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Háttér és célkitűzések

Jelen tanulmány célja, hogy áttekintse és rendszerezze a hospice önkéntesség lélektani vonatkozásait vizsgáló kutatások elmúlt évtizedekben született eredményeit, különös tekintettel az önkéntes tevékenységeinek, személyiség- és motivációs hátterének kutatásaira.

Módszer

Tudományos adatbázisokban történő kulcsszavas keresés és a téma szempontjából releváns magyar (Kharón Thanatológiai Szemle) és angol nyelvű közlemények (n = 60) kiválasztása után azok szisztematikus szakirodalmi áttekintése különböző témák alapján (motivációk, személyiség, észlelt kihívások, stressztényezők).

Eredmények

A kutatások nagy része kiemeli, hogy míg a hospice szolgáltatások elkezdése, majd később folytatása is jelentős összefüggést mutat a magas szintű altruisztikus motivációkkal (pl. társadalmi felelősségvállalás, mások fájdalmának enyhítésére irányuló vágy, proszociális értékek kifejezése, morális felelősség), addig az egoisztikus motivációk (pl. önértékelés növelése, személyes növekedés, szociális kapcsolatok, karrier) főként az önkéntesség kezdeti szakaszában fontosak, és a hosszú távú önkéntessé válás során már kevésbé meghatározónak tekinthetők. Bár a személyes érintettség (pl. egy hozzátartozó halála vagy saját betegség) gyakori motívum az önkéntesség elkezdésének hátterében, a hosszú távú önkéntessé válásra az önkéntesként megélt tapasztalatok (a valahová tartozás érzése, jelentőségteljes munka végzése és a hospice team tagjaival való hatékony együttműködés) gyakorolják a legjelentősebb hatást. Az önkéntesek személyiségvonásait vizsgálva az életkori vagy nemi sztenderdekhez, illetve az önkéntes tevékenységeket nem végzőkhöz képest általában magasabb Extraverzió, Barátságosság és Nyitottság, valamint alacsonyabb Neuroticizmus pontszámokat találunk. Természetesen az további vizsgálat tárgyát képezheti, hogy ez az eredmény az önkéntesség hatására jött létre, vagy eleve azok jelentkeztek önkéntesnek, akik ezekkel a pontszámokkal voltak jellemezhetőek. Ugyancsak összekapcsolódik a hospice önkéntességgel a magasabb empátiás törődés, gondoskodásigény és szociális nézőpontváltásra való képesség is, amelyek nélkül a nehéz érzelmi helyzetekkel (kliensek elvesztése, nővérektől és hozzátartozóktól érkező elutasítás) való hatékony megküzdés elképzelhetetlennek tűnik.

Következtetések

A hospice önkéntesség egy magas frusztrációs toleranciát, folyamatos önismereti munkát és hatékony megküzdési módokat igénylő önkéntességtípus. Ennek lélektani szempontú vizsgálatakor egyaránt figyelembe kell vennünk az önkéntes személyre és az önkéntesség haszonélvezőjének pszichés jellemzőire gyakorolt hatást.

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Editor(s): Edit CZEGLÉDI

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  • László Csaba DÉGI (Babeş-Bolyai Tudományegyetem, Kolozsvár, Románia)
  • Zsolt DEMETROVICS (Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest)
  • Barna KONKOLŸ THEGE (Waypoint Centre for Mental Health Care, Penetanguishene, Canada)
  • Karolina KÓSA (University of Debrecen, Debrecen)
  • Márta NOVÁK (University of Toronto, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada)
  • Bettina PIKÓ (University of Szeged, Szeged)
  • József RÁCZ (Semmelweis University, Budapest; Eötvös University, Budapest)
  • István TIRINGER (University of Pécs, Pécs)

Editorial Correspondence: Czeglédi, Edit
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2020  
Scimago
H-index
11
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,15
Scimago
Quartile Score
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology Q4
Psychiatry and Mental Health Q4
Scopus
Cite Score
23/67=0,3
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology 57/60 (Q4)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 452/502 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,24
Scopus
Cites
77
Scopus
Documents
14
Days from submission to acceptance 140
Days from acceptance to publication 90

 

2019  
Scimago
H-index
10
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,127
Scimago
Quartile Score
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology Q4
Psychiatry and Mental Health Q4
Scopus
Cite Score
26/70=0,4
Scopus
Cite Score Rank
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology 59/61 (Q4)
Psychiatry and Mental Health 442/506 (Q4)
Scopus
SNIP
0,135
Scopus
Cites
67
Scopus
Documents
18

 

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Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
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2021 Volume 22
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