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The functioning of a civil society allows for a variety of possibilities. At the turn of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, enlightened literature and the few journals reached only a small segment of the Hungarian population. Correspondence, a significant part of civil society, compensated for what was missing. The acceptance of free thought and pluralism by the elite prepared the way for their eventual acceptance by a growing number of individuals during the Age of Reform.

  • Andrew Arato, Civil Society, Constitution, and Legitimacy (Lanham, MD.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000), 44.

  • Jan Kubik, "Between the State and Networks of ≪Cousins≫: The Role of Civil Society and Noncivil Associations in the Democratization of Poland" in Nancy Bermeo and Philip Nord, eds, Civil Society Before Democracy (Lanham, MD.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000), 182.

  • Anna Fábry, Az irodalom magánélete. Irodalmi szalonok és társaskörök Pesten 1779 1848 (Budapest: Magvető, 1987); Anna Szalai, Pályakezdő évek Pest-Budán. Horvát István és íróbarátai 1800-1815 (Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1990)

  • Mezei, Nyilvánosság és műfaj, 6-12.

  • Váczy, Kazinczy Ferenc levelezése, V (1894), 327. February 19, 1808; Ibid., VIII (1898), 149. November 6, 1810.

  • Lajos György, A magyar regény előzményei (Budapest: A Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, 1941), 42, 55.

  • Rene Lesage, A sánta ördög. Elmefuttató könyv (Pest: Eggenberger, 1803), II.

  • Váczy, Kazinczy Ferenc levelezése, VI (1895), 345. April 21, 1809; Ibid., VIII (1898), 350. February 25, 1811; Ibid., IV (1893), 111. April 2, 1806; Ibid., XII (1902), 232. December 6, 1814; Zoltán G. Szabó, Kölcsey Ferenc levelezése, 30. January 21, 1814.

  • Zoltán G. Szabó, ed., Kölcsey Ferenc levelezése. Válogatás (Budapest: Gondolat, 1990), 80; Ernő Taxner-Tóth, "A Tudományos Gyűjtemény," Budapest 25/4 (1987), 38.

  • Haydn Mason, French Writers and their Society 1715-1800 (London: McMillan, 1982), 36-52; Roger Chartier, The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution (Durham, SC.: Duke University Press, 1991), 22-23, 67-72.

  • Chartier, The Cultural Origin of the French Revolution, 67; Dena Goodman, Criticism in Action. Experiments in Political Writing (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989), 227-229, 201.

  • Márta Mezei, Nyilvánosság és műfaj a Kazinczy levelezésben (Budapest: Argumentum Kiadó, 1994), 5; Daniel Roche, Les Republicains des Lettres (Paris: Payard, 1988), 264; Dena Goodman, The Republic of Letters. A Cultural History of the French Enlightenment (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994), 137; Roche, Les Republicains, 265.

  • Mihály Szegedy-Maszák, "Szellemi élet," in László Kósa, ed., A polgári társadalom korának művelődése (Budapest: Osiris Kiadó, 1998), 1, 345.

  • Paul P. Bernard, From the Enlightenment to the Police State. The Public Life of Johann Anton Pergen (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991), 225; Karl A. Roider, Jr., Baron Thugut and Austria's Response to the French Revolution (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987), 181.

  • János Pór, Kényszerpályák nemzedéke 1795-1815 (Budapest: Gondolat, 1988), 143-174.

  • Naponként való jegyzései az 1802 esztendőben a Magyar Országgyűlésnek (Pozsony: Fűskuti Landerer Mihály, 1802), 6.

  • Sándor Domanovszky, ed. József nádor iratai 1772-1804 (Budapest: Magyar Történeti Társulat, 1925), I. 223; Kálmán Benda, Emberbarát vagy hazafi? Tanulmányok a felvilágosodás korának magyarországi történetéből (Budapest: Gondolat, 1978), 39-41; quoted in Géza Fülöp, A magyar olvasóközönség a felvilágosodás idején és a reformkorban (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1978), 69.

  • Diarium Comitorum Regni Hungariae (Posonii: Joannic Michaelis Landerer de Fuskut, 1796), 2-3. Personalis was the speaker of the Lower House appointed by the King.

  • János Váczy, ed., Kazinczy Ferenc levelezése (Budapest: A Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, 1895), VI, 57. August 24, 1808; Ibid., III (1892), 235. December 7, 1804; Ibid., VIII (1898), 558. May 25, 1811; Ibid., XIV (1904), 92. March 30, 1816.

  • Laura Engelstein, "The Dream of Civil Society in Tsarist Russia: Law, State, and Religion," in Bermeo and Nord, Civil Society Before Democracy, 23-41; Morris, "Civil Society," 113; Klaus Tenfelde, "Civil Society and Middle Classes in Nineteenth Century Germany," in ibid., 87; Ian F. McNeely, "The Intelligence Gazette (Intelligenzblatt) as a Road Map to Civil Society," in Frank Trentmann, ed., Paradoxes of Civil Society. New Perspectives on Modern and German History (New York: Berghahn Books, 2000), 135-156.

  • Ernest Gellner, Conditions of Liberty. Civil Society and its Rivals (London: Hamish&Hamilton, 1994), 3.

  • Andrew Arato, Civil Society, Constitution, and Legitimacy, 44.

  • S. Jean L. Cohen and Andrew Arato, Civil Society and Political Theory (Cambridge, MA.: M.LT. Press, 1992), 51; Victor Perez-Diaz, "The Public Sphere and a European Society," in Jeffrey C. Alexander, ed., Real Civil Societies. Dilemmas of Institutionalization (London: Sage Studies in Sociology 48, 1998), 211-221.

  • Ernest Gellner, Conditions of Liberty, 193-194; Robert J. Morris, "Civil Society, Subscriber Democracies, and Parliamentary Government in Great Britain," in Bermeo and Nord, Civil Society Before Democracy, 112.

  • Váczy, Kazinczy Ferenc levelezése, III (1891), 37. March 3, 1803; Ibid., VIII (1898), 483. May 3, 1811.

  • Ibid., VII (1896), 49. June 3, 1810; Ibid., III (1892), 28. February 27, 1803; Ibid., 290. March 13, 1805.

  • Ibid., IV (1893), 423. December 8, 1806.

  • Ibid., IV (1893), 11. January 14, 1806; Ibid., X (1900), 68. August 15, 1812; Ibid., 105. September 5, 1812.

  • Ibid., X (1900), September 5, 1812.

  • Ibid., VIII (1898), 458. April 19, 1811; Ibid., XII (1902), 206. November 29, 1814; Ibid., III (1892), 159. February 12, 1804; Ibid., IV (1893), 97. March 30, 1806; Ibid., III (1892), 303. March 31, 1805.

  • Ibid., XIII (1902), 5. July 1, 1815.

  • Ibid., XII (1902), 87. September 14, 1814; Ibid., IX (1899), 101. September 14, 1812.

  • Ibid., VII (1896), 351. April 6, 1810; Ibid., 86. November 25, 1809.

  • Ibid., VI (1895), 352. April 29, 1809; Ibid., XIII (1902), 363. December 21, 1815; Ibid., VII (1896), 345, March (no day) 1810; Ibid., IV (1893), 139. April 29, 106; Ibid., XII (1902), 286. December 27, 1814.

  • Ibid., XIV (1904), 85. March 28, 1816; Ibid., 185. May 11, 1816.