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  • The 1989/90 polls are cited and analyzed in Bruckmüller, "Entwicklung des Österreichbewusstseins," in: Kriechbaumer, ed., Österreichische Nationalgeschichte nach 1945, 393.

  • "Report on Public Opinion," March 18, 1945, and Herz memorandum "Dangerous Tendencies in Austrian Political Thinking," October 8, 1945, in: Wagnleitner, ed., Understanding Austria, 133, 54.

  • Friedrich Stadler, Vertriebene Vernunft I & II: Emigration und Exil österreichischer Wissenschaft (Vienna: Jugend und Volk, 1987-1988), as well as idem, Kontinuität und Bruch.

  • One such an odyssey is retraced in the elegant essay by Egon Schwarz, "Mass Emigration and Intellectual Exile from National Socialism: The Austrian Case," in: David F. Good and Ruth Wodak, eds, From World War to Waldheim: Culture and Politics in Austria and the United States (New York: Berghahn, 1999), 87-108.

  • Marie Jahoda, 'Ich habe die Welt nicht verändert': Lebenserinnerungen einer Pionierin der Sozialforschung (Frankfurt: Campus, 1997); Raul Hilberg, The Politics of Memory: The Journey of a Holocaust Historian (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1996); Walter Hölbling and Reinhold Wagnleitner, eds, The European Emigrant Experience in the U.S.A. (Tübingen: Gunther Narr, 1992); Günter Bischof, "Anglo-amerikanische Planungen und Überlegungen der österreichischen Emigration während des Zweiten Weltkrieges für Nachkriegs-Österreich," in: Manfried Rauchensteiner and Wolfgang Etschmann, eds, Österreich 1945: Ein Ende und viele Anfänge (Graz: Styria, 1997), 17-22.

  • For the Moscow Declaration see FRUS, 1943, I: General (Washington D.C.: GPO, 1963), 761; "Treatment of Austria," FRUS, 1944 I, 438; Peter Pulzer, "Between Collectivism and Liberalism: The Political Evolution of Austria Since 1945," in Kurt Richard Luther and Peter Pulzer, eds, Austria 1945-95: Fifty Years of the Second Republic (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998), 229f; Bischof, Austria in the First Cold War, 52-67; Anton Pelinka, "Taboos and Self-Deception: The Second Republic's Reconstruction of History," in: Austrian Historical Memory and National Identity (Contemporary Austrian Studies, V) (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1997), 95-102.

  • The political scientists have coined the awkward term "consociational democracy" for such across-the-board consensus politics, see Pelinka, Out of the Shadows of the Past, 22-29 and passim.

  • This is Heinz Kienzl's judgement. Through high level position in the institutions of "social partnership" and top National Bank jobs, Kienzl worked closely with most of them. See his thoughtful essay "Die starke Republik," in: Kriechbaumer, ed., Österreichische Nationalgeschichte nach 1945, 469.

  • See the shrewd analysis of Austrian postwar anti-communism by Ingrid Fraberger and Dieter Stiefel in The Marshall Plan in Austria, (Contemporary Austrian Studies, VIII) (New Bruns-wick, NJ-London: Transaction, 2000), 56-69.

  • Letter Denby to Williamson, June 19, 1946, Folder: "Mission Personnel," Box 4, Lot 54331, RG 59, NA. Manfried Rauchensteiner, Die Zwei: Die Grosse Koalition in Österreich 1945-1966 (Vienna: Bundesverlag, 1987); idem, "Geregelte Verhältnisse? Innenpolitische Manövrierräume und ihre Spielregeln," in: Kos-Rigele, eds, Inventur 45/55, 268-286; Günter Bischof, "Between Responsibility and Rehabilitation: Austria in International Politics 1940-1950," PhD diss., Harvard University 1989, chs. 5-7 and passim, Hanisch, Der Lange Schatten des Staates, 397.

  • On Renner's authoritarian style of government, see the introduction in Gertrude Enderle-Burcel, Rudolf Jeřábek, Leopold Kammerhofer, eds., Protokolle des Kabinettsrates der Provisorischen Regierung Karl Renner 1945, vol. 1: "…im eigenen Haus Ordnung schaffen": Protokolle des Kabinettsrates 29. April bis 10. Juli 1945 (Horn/Wien: Verlag Ferdinand BergerSöhne, 1995), III-XIV.

