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Kossuth hoped that during his tour of the United States he would be able to persuade the American Government to intervene on behalf of the Hungarian cause. He was mistaken. Following his so-called “triumphal tour,”he was forced to return to Europe as a bitter and disappointed man. Kossuth's disillusionment was not with American democracy. Rather, it was with his inability to persuade America's political leadership to part with the principle of nonintervention laid down by George Washington.

  • György Szabad, "Kossuth on the Political System of the United States of America," in Etudes Historiques Hongroises 1975 (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1975), I, 510-511; and Tibor Frank, "Give me Shakespeare: Lajos Kossuth's English as an Instrument of International Politics," in Tibor Frank, Ethnicity, Propaganda, Myth-Making. Studies on Hungarian Connections to Britain and America, 1848-1945 (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1999), 210-211; hereafter: Frank, "Kossuth's English."

  • Széplaki, Louis Kossuth, 11. This similarity has also been noted by György Szabad in his "Kossuth on the Political System of the United States of America," 513-515.

  • Newman, Selected Speeches of Kossuth. The speeches delivered in Cleveland and Columbus respectively were printed in Report of the Special Committee appointed by the Common Council of the City of New York to Make Arrangements for the Reception of Gov. Louis Kossuth, the Distinguished Hungarian Patriot. (New York, 1852), 527-563. Many of the drafts of Kossuth's speeches are deposited in the Hungarian National Archives, R 90. 28.

  • George Nicholas Sanders of Kentucky was the editor-in-chief of the influential The Democratic Review, which became a fanatical herald of the policy of American expansionism and interventionism. See Spencer, Louis Kossuth and Young America, 116-120.

  • Congressional Globe, 31st Congress, 1st Session, p. 15; quoted by Komlós, Kossuth in America, 103.

  • Webster to Blatchford, December 30, 1851, in The Writings and Speeches of Daniel Webster (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1903), XVIII, 501-502; also quoted by Komlós, Kossuth in America, 100.

  • Concerning this Kossuth-cult, in addition to Széplaki's above-cited work, see Kende Géza, Magyarok Amerikában. Az amerikai magyarság története [Hungarians in America. The History of Hungarian Americans], 2 vols. (Cleveland: A Szabadság Kiadása, 1927), I, 77-115; István Gál, "Az amerikai Kossuth-kultusz" [American Kossuth Cult], in István Gál, Magyarország, Anglia és Amerika [Hungary, England, and Amerika] (Budapest: Officina, 1944), 187-194; Donald S. Spencer, Louis Kossuth and Young America. A Study in Sectionalism and Foreign Policy, 1848-1852 (Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press, 1977), 29-81; John H. Komlós, Kossuth in America, 1851-1852 (Buffalo: East European Institute, State University of New York College at Buffalo, 1973), 75-94; and Sebestyén, Kossuth, 205-218.

  • See Spencer, Louis Kossuth and Young America, 60-63.

  • Béla Várdy, Magyarok az újvilágban [Hungarians in the New World] (Budapest: Magyar Nyelv és Kultúra Nemzetközi Társasága, 2000), 384.

  • The author and his wife, Dr. Agnes Huszár Várdy, were invited guests at this White House reception for President Göncz on June 8, 1999.

  • These include the full standing Kossuth-statues of Cleveland (1902), New York City (1929), Algona, Kossuth County, Iowa (2001), and the Kossuth-bust in the U.S. Capitol (1990). Bronze plaques can be found in Washington, D.C., Pittsburgh, Columbus, St. Louis, Los Angeles, New Orleans, and perhaps a few other cities. Unfortunately, a recently published handbook that contains a list of Kossuth-statues in America, fails to mention the original one in Cleveland. See Magyar Amerika. A tengerentúli magyarok mai élete történetekben és képekben [Hungarian America. The Current Life of Overseas Hungarians in Stories and in Pictures], ed. László Tanka (Budapest: Médiamix Kiadó, 2002), 211.

  • On Kossuth's tour of the United States, see Várdy, "Kossuth amerikai 'diadalútja'," 331-339.

  • On the changing image of Hungarians in the United States, see Steven Béla Várdy, "Image and Self-Image among, Hungarian-Americans since the Mid-Nineteenth Century," East European Quarterly 35/3 (September 2001): 309-342; and its two slightly different Hungarian versions: Béla Várdy, "A magyarság változó képe Amerikában az elmúlt másfél évszázadban" [Changing Image of the Hungarians in America during the Past Century and a Half], Valóság [Reality] 43/9 (September 2000): 70-89; and "A magyarságkép alakulása és jelenlegi állása az Egyesült Államokban" [The Development and Current Status of the Hungarian Image in the United States], in A XL.Magyar Találkozó Krónikája [Proceedings of the 40th Hungarian Congress], ed. Gyula Nádas (Cleveland, Ohio: Árpád Könyvkiadó Vállalat, 2001), 46-65.

