View More View Less
  • 1 University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg 3201, South Africa
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $20.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $542.00

In South Africa, the avocado (Persea americana) is an important fruit, grown primarily for export and contributing ZAR 1.75 billion to the gross domestic product of the country. As an export driven industry, optimising exportable avocado fruit volume is a primary concern. Wind induced abrasion and damage by thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), through their feeding on avocado fruit results in corky tissue development (scarring) and making the fruit unsuitable for export. The study aimed to determine the economic losses caused by these agents as well as assess different cultivar responses to scarring damage. Across cultivars, the 1.49% revenue annually due to Scirtothrips aurantii downgrading (3.86% loss factor), translating to ZAR 34.90 million (US$2.39 million). Packhouse study results showed that both thrips and wind abrasion damage accounted for 30% scarring damage, a loss factor of 13.72% and a combined revenue loss of 5.57%. The cultivar ‘Pinkerton’ showed the greatest susceptibility to scarring damage by both wind and S. aurantii whilst the cultivar ‘Carmen®-Hass’ showed a natural predisposition to higher levels of thrips damage. The presence of macadamia trees near avocado trees predisposes avocado fruit to S. aurantii damage.

  • Ascención-Betanzos, G., Bravo-Mojica, H., González-Hernández, H., Johansen-Naime, R. M. and Becerril-Román, A. E. (1999): Fluctuación poblacional y daño de trips en aguacate cv. Hass [Population fluctuacion and thrips damage on cv. Hass avocado ]. Rev. Chapingo Ser. Hortic. 5, 291296.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bara, G. T. and Laing, M. D. (2019): Determination of the natural host status of avocado fruit to pestiferous thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. African Entomol. 27, 245253.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bedford, E. C. G. (1943): Biology and economic importance of the South African citrus thrips. Publications of the University of Pretoria, South Africa, Series 2. Natural Science 7, 168.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blakey, R. J. and Wolstenholme, B. N. (2014): 35 Years of SAAGA Yearbook: an overview. South African Avocado Growers’ Association Yearbook 37, 1617.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cowley, J. M., Baker, R. T. and Harte, D. S. (1992): Definition and determination of host status for multivoltine fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. J. Econ. Entomol. 85, 312317.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DAFF (2017): A profile of the South African avocado market value chain. [Online]. Arcadia, South Africa http:// http://www.nda.agric.za. Accessed 3 October 2019, Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Directorate Marketing.

    • Export Citation
  • Darvas, J. M. and Kotze, J. M. (1987): Avocado fruit diseases and their control in South Africa. South African Avocado Growers' Association Yearbook 10, 117119.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dennill, G. B. and Erasmus, M. J. (1992): Basis for a practical technique for monitoring thrips in avocado orchards. Crop Prot. 11, 8991.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donkin, D. J. (2018): Growth predicted for the S.A avocado industry [Online]. https://www.agrisa.co.za/ growth-predicted-sa-avocado-industry. Accessed 30 June 2018.

    • Export Citation
  • Donkin, D. J. (2019): An overview of the South African avocado industry. South African Avocado Growers' Association. [Online]. https://www.avocado.co.za/overview-south-african-avocado-industry/f_ Toc409528112. Accessed 3 October 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dreistadt, S. H. (2007): Integrated pest management for avocados. UCANR Publications.

  • Du Toit, W. J., Schutte, M. S. and Steyn, W. P. (1991): Parasitoids of the heart-shaped scale, Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) on avocados in South Africa. South African Avocado Growers’ Association Yearbook 14, 7477.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Erichsen, C. and Schoeman, A. (1992): Economic losses due to insect pests on avocado fruit in the Nelspruit/ Hazyview region of South Africa during 1991. South African Avocado Growers' Association Yearbook 15, 4954.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faber, B. A., Wee, L. Y. and Phillips, P. A. (2000): Effect of abamectin treatment for avocado thrips on populations of Persea and avocado bud mite and their associated damage to leaves and fruit. California Avocado Society Yearbook 84, 95109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FAOSTAT (2019): Production of avocado: top 10 countries [Online]. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/fdata/QC/ visualize. Accessed 24 Februrary 2019, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Statistics Division.