  • Günter Bischof, "Where May Meets Lazarsfeld: American Public Opinion toward Austria in the Early Cold War," in: Akira Iriye, ed., Rethinking International Relations: Ernest R. May and the Study of World Affairs (Chicago: Imprint Publications, 1998), 310; Kurt Tweraser has also averred the theme of the "Josephinian style" of government in Upper Austria, see his US-Militärregierung Oberösterreich 1945-1950, vol. 1: Sicherheitspolitische Aspekte der amerikanischen Besatzung in Oberösterreich-Süd 1945-1950 (Linz: Oberösterreichisches Landesarchiv, 1995).

  • An interesting case study of Nazis joining the Socialist Party is Robert Hoffmann, "Aus 'Braun' mach 'Rot'," Salzburger Nachrichten, 3 May 2000.

  • Hanisch, Lange Schatten des Staates, 398; see also the case studies in Sebastian Meissl, Klaus-Dieter Mulley, and Oliver Rahtkolb, eds, Verdrängte Schuld, verfehlte Sühne: Entnazifizierung in Österreich 1945-1955 (Vienna: Verlag für Geschichte und Politik, 1986).

  • Ernst Bruckmüller, "Die Entwicklung des Österreichbewusstseins," in Kriechbaumer, ed., Österreichische Nationalgeschichte nach 1945, 376.

  • "Future of Austria," June 8, 1944, FRUS, 1944, I, 444; on the Cabinet debates, see Protokolle des Kabinettsrates, 64-66, 75-80; most up-to-date on the constitutitonal debate, and based on new Soviet documents, is Oliver Rathkolb, "Wie homogen war Österreich 1945? Innenpolitische Optionen, in: Wolfgang Kos and Georg Rigele, eds., Inventur 45/55: Österreich im ersten Jahrzehnt der Zweiten Republik (Vienna: Sonderzahl, 1996), 167-172.

  • "Future of Austria," June 8, 1944, FRUS, 1944, I, 441.

  • Ernst Hanisch, "Der forschende Blick. Österreich im 20. Jahrhundert: Interpretationen und Kontroversen," Carinthia 189 (1999): 567-583 (here 573-576).

  • See the brilliant essay by Edward Timms, "Austrian Identity in a Schizophrenic Age: Hilde Spiel and the Literary Politics of Exile and Reintegration," in Luther-Pulzer, eds, Austria 1945-95, 55-59; Bischof, "Anglo-Amerikanische Planungen," 20f.

  • On Austria's "secret rearmament," see Bischof, Austria in the First Cold War, and idem '"Austria Looks to the West': Kommunistische Putschgefahr, geheime Wiederbewaffnung und Westorientierung am Anfang der fünfziger Jahre," in Thomas Albrich, Klaus Eisterer, Michael Gehler and Rolf Steininger, eds, Österreich in den Fünfzigern (Innsbruck: Studienverlag, 1950), 183-209; on the peculiar Austrian drafting of laws and the legislative process, see Anton Pelinka, Austria: Out of the Shadow of the Past (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1998), 50-54, and idem, "Austrian political culture: from subject to participation orientation," in Luther/Pulzer eds., Austria 1945-95, 09-120.

  • Gerard Kasemir, "Spätes Ende für 'wissenschaftlich' vorgetragenen Rassismus," in: Michael Gehler and Hubert Sickinger, eds, Politische Skandale in Österreich: Von Mayerling bis Waldheim (Thaur: Kulturverlag, 1995), 486-501.

  • Fritz Weber, Der Kalte Krieg in der SPÖ: Koalitionswächter, Pragmatiker und Revolutionäre Sozialisten 1945-1950 (Vienna: Verlag für Gesellschaftskritik, 1986); Adolf Sturmthal, Zwei Leben: Erinnerungen eines sozialistischen Internationalisten zwischen Österreich und den USA (Vienna: Böhlau, 1989); Bischof, Austria in the First Cold War, 54-56; on the continuity of anti-semitism in postwar Austria, see Bruce F. Pauley, From Prejudice to Persecution: A History of Austrian Anti-Semitism (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992), 301ff.

