicity study of French Colletotrichum strains isolated from strawberry using morphological and cultural characteristics. Phytopathology 85, 5357.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dodds, P. N. and Rathjen, J. P. (2010): Plant immunity: Towards an integrated view of plant pathogen interactions. Nat. Rev. Genet. 11, 539548.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Embaby, E. M., Ragab, M. E., Doug Doud, Kh. A. Al., Ahmed, R., Zveibil, A., Maymon, M. and Freeman, S. (2009): First report of Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides causing anthracnose diseases on strawberry in Egypt. New Disease Reports 20, 20.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evenhuis, A. and Wanten, P. J. (2006): Effect of polythene tunnels and cultivars on grey mould caused by Botrytis cinerea in organically grown strawberries. Agric. Conspec. Sci. 71, 111114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fang, X. D., Kuo, J., You, M. P., Finnegan, P. M. and Barbetti, M. J. (2012): Comparative root colonization of strawberry cultivars Camarosa and Festival by f. sp. fragariae. Plant and Soil 358, 7589.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fitzell, R. D. (1979): Colletotrichum acutatum as a cause of anthracnose of mango in New-South-Wales. Plant Dis. Rep. 63, 10671070.

  • Förster, H. and Adaskaveg, J. E. (1999): Identification of subpopulations of Colletotrichum acutatum and epidemiology of almond anthracnose in California. Phytopathology 89, 10561065.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Freeman, S. (2000): Genetic diversity and host specificity of Colletotrichum species on various fruits. In: D. Prusky, S. Freeman and M. B. Dickman (eds): Colletotrichum: Host Specificity, Pathology and Host–pathogen Interaction. The American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul MN., pp 131144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Freeman, S. and Katan, T. (1997): Identification of Colletotrichum species responsible for anthracnose and root necrosis of strawberry in Israel. Phytopathology 87, 516521.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Freeman, S., Nizani, Y., Dotan, S., Even, S. and Sando, T. (1997): Control of Colletotrichum acutatum in strawberry under laboratory, greenhouse and field conditions. Plant Disease 81, 749752.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galletta, G. J. and Bringhurst, R. S. (1990): Strawberry management. In: G. J. Galletta and D. G. Himelrich (eds): Small Fruit Crop Management. Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey, USA, pp. 83156.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garrido, C., Carbu, M., Fernandez-Acero, F. J., Budge, G., Vallejo, I., Colyer, A. and Cantoral, J. M. (2008): Isolation and pathogenicity of Colletotrichum spp. causing anthracnose of strawberry in South-West Spain. European J. Plant Pathology 120, 409415.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gauhl, F., Pasberg-Gauhl, C., Vuylsteke, D. and Ortiz, R. (1995): Multilocational evaluation of black Sigatoka resistance in banana and plantain. IITA Research Guide 47. 2nd edition. Training Program, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria. 59 p.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grijalba, C. M., Pérez-Trujillo, M. M., Diana Ruiz, D. and Ferrucho, A. M. (2015): Strawberry yields with high-tunnel and open-field cultivations and the relationship with vegetative and reproductive plant characteristics. Agronomía Colombiana 33, 147154.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gunnell, P. S. and Gubler, W. D. (1992): Taxonomy and morphology of Colletotrichum species pathogenic to strawberry. Mycologia 84, 157165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Han, Y. C., Zeng, X. G., Xiang, F. Y., Ren, L., Chen, F. Y. and Gu, Y. C. (2016): Distribution and characteristics of Colletotrichum spp. associated with anthracnose of strawberry in Hubei. China. Plant Dis. 100, 9961006.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horn, N. L. and Carver, R. G. (1962): Anthracnose and powdery mildew on strawberry plants in Louisiana. Plant Dis. Rep. 46, 591592.

  • Horn, N. L. and Carver, R. G. (1963): A new crown rot of strawberry plants caused by Colletotrichum fragariae. Phytopathology 53, 768770.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Howard, C. M. (1972): A strawberry fruit rot caused by Colletotrichum fragariae. Phytopathology 60, 600602.

  • Howard, C. M. and Albregts, E. E. (1983): Black leaf spot phase of strawberry anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloesporiodes (= fragariae). Plant Dis. 67, 11441146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Howard, C. M., Maas, J. L., Chandler, C. K. and Albregts, E. E. (1992): Anthracnose of strawberry caused by the Colletotrichum complex in Florida. Plant Dis. 76, 976981.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hummer, K. and Hancock, J. F. (2009): Strawberry genomics: botanical history, cultivation, traditional breeding, and new technologies. In: K. Folta and S. Gardiner (eds): Genetics and Genomics of Rosaceae. Springer Science + Business Media, New York, pp. 413436.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jensen, M. H. and Malter, A. J. (1995): Protected agriculture: a global review. Technical Papel No. 253. World Bank, Washington DC.

