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  • 1 Semmelweis Egyetem, Klinikai Pszichológia Tanszék, Budapest
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Elméleti háttér

Az EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) mint pszichoterápiás módszer harminc éve létezik. A Francine Shapiro által az 1980-as évek második felében az Egyesült Államokban kidolgozott eljárás kezdetben sok vitát kavart, de ma már bizonyítékokon alapuló módszernek számít a poszttraumás stressz zavar (PTSD) kezelésében. Használata számos más mentális betegség (pl. pánikzavar, depresszió, kényszerbetegség) gyógyításában is egyre gyakoribb. Magyarországon a módszer még kevéssé terjedt el.

Cél

Bemutatni az EMDR-terápia történetét, elméleti hátterét, a hatásmechanizmusára vonatkozó hipotéziseket, a kezelés struktúráját és hatásait.

Módszerek

Szakirodalmi áttekintés az angol nyelvű adatbázisok (ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO) alapján, az eljárás nevével történt szisztematikus kulcsszókereséssel. Az áttekintés lehetőség szerint összefoglaló vagy magas evidenciaszintű (randomizált kontrollált) vizsgálatokra alapoz.

Eredmények

EMDR során deszenzitizáció, a traumás emlékekhez való jobb hozzáférés és mélyebb információfeldolgozás történik, ami nemcsak stresszcsökkentést, hanem adaptívabb, magasabb szintű működést eredményez. Képalkotó eljárásokkal kimutatható, hogy az EMDR specifikus hatótényezője, a bilaterális ingerlés, egyebek közt paraszimpatikus túlsúlyt eredményez, és kedvező változásokat idéz elő a PTSD által érintett agyi struktúrák működésében. Az EMDR hatásmechanizmusáról számos hipotézis született (pl. dekondicionálás-, munkamemória-, REM-hipotézis), mindazonáltal, az eljárásban valószínűleg több aktív komponens van jelen. Sikeres EMDR-terápia hatására a személy napirendre tér az életútját megakasztó események felett, és egységes narratívába emeli őket, amely hozzájárulhat személyisége integrációjához.

Következtetések

Az EMDR nemcsak ismert és eredeti terápiás elemek újszerű kombinációja, nem is a már meglévő traumakezelési eljárások technikai kiegészítése, hanem bizonyítottan hatékony, teljes értékű, integratív, mégis önálló pszichoterápiás módszer, saját elméleti modellel, hatásmechanizmussal és eszköztárral.

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