  • Sturmthal, Zwei Leben, 212-214.

  • Timms, "Austrian Identity in a Schizophrenic Age," 59-64 (citations from 59 and 62); on Spiel, see also Andrea Hammel, "Remembering and Forgetting: Hilde Spiel's Rückkehr nach Wien in 1946," in Bushell, ed., Austria 1945-1955, 84-98.

  • Günter Bischof, "Spielball der Mächtigen? Österreichs aussenpolitischer Spielraum im beginnenden Kalten Krieg," in: Kos-Rigele, eds., Inventur 45/55, 133-136.

  • The best single volume on the resistance is Radomir Luza, The Resistance in Austria, 1938-1945 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984); on the public mood in Vienna/the Ostmark (with OSS quotations), see Bischof, Austria in the First Cold War, 19f, and now much more extensively, Evan Burr Bukey, Hitler's Austria: Popular Sentiment in the Nazi Era, 1938-1945 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000).

  • Oliver Rathkolb, "Raoul Bumballa, ein politischer Nonkonformist 1945," in: Rudolf G. Ardelt, Wolfgang J. A. Huber and Anton Staudinger, eds, Unterdrückung und Emanzipation: Festschrift für Erika Weinzierl (Vienna: Geyer n.d.), 295-317 (quotations 305, 306).

  • Bischof, Austria in the First Cold War, 70-77; idem, "The Making of a Cold Warrior: Karl Gruber and Austrian Foreign Policy, 1945-1953," Austrian History Yearbook 26 (1995): 99-127; idem, "Spielball der Mächtigen?," 126-156; see also Michael Gehler's introduction to his edition of the Gruber speeches Karl Gruber: Reden und Dokumente 1945-1953 (Vienna: Böhlau, 1994).

  • For a different trajectory in Germany see Rebecca Boehling, A Question of Priorities: Democratic Refom and Economic Recovery in Postwar Germany (Providence, R. I: Berghahn, 1996).

  • Rüdiger Overmans, "German and Austrian Losses in World War II," in: Austrian Historical Memory and National Identity (Contemporary Austrian Studies, V) (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1997), 293-301.

  • Hans Safrian, Die Eichmann-Männer (Vienna: Europaverlag, 1993; Walter Manoschek, "Serbien ist judenfrei": Militärische Besatzungspolitik und Judenvernichtung in Serbien 1941/42 (Munich: R. Oldenbourg, 1993); Hans-Dieter Müller and Hans-Erich Volkmann, eds, Die Wehrmacht: Mythos und Realität (Munich: R. Oldenbourg, 1999).

  • Dieter Stiefel, "Nazifizierung plus Entnazifizierung = Null? Bemerkungen zur besonderen Problematik der Entnazifizierung in Österreich," in: Meissal et al., eds, Verdrängte Schuld, 28-36; idem, Entnazifizierugn in Österreich (Vienna: Europa Verlag, 1981); for a comparative treatment (with an essay by Stiefel on Austria), see Klaus-Dietmar Henke and Hans Woller, eds, Politische Säuberung in Europa: Die Abrechunung mit Faschismus und Kollaboration nach den Zweiten Weltkrieg (Munich: dtv, 1991).

  • "Observations by State Secretary Ernst Fischer," Herz Memorandum, August 2, 1945, in: Wagnleitner, ed., Understanding Austria, 22.

  • The Cabinet discussions are a gold mine on early discussions on denazification and the passing of the two laws; for "good Nazis," see the discussion of the 13th meeting on June 19/20, 1945, in: Protokolle des Kabinettsrates, I, 272; see also Stiefel, Entnazifizierung, and the thoughtful summary by Hanisch, Langer Schatten des Staates, 420-425, as well as the many useful cases studies of denazification of the principal Austrian institutions in Verdrängte Schuld, Verfehlte Sühne.

  • "Report on Austrian Public Opinion," March 18, 1947, in: Wagnleitner, ed., Understanding Austria, 133.

