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Az egészségmagatartás alapvető szerepet játszik az egészség-betegség alakulásában, ezért az egészségkárosító viselkedések megváltoztatása az egészségpszichológiai és népegészségügyi kutatások egyik legnagyobb kihívása. A Ralf Schwarzer és kutatócsoportja által kidolgozott az egészségmagatartás szociális-kognitív folyamatmodellje (Health Action Process Approach; HAPA) — továbbfejlesztve és integrálva a korábbi egészségviselkedésekkel kapcsolatos modelleket — hatékonyan alkalmazható számos egészségviselkedés kialakítása, valamint rövid és hosszú távú módosítása érdekében. A legtöbb szociális-kognitív modell a viselkedéses szándék kialakulását hivatott magyarázni és előrejelezni, azonban mind a hétköznapi tapasztalat, mind a kutatási eredmények szerint a kialakított szándék nem minden esetben vezet tényleges viselkedéshez. A modell ezért — az ún. szándék-viselkedés-rés áthidalása érdekében — megkülönbözteti a szándék kialakulása előtti motivációs szakaszt, amely (a korábbi modellekhez hasonlóan) a szándék megformálásához, valamint a kialakulása utáni akarati (volicionális) szakaszt, amely a tényleges egészségviselkedéshez vezet. Az integrációra törekvő HAPA-modell a korábbi klasszikus modellekhez képest nagy hangsúlyt fektet a szándék kialakulása utáni tényezőkre, úgy, mint a cselekvés és az akadályokkal történő megküzdés tervezése, valamint a cselekvés fenntartásához hozzájáruló önszabályozási folyamatok és a specifikusan ezzel kapcsolatos személyes hatékonyság érzése.

Az egészségmagatartás szociális-kognitív folyamatmodelljének érvényességét és gyakorlati alkalmazhatóságát nagyszámú empirikus kutatás eredménye igazolta és támasztotta alá az elmúlt évtizedekben, számos különböző egészségviselkedés vonatkozásában (testmozgás, egészséges táplálkozás, higiénés kézmosási szokások, terápiás adherencia). Jelen tanulmány célja az egészségmagatartás szociális-kognitív folyamatmodelljének bemutatása, valamint a prevenciós és rehabilitációs munkában való alkalmazhatóságának felvázolása.

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