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  • For an early distinction between interests and values, see Jack Bielasiak, "The dilemma of political interests in the postcommunist transition," in Walter D. Connor and Piotr Ploszajski, eds, Escape from Socialism: The Polish Route (Warsaw: IFiS Publishers, 1992), 204-205, and Jack Bielasiak and Barbara Hicks, "Solidarity's self-Organization, the crisis of rationality and legitimacy in Poland," East European Politics and Societies 4:3 (Fall 1990): 489-512.

  • Jack Bielasiak, "Substance and process in the development of party systems in East Central Europe," Communist and Post-Communist Studies 30:1 (March 1997): 24-28.

  • Krzysztof Knyzewski, Partie i System Partyjny w Polsce w Okresie Transformacji Ustrojowej (Warsaw: Scholar, 1998).

  • For a discussion of elections in Poland, see for example Francis Millard, "The Polish parliamentary elections of October 1991," Soviet Studies 45:5 (1992): 837-955; Kenneth Ka-Lok Chan, "Poland at the crossroads: The 1993 general election," Europe-Asia Studies 47:1 (1995): 123-145; and Aleks Szczerbiak, "Electoral politics in Poland: The parliamentary elections of 1997," Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 14:3 (September 1998): 58-83.

  • For an overview of the period, see Richard F. Staar, ed., Transition to Democracy in Poland (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998).

  • See Jasiewicz, "Dead ends and new beginnings;" Smolar, "Poland's emerging party system;" and Wenzel, "Solidarity."

  • For a discussion of the role of the Church, see especially Mirella W. Eberts, "The Roman Catholic Church and democracy in Poland," Europe-Asia Studies 50:5 (July 1998): 817-842; and Andrzej Korbonski, "Poland ten years after," Communist and Post-Communist Studies 33:1 (March 2000): 123-146.

  • See the surveys by Freedom House, in Adrian Karatnycky, Alexander Motyl, and Charles Graybow, eds, Nations in Transit 1998: Civil Society, Democracy and Markets in East Central Europe and the Newly Independent States (Piscataway, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1999), and the public opinion data from CBOS, "Spoleczna ocena democracji i institutcji politycznych," Serwis Informacyjny, April 1999.

  • See Wiktor Osiatynski, "A brief history of the constitution," East European Constitutional Review 6:2 and 3 (Spring/Summer 1997); and Pawel Spiewak, "The battle for a constitution," East European Constitutional Review 6:2 and 3 (Spring/Summer 1997).

  • See the reports in the "Constitutional watch - Poland" in East European Constitutional Review 7:1 (Winter 1998); 7:3 (Summer 1998); 7:4 (Fall 1998); 8: 1-2 (Winter/Spring 1999); and 8:3 (Summer 1999).

  • For the original concept, see Giovanni Sartori, Parties and Party Systems (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976). On the Polish case, see Jasiewicz, "Dead ends and new beginnings," 114-121.

  • For a discussion of the movement see Leszek Graniszewski, "Akcja Wyborcza Solidarnosc - Sojusz prawicy demokratycznej" in Stanislaw Gebethner, ed., Wybory '97: Partie i Programy Wyborcze (Warsaw: Elipsa, 1997), 59-85; and Wenzel, "Solidarity," 143-144.

  • For a discussion of this issue, see Krzysztof Jasiewicz, "Dead ends and new beginnings: The quest for a procedural republic in Poland," Communist and Post-Communist Studies 33:1 (March 2000): 110-114.

  • Smolar, "Poland's emerging party system," 126.

  • Smolar, "Poland's emerging party system," 129-130.

  • For a general discussion see Andrzej Kojder, "Systemic transformation in Poland: 1989-1997," Polish Sociological Review 3 (1998): 247-266.

  • Valerie Bunce, "The political economy of postsocialism," Slavic Review 58:4 (Winter 1999): 759-761.

  • Ben Slay, "The Polish economic transition: Outcome and lessons," Communist and Post-Communist Studies 33:1 (March 2000): 50-51.

  • Aleksander Smolar, "Poland's emerging party system," Journal of Democracy 9:2 (April 1998): 122.

  • Ibid., 122-123, and Anna Seleny, "Old political rationalities and new democracies: Compromise and confrontation in Hungary and Poland," World Politics 51:4 (July 1999): 487.

  • Michal Wenzel, "Solidarity and Akcja Wyborcza 'Solidarnose' An attempt at reviving the legend," Communist and Post-Communist Studies 31:2 (June 1998): 149.

  • See Aleks Szczerbiak, "Interests and values: Polish parties and their electorates," Europe-Asia Studies 51:8 (1999): 1401-1432.

  • Herbert Kitschelt et al., Post-Communist Party Systems: Competition, Representation, and Inter-party Cooperation (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 43-92.