  • Ibid., 132.

  • Much of this can be inferred from the cases studies presented in Meinrad Ziegler and Waltraud Kannonier-Finster, Österreichs Gedächtnis: Über Erinnern und Vergessen der NS-Vergangenheit (Vienna: Böhlau, 1993).

  • Bischof, Austria in the First Cold War, 60-67; on "Niemals Vergessen, " see Wolfgang Kos, Eigenheim Österreich: Zu Politik, Kultur und Alltag nach 1945 (Vienna: Sonderzahl, 1994); on hidebound education policies, see the thoughtful essays by Robert Knight, "Education and National Socialism after the Second World War," in: Ritchie Robertson and Edward Timms, eds, The Habsburg Legacy: National Identity in Historical Perspective (Austrian Studies V) (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1997), 178-195.

  • Peter Utgaard, "Remembering and Forgetting the Holocaust in Austrian Schools," in: The Vranitzky Era in Austria (Contemporary Austrian Studies VII) (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1999), 201-215; on historical memory, national identity and forgetting the World War II past, see also my introduction and review essay, as well as the topical essays in Günter Bischof and Anton Pelinka, eds., Austrian Historical Memory and National Identity (Contemporary Austrian Studies V) (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1997), 1-13, 302-341.

  • On the restoration of the literary canon, see Anthony Bushell's introduction and the essay by Andrew Barker on von Doderer, in: Bushell, ed., Austria 1945-55, 1-110, 37, 54.

  • On the restoration of the traditional art scene, see the brilliant essay by Robert Fleck, "Kunst in einer Zeit der Restauration: Die Rekonstruktion einer Szene moderner Kunst in der österreichischen Nachkriegszeit," in Kos-Rigele, eds, Inventur 45/55, 441-471; on postwar literature, see also Wendelin Schmidt-Dengler, "Das neue Land: Die Konzeption einer neuen österreichischen Identität in der Literatur," ibid., 404-440.

  • For a sober analysis, see Dieter A. Binder, "Kontinuität - Diskontinuität: Notizen zur österreichischen Kultur nach 1945," in: Kriechbaumer, ed., Österreichische Nationalgeschichte nach 1945, 727-743 (esp. 727f, 739-741).

  • The best summary of American polls and the survival of the authoritarian mindset is Oliver Rathkolb, "NS-Problem und politische Resturation: Vorgeschichte und Etablierung des VdU," in Verdrängte Schuld, Verfehlte Sühne, 74-79; some of these polls are also published and analyzed in Wagnleinter, ed., Understanding Austria, 127-133, 333-340; for an interpretation of some of these polls, see also Hanisch, Langer Schatten des Staates, 421f.

  • A summary of Morgenthau's report is in Oliver Rathkolb, "Hans J. Morgenthau und das Österreich-Problem in der letzten Phase der Truman-Administration 1951/52," in: Emil Brix, Thomas Fröhl and Josef Leidenfrost, eds, Geschichte Zwischen Freiheit und Ordnung (Graz: Styria, 1991), 277-298; the pupil from the 1950s is quoted in Siegfried Mattl, "Vor der IV. Republik: Politische Kultur in Österreich im 20. Jahrhundert," Zeitgeschichte 22 (January/February 1995): 39.

  • Eva-Marie Czaky, Franz Matscher, Gerald Stourzh, eds, Josef Schöner: Wiener Tagebuch 1944/1945 (Vienna: Böhlau, 1992), 198, 207, 255, 378, 395; see also Ernst Hanisch, Der Lange Schatten des Staates: Österreichische Gesellschaftsgeschichte im 20. Jahrhundert (Vienna: Ueberreuter, 1994), 395-497.

  • Post-War Programs Committee Document 218, "The Treatment of Austria," June 8, 1944, in: Foreign Relations of the United States, 1944, vol. 1: General (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1966), 437-449 (citation 439).

  • For brief biographical sketches of all the postwar political leaders mentioned in this paragraph, see the useful prosopography by Herbert Dachs, Peter Gerlich, and Wolfgang C. Müller, eds, Die Politiker: Karrieren und Wriken Bedeutender Repräsentanten der Zweiten Republik (Vienna: Manz, 1995).