  • Gábor Egressy, as quoted in Andor M. Leffler, The Kossuth Episode in America (Ph.D. dissertation, Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, 1949), 95; and in Spencer, Louis Kossuth and Young America, 54-55.

  • Frank, "Kossuth's English," 211.

  • The Liberator, vol. 21, December 18, 1851. Cf. Spencer, Louis Kossuth and Young America, 78.

  • William Lloyd Garrison, "Letter to Louis Kossuth concerning Freedom and Slavery in the U.S.," in The Liberator, January 9 and February 20, 1852. See also Spencer, Louis Kossuth and Young America, 76-81.

  • On the Great Highway, 253.

  • Concerning Kossuth's view of the power of the American presidency, see Szabad, "Kossuth and the Political System of the United States," 25-28.

  • Ibid.

  • Since during the last few years I have published over half a dozen articles about Kossuth and his relationship to the United States, it is unavoidable that the current study should contain some duplications. Some of my most important relevant studies include: (1) "Kossuth amerikai 'diadalütja' 1851-1852-ben" [Kossuth's 'Triumphant Tour' of America in 1851-1852], Debreceni Szemle [Debrecen Review], New Series, 6/3 (1998): 331-339; (2) "Louis Kossuth's Words in Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address," Eurasian Studies Yearbook 71 (1999): 27-32; (3) "Kossuth Lajos hatása az amerikai társadalomra és közgondolkodásra" [Louis Kossuth's Impact upon American Society and Mentality], Valóság [Reality] 42/9 (September 1999): 36-43; (4) "Kossuth és az amerikai demokrácia" [Kossuth and American Democracy], in Emlékkönyv L. Nagy Zsuzsa 70. születésnapjára [Memorial Volume on the Occasion of Zsuzsa L. Nagy's 70th Birthday], eds. János Angi and János Barta (Debrecen: Multiplex Media-Debrecen University Press, 2000), 173-182; (5) "Kossuth Lajos Amerikában 1851-1852-ben" [Louis Kossuth in American in 1851-1852], Amerikai Magyar Népszava/Szabadság [American Hungarian People's Voice / Liberty], 111/17 (May 11, 2001): 14-16; and (6) "Epilogue. Kossuth and Mid-Nineteenth-Century America," in The Life of Governor Louis Kossuth, with his Public Speeches in the United States, and with a Brief History of the Hungarian War of Independence. Illustrated by Handsome Engravings. By An Officer of the Hungarian Army (New York: Published at 128 Nassau Street, 1852. Reprinted in Budapest: Osiris Kiadó, 2001), 181-199.

  • In Hungarian I publish under the name "Várdy Béla."

  • Bálint Hóman and Gyula Szekfű, Magyar történet [Hungarian History], 5 vols. (Budapest: Királyi Magyar Egyetemi Nyomda, 1943), V. 453.

  • See Joseph Széplaki, Louis Kossuth: "The Nation's Guest" (Ligonier, PA: Bethlen Press, Inc., 1976), 11. Széplaki lists over 1600 mostly contemporary publications that deal with Kossuth, among them 189 poems addressed to the Hungarian statesman. Kossuth's unusual popularity is demonstrated, among others, by Reverend Edmund [Ödön] Vasváry's (1888-1977) archival collection of Hungarica-Americana, which after his death ended up in his native city of Szeged, Hungary. About ten percent of the collection - 34 out of 436 boxes - deal with Kossuth and his relationship to America. Cf. András Csillag, "The Edmund Vasváry Collection," Hungarian Studies 1/1 (1985): 123-130. Concerning Rev. Vasváry, see Steven Béla Várdy, "Reverend Edmund Vasváry: Personal Reminiscences about a Chronicler of the Hungarian-American Past," Eurasian Studies Yearbook 71 (1999): 207-212; and Várdy Béla, "Vasváry Ödön, az amerikai-magyar múlt krónikása" [Edmund Vasváry, Chronicler of the American-Hungarian Past], Vasváry Collection Newsletter 19 (1998/1): 3-4.

  • Greeley's, Whittier's, Emerson's, and Lowell's tributes to Kossuth are reprinted in Endre Sebestyén, Kossuth. A Magyar Apostle of World Democracy (Pittsburgh: Expert Printing Company, 1950), 207-218.

  • Quoted in Richard Henry Dana, Jr., The Journal of Richard Henry Dana, ed. Robert F. Lucid, 3. vols. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968), II, 52; and Spencer, Louis Kossuth and Young America, 172.

  • Kossuth's lack of success in gaining American military and political support for the Hungarian cause is discussed by this author in his above cited study, "Kossuth amerikai 'diadalútja'," 331-339.

