View More View Less
  • 1 University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
  • 2 Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
  • 3 University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran
Restricted access

A safflower disease was observed in the fields of South Khorasan (Iran) in 2017–2018. Affected plants had extensive fasciation, bushy growth, small leaves, phyllody and shortened internodes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed using universal phytoplasma primers pairs P1/P7, R16mF1/mR1 and M1/M2 to detect putative phytoplasma (s). Nested PCR analyses showed that all symptomatic plants were positive for phytoplasma infection, while asymptomatic plants were negative. Nucleotide sequence analysis and RFLP analyses of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA sequences indicated that safflower fasciation in Iran was associated with a phytoplasma that belonged to the peanut witches' broom group (16SrII). Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that safflowers fasciation phytoplasma (SaP) must be classified in ‘Candidatus phytoplasma aurantifolia’ (16SrII) taxonomic group. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a phytoplasma associated with safflower fasciation in Iran and the world.

  • Deng, S. and Hiruki, C. (1991): Amplification of 16S rRNA genes from culturable and nonculturable Mollicutes. J. Microb. Methods 14, 5361.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doyle, J. J. and Doyle, J. L. (1987): A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochem Bulletin. 19, 1115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gibb, K. S., Padovan, A. C. and Mogen, B. D. (1995): Studies on sweet potato little-leaf phytoplasmas detected in sweet potato and other species growing in Northern Australia. Phytopathology 85, 169174.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gundersen, D. E. and Lee, I. M. (1996): Ultrasensitive detection of phytoplasmas by nested-PCR assays using two universal primer pairs. Phytopathol. Medit 35, 144151.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hodgetts, J., Ball, T., Boonham, N., Mumford, R. and Dickinson, M. (2007): Taxonomic groupings based on the analysis on the 16s/23s spacer regions which shows greater variation than the normally used 16srRNA gene results in classification similar to that derived from 16s rRNA data but with more detailed subdivisions. Plant Pathol. 56, 357365.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hogenhout, S. A., Oshima, K., Ammar, E.-D., Kakizawa, S., Kingdom, H. N. and Namba, S. (2008): Phytoplasmas: bacteria that manipulate plants and insects. Molecular Plant Pathol 9, 403423.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jeger, M., Bragard, C., Caffier, D., Candresse, T., Chatzivassiliou, E., Dehnen-Schmutz, K., Gilioli, G., Gregoire, J. C., Jaques Miret, J. A., Navajas Navarro, M., Niere, B., Parnell, S., Potting, R., Rafoss, T., Rossi, V., Urek, G., Van Bruggen, A., Van der Werf, W., West, J., Winter, S., Gardi, C., Aukhojee, M., Bergeretti, F. and MacLeod, A. (2017): Pest categorisation of Hishimonus phycitis. EFSA J. 15, 50375063.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klein, M. (1970): Safflower phyllody, a mycoplasma disease of Carthamus tinctorius in Israel. Plant Dis. Rep. 54, 735738.

