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There can be no doubt that the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 and the subse- quent war of independence belong to the events that significantly contributed to the development of modern Hungarian historical consciousness. Decisive alter- natives emerged during this critical period: national sovereignty versus develop- ment under foreign power, or the cultivation of friendly compromises reached through negotiations versus violent confrontations. The patterns of thinking asso- ciated with these choices also imposed their influence on the interpretations of other recent historic turning points such as the events of 1956.

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