  • The text of the "declaration of independence" is reprinted in Eva-Marie Czaky, ed., Der Weg zu Freiheit und Neutralität: Dokumentation zur österreichischen Aussenpolitik 1945-1955 (Vienna, 1980), 36f.

  • This founding myth has seen an anachronistic revival by some prominent ÖVP-politicians such as Josef Riegler, Andreas Khol, Alois Mock and Josef Taus in the volume by Robert Kriechbaumer, ed., Österreichs Nationalgeschichte nach 1945: Die Spiegel der Erinnerung: Die Sicht von innen (Vienna: Böhlau 1998).

  • Based on the rich evidence of OSS reports on the Austrian situation in 1945, Oliver Rathkolb has already dismantled the myth of the "Stunde null" 15 years ago, see his Gesellschaft und Politik am Beginn der Zweiten Republik: Vetrauliche Berichte der US-Militäradministration aus Österreich 1945 in englischer Originalfassung (Vienna: Böhlau, 1985), 9-11 and passim.

  • Ibid., 53f.

  • Ibid., 53f.

  • American State Department records of the early 1950s are replete with Western worries about the stability of the grand coalition and the continuing necessity of American aid to keep it together in an age of imminent Cold War threats on Austria's borders. I have briefly summarized American thinking in Austria in the First Cold War, 127-129.

  • Kienzl, "Die starke Republik," in: Kriechbaumer, Österreichsiche Nationalgeschichte nach 1945, 468f.

  • Doering-Manteuffel, "Turning to the Atlantic," 15.

  • The best analysis of these complex changes in Austrian democracy is Pelinka's fittingly entitled Austria: Out of the Shadows of the Past, op. cit.

  • For Czechoslovakia, Poland and the GDR after 1989, see Tina Rosenberg, The Haunted Land: Facing Europe's Ghosts after Communism (New York: Vintage, 1996).

  • This brief an essay obviously will not allow an exhaustive comparison.

  • Günter Bischof, Austria in the First Cold War, 1945-55: The Leverage of the Weak (London: Macmillan, 1999), 52-56.

  • Hermann-Josef Rupieper, Die Wurzeln der Westdeutschen Nachkriegsdemokratie (Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 1993); Anselm, Doering-Manteuffel, "Turning to the Atlantic: The Federal Republic's Ideological Reorientation, 1945-1970," in: Bulletin of the German Historical Institute 25 (Fall 1999): 3-21.

  • See also Charles Maier's reply to the Doering-Mantteuffel essay '"Mehr Sozialgeschichte Wagen': Comment on 'Turning to the Atlantic: The Federal Republic's Ideological Reorientation, 1945-1970," which first was delivered as the 1998 annual lecture at the German Historical Institute in Washington, D.C., ibid., 22-28.

  • Rupieper, Wurzeln, 12f; see also, Daniel E. Rogers, Politics after Hitler: The Western Allies and the German Party System (New York: New York University Press, 1995); Carolyn Eisenberg, Drawing the Line: The American Decision to Divide Germany 1944-1949 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

  • See my essay "Founding Myths and Compartmentalized Past: New Literature on the Construction, Hibernation, and Deconstruction of World War II Memory in Postwar Austria," Contemporary Austrian Studies V (1997): 302-341; an important milestone in the historical reassessment was Anton Pelinka and Erika Weinzierl, eds, Das Grosse Tabu: Östereichs Umgang mit der Vergangenheit (Vienna: Edition S, 1987); for the analysis of the larger international context of the Waldheim affair, see Richard Mitten, "Bitburg, Waldheim, and the Politics of Remembering," in: Good-Wodak, eds, From World War to Waldheim, 51-84.

  • The Communist Ernst Fischer cited in "The views of Victor Kienböck," Herz Memorandum, Aug. 8, 1945, in: Reinhold Wangleitner, ed., Understanding Austria: The Political Reports and Analyses of Martin F. Herz Political Officer of the US Legation in Vienna, 1945-1948 (Salzburg: Neugebauer, 1984), 28.

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Hungarian Studies
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