  • James Creelman, On the Great Highway. The Wanderings and Adventures of a Special Correspondent (Boston: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co., 1901), 243.

  • Ibid., 253.

  • On Kossuth and the slavery question, see Várdy, "Kossuth és az amerikai demokrácia," especially 178-180.

  • See Gyula Szekfű, "Az öreg Kossuth, 1867-1894" [Old Kossuth, 1867-1894], in Emlékkönyv Kossuth Lajos születésének 150. Évfordulójára, [Memorial Volume on the Occasion of the 150th Anniversary of Louis Kossuth's Birth], 2 vols. (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1952), II, 341-433.

  • The Liberator, vol. 22 (1852), 138; quoted in William Lloyd Garrison, The Story of His Life as Told by His Children, 4 vols. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1894), III, 340, 345. See also Komlós, Kossuth in America, 143.

  • The Liberator, vol. 22, (1852) p. 203; quoted in John L. Thomas, The Liberator: William Lloyd Garrison (Boston: Little, Brown and Co. 1963), 371. See also Komlós, Kossuth in America, 141.

  • Edmund Quincy's article in the December 18, 1851 issue of The National Anti-Slavery Standard. Cf. Spencer, Louis Kossuth and Young America, 80.

  • Ibid., 71-72, 103-104.

  • Wendel Phillips Garrison, William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879. 4 vols. (Boston, 1889), III, 346. See also Spencer, Louis Kossuth and Young America, 71.

  • Concerning Hungarian immigration to the United States see the following major works: Emil Lengyel, Americans from Hungary (Philadelphia-New York: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1948); Julianna Puskás, From Hungary to the United States, 1880-1914 (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1982); Steven Béla Várdy, The Hungarian-Americans (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1985); Steven Béla Várdy and Agnes Huszár Várdy, The Austro-Hungarian Mind: At Home and Abroad (New York: East European Monographs, Columbia University Press, 1989); Albert Tezla, The Hazardous Quest. Hungarian Immigrants in the United States, 1895-1920 (Budapest: Corvina Press, 1993); Julianna Puskás, Ties That Bind, Ties That Divide: 100 Years of Hungarian Experience in the United States, trans. Zora Ludwig (New York: Holmes and Meier Publishers, Inc., 2000); and the already cited Várdy, Magyarok az újvilágban.

  • This phenomenon was also noted by Frederick Douglass (1817-1895), a noted black publicist with close connections to William Lloyd Garrison. Cf. The Liberator, vol. 21 (December 12, 1851). Cf Spencer, Louis Kossuth and Young America, 72.

  • William H. Furness to William Lloyd Garrison, 1851. december 30; reprinted in Garrison, William Lloyd Garrison, vol. 3, p. 347. See also Spencer, Louis Kossuth and Young America, 78.

  • Kossuth's letter to his mother, December 24, 1837, published in Kossuth Lajos iratai, 1837. május - 1840. december [Lajos Kossuth's Papers, May 1837 - December 1840], vol. 7, ed. Gábor Pajkossy (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1989), 317; also quoted by Frank, "Kossuth's English," 210.

  • The first to do so was Ferenc Kazinczy (1759-1831), who translated Hamlet from German in 1790. Cf. Miklós Szenczi, Tibor Szobotka, Anna Katona, Az angol irodalom története [The History of English Literature] (Budapest: Gondolat Kiadó, 1972), 139.

  • Frank, "Kossuth's English," 222.

  • Ibid., 223.

  • Ibid.

  • See Leffler, The Kossuth Episode in America, 31.

  • See the article "Ohio Legislature," Ohio State Journal (February 7, 1952), I would like to thank Mr. Béla Kovách of Columbus, Ohio, for sending me xeroxed copies of the Journal's relevant pages. The manuscript version of Kossuth's speech can be found in the Széchényi National Library, Budapest, Analekta 10467, which appeared in a printed form already in 1853. Cf. Selected Speeches of Kossuth. Condensed and abridged with Kossuth's express sanction, ed. Francis W. Newman (London: Trübner & Co., 1853), 185. See also also Széplaki, Louis Kossuth. The Nation's Guest, 10; Sebestyén, Kossuth, 130; and Komlós, Kossuth in America, 119.

  • For Abraham Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address," see The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, ed. Roy P. Basler (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1953-1955), VII, 23.

  • The author personally examined the plaque at the Kossuth House.

  • Quoted in Komlós, Kossuth in America, 119.

  • Richard B. Morris, ed., Encyclopedia of American History (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1953), 217.

  • Ibid., 217-218.

  • Dictionary of American Biography, vol. IX. 406.

  • Ibid., 18-27, 37-47, 112-116, 137-140.

  • Concerning the main stops on Kossuth's tour of the United States, see Joseph Széplaki, Louis Kossuth, 22-24.