  • Jiang, W. J., Qu, D. Y., Mu, D. and Wang, L. R. (2003): Protected cultivation of horticultural crops in China. Hortic. Rev. 30, 115162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kadir, S., Carey, E. and Ennahli, S. (2006): Influence of high tunnel and field conditions on strawberry growth and development. HortScience 41, 329335.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, Y. K. and Xiao, C. L. (2008): Distribution and incidence of Sphaeropsis rot in apple in Washington State. Plant Disease 92, 940946.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kosar, M., Kafkas, E., Paydas, S., Hüsnü, K. and Baser, C. (2004): Phenolic composition of strawberry genotypes at different maturation stages. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52, 15861589.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lagziri, M. and El Amrani, A. (2009): Effect of a microbial based acaricidal product on spotted and predatory spidermites. African Crop Sciences J. 17, 111123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lamindia, J. A. (2002): Seasonal populations of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne hapla in strawberry roots. J. Nematology 34, 409413.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lamont, Jr. W. J. (2009): Overview of the use of high tunnels worldwide. HortTechnology, 19, 2529.

  • Lansari, A. (1985): Chemical weed control and effect of herbicides in strawberry (cv. Tioga) plantation in Morocco. Revue Horticole 257, 2730.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Legard, D. E. (2000): Colletotrichum diseases of strawberry in Florida. In: D. Prusky, S. Freeman and M. B. Dickman (eds): Colletotrichum: Host Specificity, Pathology and Host–pathogen Interactions. American Phytopathological Society Press, St. Paul, MN, USA, pp. 292299.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Legard, D. E., Ellis, M. A., Chandler, C. K. and Price, J. F. (2003): Integrated management of strawberry diseases in winter fruit production areas. In: N. F. Childers (ed.): The Strawberry. Dr. Norman F. Childers Publications, Gainesville, FL., pp. 111124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, L. and Yang, H. (2011): First report of strawberry necrotic virus in China. Plant Dis. 95, 1198.

  • Lieten, F. and Baetes, W. (1991): Greenhouse strawberry culture in peat bags. Adv. Strawberry Production 10, 5657.

  • López-Aranda, J. M. (2008): The cultivation of the strawberry in Huelva. In: J. de Andalucía (ed.): The Strawberry Crop at Huelva. Ideas, Exclusivas y Publicidad S.L., Sevilla (Spain), pp. 101174.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maas, J. L. (1998): Compendium of strawberry diseases. (2nd ed.), The American Phytopathological Society, Minnesota. 128 page