    • Export Citation
  • Gilbert, M. J. and Bedford, E. C. G. (1998): Citrus thrips, Scirtothrips aurantii Faure. Citrus Pests in the Republic of South Africa. E. C. G. Bedford, M. A. van den Berg and E. A. de Villiers. South Africa, Agricultural Research Council, 164170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grout, T. G. and Richard, G. I. (1990): The influence of windbreak species on citrus thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) populations and their damage to South African citrus orchards. J. Entomological Society of Southern Africa 53, 151157.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grové, T., Giliomee, J. and Pringle, K. (2000): Seasonal abundance of different stages of the citrus thrips, Scirtothrips aurantii, on two mango cultivars in South Africa. Phytoparasitica 28, 4353.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoddle, M. S., Robinson, L. and Morgan, D. (2002): Attraction of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aeolothripidae) to colored sticky cards in a California avocado orchard. Crop Prot. 21, 383388.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoddle, M. S., Jetter, K. M. and Morse, J. G. (2003): The economic impact of Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on California avocado production. Crop Prot. 22, 485493.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holmes, M. and Farrell, D. (1993): Orchard microclimate as modified by windbreaks: A preliminary investigation. South African Avocado Growers' Association Yearbook 16, 5964.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horne, W. T. (1929): Carapace Spots. California Avocado Association 1929 Yearbook 14: 129. http://www.avo- cadosource.com/cas_yearbooks/cas_14_1929/cas_1929_pg_129.pdf(129).

    • Export Citation
  • Nelson, R. (2014): Making the grade-are we still exporting good quality avocados? South African Avocado Growers' Association Yearbook 37, 915.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Phillips, P. A., Bekey, R. S. and Bailey, B. J. (1995): Early harvest to manage greenhouse thrips in avocado. In: B. L. Parker, M. Skinner and T. Lewis (eds): Thrips Biology and Management. Boston, MA, Springer, 276, 419422.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Phillips, P. A., Faber, B. A., Rodgers, J. and Yee, W. L. (1999): Avocado fruit scarring caused by the avocado thrips, Scirtothrips perseae. Abstracts, IV World Avocado Congress. Uruapan, Mexico, 1O1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rafter, M. A., Hereward, J. P. and Walter, G. H. (2013): Species limits, quarantine risk and the intrigue of a polyphagous invasive pest with highly restricted host relationships in its area of invasion. Evol. Appl. 6, 11951207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schaffer, B. A., Wolstenholme, B. N. and Whiley, A. W. (2013): Introduction. In: B. A. Schaffer, B. N. Wolstenholme and A. W. Whiley (eds): The Avocado: Botany, Production and Uses. CABI, Wallinford, UK, 2nd ed. pp. 268300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schoeman, P. S. (2019): Quantifying and controlling thrips and scales in avocado. South African Avocado Growers Association Symposium. Tzaneen, SAAGA.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scholefield, P., Sedgley, M. and Alexander, D. M. (1985): Carbohydrate cycling in relation to shoot growth, floral initiation and development and yield in the avocado. Scientia Horticulturae 25, 99110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sippel, A. D., Holmes, M. A. and Claassens, N. J. F. (1994): Avocado fruit maturity (cv. ,Pinkerton') as affected by fruitset period. South African Avocado Growers' Association Yearbook 17, 9194.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stevens, P., Froud, K. and Mills, E. (1999): Effects of greenhouse thrips (Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis) lifestage, density and feeding duration on damage to avocado fruit. Rev. Chapingo Ser. Hortic. 5, 297300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zentmyer, G. A. (1979): Report on Phytophthora root rot of avocado in South Africa. South African Avocado Growers’ Association Research Report 3, 79.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation