View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, USA
  • 2 Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Magatartástudományi Intézet, Pécs
  • 3 Kaposvári Egyetem, Pedagógiai és Pszichológiai Tanszék, Kaposvár
  • 4 Pázmány Péter Katolikus Egyetem, Budapest
  • 5 Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Bölcsészettudományi Kar, Pszichológiai Intézet, Pécs

Háttér

Az abszorpció mérésére a leggyakrabban a 34 tételes Tellegen Abszorpció Skálátalkalmazzák. Az önjellemző mérőeszköz széles körű elterjedtségének ellenére viszonylag‍csekély azon közlemények száma, amelyek a mérőeszköz részletes pszichometriai jellemzőinekfeltárására (pl. faktorszerkezet, skálák belső konzisztenciája) irányulnak.

Célkitűzés

Vizsgálatunk fő kérdésfeltevése az, hogy az abszorpció mennyire tekinthető önálló, látensdimenziónak, bontható-e további alfaktorokra, illetve az alfaktorokból képzett skálák milyen‍megbízhatóságúak, és mennyivel árnyalják a főskálán szerzett eredményeket. Kíváncsiakvoltunk arra is, hogy az 5-fokozatú Likert-skálás és a dichotóm válaszformátumok‍mennyire befolyásolják a mérőeszköz strukturális validitását és skáláinak belső homogenitását.

Módszerek

Az 5-fokozatú Likert-skálás válaszformátumú TAS-t összesen 1935hallgató töltötte ki, a dichotóm válaszformátumút pedig 399 személy. A mérőeszköz‍strukturális validitását feltáró és megerősítő faktorelemzések (pl. egyfaktoros modell, modellmásodrendű faktorral, bifaktoros modell), valamint parallel-elemzés segítségével‍vizsgáltuk. A kapott alksálák reliabilitását nemcsak a hagyományos módon (Cronbachalfa),hanem az általános faktor kontrollálása mellett is kiszámoltuk (hierarchikus omega,‍magyarázott közös variancia).

Eredmények

Az eredeti 34 tételes változatok (Likert-skálásés dichotóm válaszformátumú), illetve a feltáró faktorelemzések eredményei alapján rövidített‍23 tételes változat megerősítő faktorelemzései során egyértelműen a bifaktoroselrendezések adták a legjobb illeszkedési mutatókat és az általános faktor (főskála) megbízhatósága‍kiváló volt. Ezzel szemben az alkálák reliabilitása, az általános faktor kontrollálásamellett, már nem volt megfelelő. Az alkalmazható faktorok számának meghatározására‍a parallel-elemzés kiváló becslést adott, mind az 5-fokozatú Likert-skálás, mind adichotóm válaszformátum esetében az egydimenziós szerkezetet valószínűsítette.

Következtetések

A kapott eredményeink egyrészről alátámasztják azt, hogy az abszorpció egy látens pszichológiai változónak tekinthető, másrészről pedig a hagyományos statisztikaimódszerek korlátaira hívják fel a figyelmet, és a többféle módszer kombinált alkalmazásának‍hatékonyságát támasztják alá.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Adorno, T.W., Frendkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D.J., & Sanford, R.N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harper & Row

  • American Psychiatric Association., (2013). Personality disorders. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing Inc.

  • Anderson, J.C., & Gerbing, D.W. (1984). The effect of sampling error on convergence, improper solutions, and goodness-of-fit indices for maximum likelihood confirmatory factoranalysis. Psychometrika, 49, 155173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bachner-Melman, R., Dina, C., Zohar, A.H., Constantini, N., Lerer, E., Hoch, S., et al., (2005) AVPR1a and SLC6A4 gene polymorphisms are associated with creative dance performance. PLoS Genet, 1(3), e42. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0010042

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bentler, P.M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588606.

  • Bentler, P.M., & Bonnet, D.C. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88(3), 588606.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bernstein, E.M., & Putnam, F.W. (1986). Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174(12), 72735.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, T. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guildford

  • Browne, M.W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (136162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Butcher, J.N., Graham, J.R., Tellegen, A., & Kaemmer, B. (1989). Manual for the restandardized Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: MMPI-2. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cabrera-Nguyen, P. (2010). Author Guidelines for Reporting Scale Development and Validation Results. Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research, 1(2), 99103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campbell, J.D., Trapnell, P.D., Heine, S.J., Katz, I.M., Lavallee, L.F., & Lehman, D.R. (1996). Self-concept Clarity: Measurement, personality correlates, and cultural boundaries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(1), 141156.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carleton, R.N., Abrams, M.A., & Asmundson, G.J.G. (2010). The attentional resources allocation scale (ARAS): psychometric properties of a composite measure for dissociation and absorption. Depression and Anxiety, 27, 775786.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cho, E. (2016). Making Reliability Reliable: A Systematic Approach to Reliability Coefficients. Organizational Research Methods, 132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chou, C., & Bentler, P.M. (1995). Estimates and tests in structural equation modeling. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications (3755). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cicero, D.C., Becker, T.M., Martin, E.A., Docherty, A.R., & Kerns, J.G. (2013). The role of aberrant salience and self-concept clarity in psychotic-like experiences. Personality Disorders, 4, 3342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coan, R.W (1972). Measurable components of openness to experience. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 39, 346.

  • Cohen, A.S., Matthews, R.A., Najolia, G.M., & Brown, L.A. (2010). Toward a more psychometrically sound brief measure of schizotypal traits: introducing the SPQ-Brief Revised. Journal of Personality Disorders, 24(4), 516537.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cole, D.A. (1987). Utility of confirmatory factor analysis in test validation research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 584594.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Council, J.R., Kirsch, I., & Hafner, L.P. (1986). Expectancy versus absorption in the prediction of hypnotic responding. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 1829.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crawford, H.J. (1982). Hypnotizability, daydreaming styles, imagery vividness, and absorption: a multidimensional study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42(5), 91526.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crowne, D., & Marlowe, D. (1964). The approval motive: Studies in evaluative dependence. New York: Wiley

  • Cummins, R.A., & Gullone, E. (2000). Why we should not use 5-point Likert scales: The case for subjective quality-of-life measurement. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Quality of Life in Cities (pp. 7493). Kent Ridge, Singapore: National University of Singapore

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Curran, P.J., West, S.G., & Finch, J.F. (1996). The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 1, 1629.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deacon, B., & Abramowitz, J.S. (2006). Anxiety sensitivity and its dimensions across the anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 20, 837857.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Digman, J.M. (1967). The procrustes class of factor-analytic transformations. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 2(1), 8994.

  • Dueber, D.M. (2017). Bifactor Indices Calculator: A Microsoft Excel-based tool to calculate various indices relevant to bifactor CFA models. Letöltve: 2018. 08. 12-én: https://doi.org/10.13023/edp.tool.01, illetve http://sites.education.uky.edu/apslab/ resources/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dunn, T.J., Baguley, T., Brunsden, V. (2014). From alpha to omega: a practical solution to the pervasive problem of internal consistency estimation. British Journal of Psychology, 105(3), 399412.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eysenck, H.J., Baguley, T. & Eysenck, S.B.G. (1975). Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Hodder and Stoughton: London

  • Finn, R.H., (1972). Effect of some variations in rating scale characteristics on the means and reliabilities of ratings. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 34, 885892.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Glisky, M.L., Tataryn, D.J., Tobias, B.A., Kihlstrom, J.F., & McConkey, K.M. (1991). Absorption, openness to experience, and hypnotizability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(2), 263272.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Green, S.B., & Yang, Y. (2009). Reliability of summed item scores using structural equation modeling: An alternative to coefficient alpha. Psychometrika, 74(1), 155167.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jenkins, G.D., Jr., & Taber, T.D. (1977). A monte carlo study of factors affecting three indices of composite scale reliability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 392398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jöreskog, K. & Sörbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: Structural Equation Modeling with the SIMPLIS Command Language. Chicago, IL: Scientific Software International Inc.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haan, N. (1977). Coping and defending. Processes of self environment organization. New York: Academic Press

  • Hartmann, E. (1991). Boundaries of the mind: A new psychology of personality. New York: Basic Books

  • Holmes, E.A., Brown, R.J., Mansell, W., Fearon, R.P., Hunter, E.C., Frasquilho, F., & Oakley, D.A. (2005). Are there two qualitatively distinct forms of dissociation? A review and some clinical implication. Clinical Psychology Review, 25(1), 123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horn, J.L. (1965). A rationale and test for the number of factors in factor analysis. Psychometrika, 30, 179185.

  • Horváth, B. (2016). Az abszorpció és a szexualitás összefüggései. Debreceni Egyetem. Pszichológiai Intézet. Műhelymunka. Letöltve: 2018. 07. 11-én: https://dea.lib.unideb.hu/dea/handle/2437/226691

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Howard, M. (2015). A Review of Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) Decisions and Overview of Current Practices: What We Are Doing and How Can We Improve?, International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 32, 5162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hu, L., & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 155.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • IBM Corp., (2013). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.

  • Izquierdo, I., Olea, J., & Abad, F.J. (2014). Exploratory factor analysis in validation studies: Uses and recommendations. Psicothema, 26, 395400.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jamieson, G. A. (2005). The modified Tellegen Absorption Scale: A clearer window on the structure and meaning of absorption. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 2, 119139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kane, N., Lind, E., Polasek, K.M., & Hendric, J. (2017). Comparison of personality dispositions and benefic interferences in group of performing artists. International Journal of Music and Performing Arts, 5(1), 110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kerekes, Zs. (2012). A szorongás, mint adaptív viselkedés. A szorongásérzékenység mérésének tapasztalatai különböző csoportoknál. PhD Disszertáció, Pécs PTE BTK. Letöltve: 2018. 07. 10-én: https://pea.lib.pte.hu/handle/pea/15215?show=full

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kihlstrom, J.F., Register, P.A., Hoyt, I.P., Albright, J.S., Grigorian, E.M., Heindel, W.C., (1989). Dispositional correlates of hypnosis: A phenomenological approach. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 37, 249263.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kihlstrom, J.F., Glisky, M.L., Peterson, M.A., Harvey, E.M., & Rose, P.M. (1991). Vividness and control of mental imagery: A psychometric analysis. Journal of Mental imagery, 15, 133142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kihlstrom, J.F. (2012). Tellegen Absorption Scale: Factors and content categories. Letöltve: 2018. 06. 14-én: http://socrates.berkely.edu/~kihlstrom/TAS.htm

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kihlstrom, J.F. (2012). Searching for the self in mind and brain. Special Issue: What is the self? Social Cognition, 30, 367379.

  • Kirsch, I. (1997). Suggestibility or hypnosis: What do our scales really measure? International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 45(3), 212225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koehn, S., Stavrou, N.A.M., Cogley, J., Morris, T., Mosek, E., Watt, A.P. (2017). Absorption in sport: A Cross-Validation Study. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1419.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kulcsár, Zs., Rózsa, S., & Reinhardt, M., (Szerk.), (2006). A poszttraumás növekedés feltételei. Trefort Kiadó

  • Laidlaw, T.,M., Dwivedi, P., Naito, A.,G., & Gruzelier, J.,H. (2005). Low self-directedness (TCI), mood, schizotypy and hypnotic susceptibility. Personality and Individual Differences, 39(2), 469480.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Larsen, R.J., Diener, E. & Emmons, R.A. (1986). Affect intensity and reactions to daily life events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 803814.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lavallee, I.F., & Campbell, J.D. (1995). Impact of personal goals on self-regulation processes elicited by daily negative events. Journal of Personality and Social psychology, 69, 341352.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leung, S. (2011). A Comparison of Psychometric Properties and Normality in 4-, 5-, 6-, and 11-Point Likert Scales. Journal of Social Service Research, 37(4), 412421.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Likert, R. (1932). A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology, 140, 553.

  • Lissitz, R.W., & Green, S.B. (1975). Effect of the number of scale points on reliability: A monte carlo approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 1013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lorenzo-Seva, U., & Ferrando, P.J. (2006). FACTOR: A computer program to fit the exploratory factor analysis model. Behavior Research Methods, 38(1), 8891.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lorenzo-Seva, U., & Ferrando, P.J. (2013). FACTOR 9.2 A Comprehensive Program for Fitting Exploratory and Semiconfirmatory Factor Analysis and IRT Models. Applied Psychological Measurement, 37(6), 497498.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lyons, L.C., & Crawford, H.J. (1997). Sustained attentional and disattentional abilities and arousability: Factor analysis and relationships to hypnotic susceptibility. Personality and Individual Differences, 23(6), 10711084.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marsh, H.W., Balla, J.R., & McDonald, R.P. (1988). Goodness-of-fit indexes in confirmatory factoranalysis: The effects of sample size. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 305312.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCrae, R.R., & Costa, P.T. (1985). Openness to Experience, in Perspectives in Personality, in Hogan, R., Jones, W. H., (eds.), JAI Press, Greenwich, Connecticut, 145172.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCrae, R.R., Zonderman, A.B., Costa, P.T., Jr., Bond, M.H., & Paunonen, S.V. (1996). Evaluating replicability of factors in the Revised NEO Personality Inventory: Confirmatory factor analysis versus Procrustes rotation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(3), 552566.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDonald, R. P. (1999). Test theory: A unified treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum

  • McIntosh, C. (2006). Rethinking fit assessment in structural equation modeling: A commentary and elaboration on Barrett (2007), Personality and Individual Differences, 42 (5), 85967.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muthén, B.O., & Kaplan, D. (1985). A comparison of some methodologies for the factor analysis of nonnormal Likert variables. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 38, 171189.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muthén, B.O., & Kaplan, D. (1992). A comparison of some methodologies for the factor analysis of non-normal Likert variables: A note on the size of the model. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 45, 1930.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muthén, L.K. & Muthén, B.O. (1998–2017). Mplus User’s Guide. Eighth Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén

  • Nagy, F. (2016). Empátia és abszorpció vizsgálata a szerepjátékos szubkultúrában. Személyi-ségpszichológiai Műhelymunka. Pázmány Péter Katolikus Egyetem Bölcsészet- és Társadalomtudományi Kar. OTDK dolgozat. XXXIII. OTDK, Pedagógiai, Pszichológiai, Andragógiai és Könyvtártudományi Szekció, Személyiségpszichológia 2. tagozat. Letöltve: 2018. 11. 22-én: http://otdt.hu/site/resume/43111

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nunnally, J.C. (1978). Psychometric theory. (2. ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill

  • Parsons, T.D., Barnett, M., & Melugin, P.R. (2015). Assessment of personality and absorption for mediated environments in a college sample. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18(12), 752756.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Patrick, C.J., & Kramer, M.D. (2017). Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). In V. Zeigler-Hill, T. Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of personality and individual differences. Cham: Springer

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pyszczynski, T., Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., Arndt, J., & Schimel, J. (2004). Why do people need self-esteem? A theoretical and empirical review. Psychological Bulletin, 130(3), 435468.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Radtke, H.L., & Stam, H.J. (1991). The Relationship between absorption, openness to experience, anhedonia, and susceptibility, International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 39(1), 3956.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raine, A. (1991). The SPQ: A scale for the assessment of schizotypal personality based on DSMIII-R criteria. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 17(4), 555564.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reise, S.P., Bonifay, W.E., & Haviland, M.G. (2013). Scoring and modeling psychological measures in the presence of multidimensionality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 95, 129140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rector, N.A., Szacun-Shimizu, K., & Leybman, M. (2007). Anxiety sensitivity within the anxiety disorders: disorder-specific sensitivities and depression comorbidity. Behavioral Research and Therapy, 45, 19671975.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reiss, S., Peterson, R.A., Gursky, D.M., & McNally, R.J. (1986). Anxiety sensitivity, anxiety frequency, and the prediction of fearfulness. Behavior Research and Therapy, 42, 7991.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ritz, T., & Dahme, B. (1995). Die Absorption-skala: konzeptuelle aspekte, psychometrische kennwerte und dimensionalität einer deutschsprachigen adaptation. Diagnostica, 41(1), 5361.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roche, S.M., & McConkey, K.M. (1990). Absorption: Nature, assessment, and correlates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(1), 91101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rodriguez, A., Reise, S.P., & Haviland, M.G. (2016). Evaluating bifactor models: Calculating and interpreting statistical indices. Psychological Methods, 21(2), 137150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rosen, C., Jones, N., Chase, K.A., Melbourne, J.K., Grossman, L.S., & Sharma, R.P. (2017). Immersion in altered experience: An investigation of the relationship between absorption and psychopathology. Consciousness and Cognition, 17(49), 215226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton, University Press

  • Rózsa, S., Reinhardt, M., & Kulcsár, Zs. (2006). A poszttraumás növekedés feltételeinek empirikus vizsgálata. In: Kulcsár, Zs., Rózsa, S., & Reinhardt, M. (Szerk.) A poszttraumás növekedés feltételei és empirikus vizsgálata. Budapest: Trefort Kiadó

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sandstrom, G.M., & Russo, F.A. (2013). Absorption in music: Development of a scale to identify individuals with strong emotional responses to music. Psychology of Music, 41(2), 216228.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sándor, F. (2017). A maladaptív nappali álmodozás vizsgálata átlagpopulációban. Debreceni Egyetem. Pszichológiai Intézet. Műhelymunka. Letöltve: 2018. 06. 22-én: https://dea.lib.unideb.hu/dea/ handle/2437/241874

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sallay, V., Martos, T., Földvári, M., Szabó, T., & Ittzés, A. (2014). A Rosenberg önértékelési Skála (RSES-H): alternatív fordítás, strukturális invariancia és validitás. Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika, 15(3), 259275.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simor, P., Köteles, F., & Bódizs, R. (2011). Elmerülés az élményben: A Tellegen-féle Abszorpció Skála vizsgálata egyetemista mintán. Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika, 12. 101123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Soffer-Dudek, N., Lassri, D., Soffer-Dudek, N., & Shahar, G. (2015). Dissociative absorption: An empirically unique, clinically relevant, dissociative factor. Consciousness and Cognition, 36, 338351.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sowislo, J.F., & Orth, U. (2013). Does low self-esteem predict depression and anxiety? A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 213240.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Sousa, P., Sellwood, W., Spray, A., Fernyhough, C., & Bentall, R.P. (2016). Inner Speech and Clarity of Self-Concept in Thought Disorder and Auditory-Verbal Hallucinations. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 204(12), 885893.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spielberger., D., Corsucrh., L., & Lushenre., E. (1970). STAI: Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Self-Evaluation Questionnaire). Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steiger, J.H. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification: An interval estimation approach. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25(2), 173180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stucky, B.D., & Edelen, M.O. (2014). Using hierarchical IRT models to create unidimensional measures from multidimensional data. In S. P. Reise, & D. A. Revicki (Eds.), Handbook of item response theory modeling: Applications to typical performance assessment (183206). London, UK: Taylor & Francis

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Szabó, Cs. (1989). Szubjektív élmények különböző indukciós technikákkal létrehozott hipnózisokban. Doktori értekezés. Kossuth Lajos Tudományegyetem. Letöltve: 2018. 08. 13-án: http://drszabocsaba.hu/index.php/11-sajat-munkakbol/23-letoeltheto-anyagok

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Szabó, G.S. (2015). Az elvárások és a hanginger szerepe binaurális ütemek fenomenológiai hatásaiban. Doktori értekezés. Debreceni Egyetem. Letöltve: 2018. 07. 11-én: https://dea.lib.unideb.hu/dea/bitstream/handle/ 2437/209095/szabogergely_phd_t.pdf?sequence=9&isAllowed=y

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Székely. A., Kovács-Nagy, R., Bányai, É.I, Gősi-Gregus, C., Varga, K., Halmai, Zs., et al., (2010). Association between hypnotizability and the Catechol-o-Methyltransferase (COMT) polimorphism. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 58(3), 301315.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Székely, P. (2016). A zenei bevonódás, mint személyiségvonás, kapcsolata az abszorpcióval, disszociációval és a vizualitással. Debreceni Egyetem. Pszichológiai Intézet. Műhelymunka. Letöltve: 2018. 06. 12-én: https://dea.lib.unideb.hu/dea/handle/2437/226270

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tanaka, J.S. (1993). Multifaceted conceptions of fit in structural equations models. In K.A. Bollen, J.S. Long (Ed), Testing structural equation models. (1039). Newbury Park, CA: Sage

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tellegen, A. (1992). Note on structure and meaning of the MPQ Absorption Scale. Unpublished manuscript, University of Minnesota

  • Tellegen, A. & Atkinson, G. (1974). Openness to absorbing and self-altering experiences (‘absorption’), a trait related to hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83(3), 268277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tellegen, A. (1982). Content categories: Absorption Items (Revised). Unpublished manuscript, University of Minnesota.

  • Tellegen, A. (1992). Note on structure and meaning of the MPQ Absorption Scale. Unpublished manuscript. Minneapolis MN: University of Minnesota

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tellegen, A., & Waller, N.G. (2008). Exploring personality through test construction: Development of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire, In G.J. Boyle, G. Matthews, and D. H. Saklofske (eds.), Handbook of personality theory and testing: Vol.II. Personality measurement and assessment (pp. 261292). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics (5th ed.). New York: Allyn and Bacon.

  • Taylor, S.E., & Stanton, A.A. (2007). Coping resources, coping processes, and mental health. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 377401.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Timmerman, M.E., & Lorenzo-Seva, U. (2011). Dimensionality Assessment of Ordered Polytomous Items with Parallel Analysis. Psychological Methods, 16, 209220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tucker, L.R., & Lewis, C. (1973). A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika, 38(1), 110.

  • Waller, N.G., Tellegen, A., McDonald, R.P., & Lykken, D.T. (1996). Exploring nonlinear models in personality assessment: Development and preliminary validation of a negative emotionality scale. Journal of Personality, 64(3), 545576.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Prooijen, J.W., & Van Der Kloot, W.A. (2001). Confirmatory analysis of exploratively obtained factor structures. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 61(5), 777792.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Varga, K. (2004). A hipnotikus kapcsolat élményvilágának interakciós szemléletű elemzése. Habilitációs értekezés. Letöltve: 2010. 07. 27-én: http://real-d.mtak.hu/839/1/dc_1059_15_tezisek.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watkins, M.W. (2018). Exploratory Factor Analysis: A Guide to Best Practice. Journal of Black Psychology, 44(3) 219246.

  • Weitzenhoffer, A.M., & Hilgard E.R. (1962) Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale Form C. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press

  • Wild, T.C., Kuiken, D., & Schopflocher, D. (1995). The role of absorption in experiential involvement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(3), 569579.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wheaton, M.G., Deacon, B.J., McGrath, P.B., Berman, N.C., & Abramowitz, J.S. (2012). Dimension of anxiety sensitivity in the disorders: Evaluation of the ASI-3. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26, 401108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wheaton, B., Muthen, B., Alwin, D.F., & Summers, G. (1977). Assessing reliability and stability in panel models, Sociological Methodology, 8(1), 84136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wood, N.D., Akloubou Gnonhosou., D.C., Bowling, J. (2015). Combining Parallel and Exploratory Factor Analysis in Identifying Relationship Scales in Secondary Data. Marriage & family review, 51(5), 385395.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Worthington, R.L., & Whittaker, T.A. (2006). Scale Development Research A Content Analysis and Recommendations for Best Practices. The Counseling Psychologist, 34, 806838.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wylie, R.C. (1974). The self-concept. Revisited edition. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press

  • Witthöft, M., Rist, F., & Bailer, J. (2008). Evidence for a specific link between the personality trait of absorption and idiopathic environmental intolerance. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 71(11-12), 795802.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zinbarg, R.E., Barlow, D.H., & Brown, T.A. (1997). Hierarchical structure and general factor saturation of the anxiety sensitivity index: Evidence and implications. Psychological Assessment, 9(3). 277294.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Oct 2020 7 1 1
Nov 2020 11 1 2
Dec 2020 7 0 0
Jan 2021 9 1 1
Feb 2021 11 9 15
Mar 2021 0 15 11
Apr 2021 0 9 12