  • MacKenzie, S. J., Legard, D. E., Timmer, L. W., Chandler, C. K. and Peres, N. A. (2006): Resistance of strawberry cultivars to crown rot caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates from Florida is nonspecific. Plant Dis. 90, 10911097.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mangandi, J., Perez, N. A. and Whitaker, V. M. (2015): Identifying resistance to crown rot caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in strawberry. Plant Dis. 99, 954961.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, M. P. and García-Figueres, F. (1999): Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides caused anthracnose on olives. European J. Plant Pathology 105, 733745.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, R. R., Tzanetakis, I. E., Barnes, J. E. and Elmhirst, J. F. (2004): First report of strawberry latent ring spot virus in strawberry in United States and Canada. Plant Dis. 88, 575.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Masny, A. and Zurawicz, E. (2008): Susceptibility of new dessert strawberry cultivars to Verticillium wilt. Zesz. Nauk. Inst. Sad. Kwiac 16, 249255.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mdarhri, M. (2005): Isolement et identification de l'agent responsable de la maladie bactérienne des tâches angulaires du fraisier (Xanthomonas fragariae). Thèse 3ème Cycle Agronomie, Option Phytiatrie, Complexe Horticole, Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, Agadir (Maroc), 38 p.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mori, T., Kitamura, H. and Kuroda, K. (2005): Varietal differences in Fusarium wilt-resistance in strawberry cultivars and the segregation of this trait in F1 hybrids. J. Jap. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 74, 5759.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mouden, N. (2015): Etude de la situation phytosanitaire du fraisier (Fragaria×ananassa L.) au Maroc. Diversité fongique, pouvoir pathogène et recherche des moyens de lutte. Thèse de Doctorat, Université Ibn Tofail, Faculté des Sciences, Kenitra, Maroc, 305 p.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mouden, N., Benkirane, R., Ouazzani Touhami, A. and Douira, A. (2013): Mycoflore de quelques variétés du fraisier (Fragaria×ananassa L.), cultivées dans la région du Gharb et le Loukkos (Maroc). J. Appl. Biosciences 61, 44904514.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mouden, N., Al Batnan, A., Benkirane, R., Ouazzani Touhami, A. and Douira, A. (2016): Diversity and distribution of fungi from strawberry plants grown in Gharb-Loukkos (Morocco). International J. Recent Scientific Research 7, 1363013641.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Msairi, S., Chliyeh, M., Rhimini, Y., Selmaoui, K., Mouria, M., Ouazzani Touhami, A., Benkirane, R. and Douira, A. (2017): First Report on Colletotrichum acutatum of Olives in Morocco. Annual Research and Review in Biology 16, 18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Münch, S., Lingner, U. and Floss, D. S. (2008): The hemibiotrophic lifestyle of Colletotrichum species. J. Plant Physiol. 165, 4151.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ndoutoume-Ndong, A. (2007): Importance de l’association de clones d’hévéas dans l’amélioration de la production du caoutchouc en plantations industrielles au Gabon Tropicultura 25, 6669.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nelson, M. D., Gubler, W. D. and Shaw, D. W. (1996): Relative resistance of 47 strawberry cultivars to powdery mildew in California greenhouse and field environments. Plant Dis. 80, 326328.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neri, D., Baruzzi, G., Massetani, F. and Faedi, W. (2012): Strawberry production in forced and protected culture in Europe as a response to climate change. Can. J. Plant Sci. 92, 10211036.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nicolov, P. (2006): Study on the fauna of the strawberry. V. Survey of the strawberry fauna. Ecology and Future. Bulgarian J. Ecol. Sci. 5, 3840.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nitzan, N., Cummings, T. F. and Johnson, D. A. (2008): Disease potential of soil- and tuberborne inocula of Colletotrichum coccodes and black dot severity on potato. Plant Dis. 92, 14971502.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Connell, R. J. and Ride, J. P. (1990): Chemical detection and ultrastructural localization of chitin in cell walls of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 37, 3953.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ogawa, J. M. and English, H. (1991): Diseases of temperate zone tree fruit and nut crops. In: University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Oakland, CA, pp. 345461.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pardo, E. M., Grellet, C. F., Salazar, S. M., Castagnaro, A. P., Díaz Ricci, J. C. and Arias, M. E. (2012): Histopathology of the resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides of wild strawberries and species related to commercial strawberry. Australian J. Crop Science 6, 11471153.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Particka, C. and Hancock, J. F. (2005): Field evaluation of strawberry genotypes for tolerance to black root rot on fumigated and nonfumigated soil. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 130, 688693.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paulus, A. O. (1990): Fungal diseases of strawberry. J. HortSci. 25, 885889.

  • Pierce, L. and McCain, A. H. (1990): Anthracnose of piggyback plant caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. J. Environ. Hort. 8, 207209.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prusky, D. (1996): Pathogen quiescence in postharvest diseases. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 34, 413434.

  • Prusky, D. and Plumbey, R. A. (1992): Quiescent infections of Colletotrichum in tropical and subtropical fruit. In: J. A. Bailey, and M. J. Jeger (eds): Colletotrichum: Biology, Pathology and Control. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp. 289307.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Read, P. J. and Hide, G. A. (1995): Development of black dot disease (Colletotrichum coccodes (Wallr.) Hughes) and its effect on the growth and yield of potato plants. Annals of Appl. Biol. 127, 5772.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roger, L. (1953): Phytopathologie des pays chauds Tome II, Paul Lechevalier Paris. 1130 p.

  • Rubio, S. A., Alfonso, A. M., Grijalba, C. M. and Pérez, M. M. (2014): Determinación de los costos de producción de la fresa cultivada a campo abierto y bajo macrotúnel. Rev. Colomb. Cienc. Hortic. 8, 6779.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schilder, A. M. C., Gillett, J. M. and Sysak, R. W. (2001): Evaluation of fungicides for control of anthracnose fruit rot of blueberries. Fungicide and Infanticide Tests 2001: SMF5.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seijo, R., Chandler, C. K., Mertely, J. C., Moyer, C. and Peres, N. A. (2008): Resistance of strawberry cultivars and advanced selections to anthracnose and botrytis fruit rots. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 121, 246248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shaw, D. V. and Gordon, T. R. (2003): Genetic response for reaction to Verticillium wilt in strawberry with two stage family and genotypic selection. HortSci. 38, 432434.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, B. J. (1986): First report of Colletotrichum acutatum on strawberry in the United States. Plant Dis. 70, 1074.

  • Smith, B. J. (1998): Anthracnose crown rot. In: J. L. Mass (ed.): Compendium of Strawberry Diseases. 2nd ed. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN, pp. 4648.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, B. J., Black, L. L. (1990): Morphological, cultural, and pathogenic variation among Colletotrichum species isolated from strawberry. Plant Dis. 74, 6976.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, B. J., Magee, J. B. and Gupton, C. L. (1996): Susceptibility of rabbiteye blueberry cultivars to postharvest diseases. Plant Dis. 80, 215218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sreenivasaprasad, S. and Talhinhas, P. (2005): Genotypic and phenotypic diversity in Colletotrichum acutatum, a cosmopolitan pathogen causing anthracnose on a wide range of hosts. Molecular Plant Pathol. 6, 361378.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Talubnak, C. and Soytong, K. (2010): Biological control of Vanilla anthracnose using Emericella nidulans. International J. Agricultural Technology 6, 4755.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tanji, A., Benicha M. and Mamdouh, M. (2014): Technique de production de fraisier. Transfert de Technologie en Agriculture 201, 19.

  • Timmer, L. W. and Brown, G. E. (2000): Biology and control of anthracnose diseases of citrus. In: D. Prusky, S. Freeman and M. B. Dickman (eds): Colletotrichum: Host Specificity, Pathology and Host-Pathogen Interaction. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN, pp. 300316.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Urena-Padilla, A. R., Mackenzie, S. J., Bowen, B. W. and Legard, D. E. (2002): Etiology and population genetics of Colletotrichum spp. causing crown and fruit rot of strawberry. Phytopathology 92, 12451252.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Hemelrijck, W., Debode, J., Heungens, K., Maes, M. and Creemers, P. (2010): Phenotypic and genetic characterization of Colletotrichum isolates from Belgian strawberry fields. Plant Pathology 59, 853861.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Voca, S., Jakobek, L., Druzica, J., Sindrak, Z., Dobricevic, N., Seruga, M. and Kovac, A. (2009): Quality of strawberries produced applying two different growing systems. CyTA –J. Food 7, 201207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wharton, P. S. and Schilder, A. C. (2008): Novel infection strategies of Colletotrichum acutatum on ripe blueberry fruit. Plant Pathology 57, 122134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Winardiantika, V., Lee Y. H., Park, N. I. and Yeoung, Y-R. (2015): Effects of cultivar and harvest time on the contents of antioxidant phytochemicals in strawberry fruits. Hortic. Environ. Biotechnol. 56, 732739.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wing, K. B., Pritts, M. P. and Wilcox, W. F. (1995): Biotic, edaphic and cultural factors associated with strawberry black root rot in New York. HortScience 30, 8690.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wittwer, S. H. and Castilla, N. (1995): Protected cultivation of horticultural crops worldwide. HortTechnol. 5, 623.

  • Xiao, C. L., Chandler, C. K., Price, J. F., Duval, J. R., Mertely, J. C. and Legard, D. E. (2001): Comparison of epidemics of botrytis fruit rot and powdery mildew of strawberry in large plastic tunnel and field production systems. Plant Dis. 85, 901909.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xue, A. G. and Davidson, C. G. (1995): Occurrence of anthracnose fruit rot caused by Colletotrichum acutatum on day-neutral strawberries in Manitoba. Canadian Plant Disease Survey 75, 185190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yoshida, S. and Tsukiboshi, T. (2002): Shoot blight and leaf spot of blueberry anthracnose by Colletotrichum acutatum. J. General Plant Pathol. 68, 246248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zahdali, G. (2003): Evaluation des niveaux de résistance de Tetranychus urticae Koch à différents acaricides d´usage fréquents sur fraisier à Loukkos. Mémoire 3ème Cycle Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, Rabat, 125 p.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zaitlin, B., Zehr, E. I. and Dean, R. A. (2000): Latent infection on peach caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and by Colletotrichum acutatum. Canadian J. Botany 22, 224228.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zebrowska, J., Hortynski, J., Cholewa, T. and Honcz, K. (2006): Resistance to Verticillium dahliae (Kleb.) in the strawberry breeding lines. Commun. Agric. Appl. Biol. Sci., 71, 10311036.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, Q-Y., Zhang, L-Q., Song, L-L., Duan, K., Li, N., Yan-Xiu Wang, Y-X. and Gao, Q-H. (2016): The different interactions of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides with two strawberry varieties and the involvement of salicylic acid. Horticulture Research 3, 110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zulfiqar, M., Brlansky, R. H. and Timmer, L. W. (1996): Infection of flower and vegetative tissues of citrus by Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. Mycologia, 88, 121128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation