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A holttestekkel, boncolással kapcsolatos tapasztalatok a megfelelő orvosi attitűd kialakulásában játszott szerepük miatt döntőnek bizonyulnak a medikusok professzionalizációjában. Az itt szerzett élmények beavatási rítusnak (Gennep, 1960) is tekinthetők, melynek következtében a laikus látásmód átalakul egy szakértőibb, tudományosabb szemléletmóddá. Hogy ezek az élmények sajátosságukból adódóan gyakorta jelentenek stresszforrást vagy szorongást a hallgatók számára, az szinte magától értetődő, mégis az érzelmi hatásokkal egyáltalán nem vagy csak alig foglalkozott eddig az orvosképzés, a hallgatókat magukra hagyva a megküzdésben. Bizonyítékok szólnak amellett, hogy a feldolgozás sikeressége a megfelelő pályaszocializáció segítője, de ugyanakkor hátráltatója is lehet. A boncolással kapcsolatos élmények feltérképezése, hatásainak megértése és a szakirodalomban gyakran nem egyértelműfogalmak tisztázása hozzájárulhat ahhoz, hogy a pályaszocializáció folyamatát megfelelő módszerekkel segíteni tudjuk, és nyíltabbá tegyük e tárgyaknak – a korszerű, tudományos ismeretek átadása mellett – egy nagyon fontos feladatát, a humanista értékek közvetítésén keresztül az orvos–beteg kapcsolat optimalizálását. Jelen írásunk célja a témában megjelent fontosabb szakirodalom áttekintése, a potenciális kutatási irányok ismertetése.

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