  • Kumar, S., Stecher, G. and Tamura, K. (2016): MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Mol. Biol. Evol. 33, 18701874.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, I. M., Davis, R. E. and Gundersen-Rindal, D. E. (2000): Phytoplasma: Phytopathogenic Mollicutes. Annual Rev. Microb. 54, 221255.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saeidi, K., Nur Azura, A., Omar, D. and Abood, F. (2011): Pests of safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.) and their natural enemies in Gachsara, Iran. South Asian J. Exp. Biol. 1, 286291.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Salehi, M., Izadpanah, K., Siampour, M., Bagheri, A. and Faghihi, S. M. (2007): Transmission of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia’ to Bakraee (Citrus reticulata hybrid) by feral Hishimonus phycitis leafhoppers in Iran. Plant Disease 91, 466.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Salehi, M., Izadpanah, K., Siampour, M., Firouz, R. and Salehi, E. (2009): Molecular characterization and transmission of safflower phylody phytoplasma in Iran. J. Plant Pathol. 91, 453458.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schneider, B., Seemüller, E., Smart, C. D. and Kirkpatrick, B. C. (1995): Phylogenetic classification of plant pathogenetic mycoplasma-like organisms or phytoplasmas. In: S. Razin and J. G. Tully (eds): Molecular and Diagnostic Procedures in Mycoplasmology. Academic Press, Vol. I, San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 369380.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tamura, K. and Nei, M. (1993): Estimation of the number of nucleotide substitutions in the control region of mitochondrial DNA in humans and chimpanzees. Mol. Biol. Evol. 10, 512526.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tamura, K., Nei, M. and Kumar, S. (2004): Prospects for inferring very large phylogenies by using the neighbor-joining method. Proc. of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 101, 1103011035.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, J. D., Gibson, T. J., Plewniak, F., Jeanmougin, F. and Higgins, D. G. (1997): The CLUSTAL X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Resarch 25, 48764882.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zohary, D., Hopf, M. and Weiss, E. (2012): Domestication of Plants in the Old World: The Origin and Spread of Domesticated Plants in Southwest Asia, Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. Oxford University Press, 4th ed. 168 p. ISBN 0199549060.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, Y., Wei, W., Lee, I. M., Shao, J., Suo, X. and Davis, R. E. (2009): Construction of an interactive online phytoplasma classification tool, iPhyClassifier, and its application in analysis of the peach X-disease phytoplasma group (16SrIII). International J. Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiol. 59, 25822593.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zreik, L., Carle, P., Bove, J. M. and Garnier, M. (1995): Characterization of the mycoplasmalike organism associated with witches-broom disease of lime and proposition of a candidatus taxon for the organism, Candidatus-phytoplasma-aurantifolia. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45, 449453.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wei, W., Davis, R. E., Lee, M. and Zhao, Y. (2007): Computer-simulated RFLP analysis of 16SrRNA genes: identification of ten new phytoplasma groups. International J. Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiol. 57, 18551867.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wei, W., Lee, I. M., Davis, R. E., Suo, X. and Zhao, Y. (2008): Automated RFLP pattern comparison and similarity coefficient calculation for rapid delineation of new and distinct phytoplasma 16Sr subgroup lineages. International J. Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiol. 58, 23682377.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weintraub, P. G. and Beanland, L. (2006): Insect vectors of phytoplasmas. Annual Rev. Ent. 51, 91111.

 

The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE.

 

 

  • Scimago Journal Rank(2019): 0.177
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2019): 19
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q4 Insect Science
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q4 Plant Science

 

  • Scimago Journal Rank(2018): 0.198
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2018): 17
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q4 Insect Science
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q4 Plant Science

Language: English

Founded in 1966
Publication: One volume of two issues annually
Publication Programme: 2020. Vol. 55.
Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • Biological Abstracts
  • BIOSIS Previews
  • CAB Abstracts
  • Chemical Abstracts
  • Elsevier GEO Abstracts
  • Globals Health
  • Referativnyi Zhurnal
  • SCOPUS
  • Zoological Abstracts

 

Subscribers can access the electronic version of every printed article.

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Barna, Balázs

Editorial Board

      Benedek, P. (Mosonmagyaróvár)
      Hernández J.A. (Murcia, Spain)
      Érsek, T. (Mosonmagyaróvár)
      Francke, W. (Hamburg)
      Hornok, L. (Gödöllő)
      Horváth, J. (Keszthely)
      Király, Z. (Budapest)
      Kiss, L. (Budapest)
      Kogel, K.-H. (Giessen)
      Kőmíves, T. (Budapest)
      Palkovics, L. (Budapest)
      Schoelz, J. E. (Columbia, Missouri)
      Schulz, S. (Braunschweig)
      Seybold, S. (Davis)
      Skoczowski A. (Cracow)
      Szőcs, G. (Budapest)
      Tóth, M. (Budapest)
      Virányi, F. (Gödöllő)
      Diaz-Vivancos P. (Murcia, Spain)

Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
P.O. Box 102
H-1525 Budapest, Hungary
Phone: (36 1) 487 7534
Fax: (36 1) 487 7555
E-mail: acta@agrar.mta.hu