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  • 1 Montclair State University Upper Montclair, NJ, USA
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Hungarian foreign policy from the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in November 1918 to the Peace Treaty of Trianon of June 1920 concentrated on maintaining Hungary's integrity and finding ways to break out of the international isolation in which the newly independent state found itself. Such were the aims of the regimes that followed each other in succession, and which are identified with the names of Mihály Károlyi, Béla Kun, and Miklós Horthy.

  • Hivatalos Közlöny, August 3 and 7, 1919.

  • Quoted in Ignác Romsics, The Dismantling of Hungary: The Peace Treaty of Trianon, 1920 (Boulder, CO.: East European Monographs, Distr. by Columbia University Press, 2002), 115.

  • Peter Pastor, "One Step Forward, Two Steps Back: The Rise and Fall of the First Hungarian Communist Party, 1918-1922," in The Effects of World War I: The Class War after the Great War: The Rise of Communist Parties in East Central Europe, 1918-1921, ed. Ivo Banac (Boulder, CO.: Social Science Monographs, Distr. by Columbia University Press, 1983), 87-91; György Borsányi, The Life of a Communist Revolutionary, Béla Kun (Boulder, CO.: Social Science Monographs, Distr. by Columbia University Press, 1993), 37-77.

  • Magda Imre and Imre Szerényi, eds, Budapest-Moszkva. Szovjet-Oroszország és a Magyarországi Tanácsköztársaság kapcsolatai táviratok tükrében 1919. március 22.-augusztus 1. (Budapest: Kossuth Könyvkiadó, 1979), 17-18.

  • Isaac Deutscher, The Prophet Armed, Trotsky: 1879-1921 (New York: Vintage, 1954), 434; Jan M. Meijer, ed., The Trotsky Papers, 1917-1922 (The Hague: Mouton, 1964), vol. 1, 381.

  • Borsányi, The Life of a Communist Revolutionary, 172; Mária Ormos, "The Foreign Policy of the Hungarian Soviet Republic," in Revolutions and Interventions in Hungary and Its Neighbor States, 1918-1919, ed. Peter Pastor (Boulder, CO.: Social Science Monographs, Distr. by Columbia University Press, 1988), 359.

  • Robert L. Lansing, War Memoirs of Robert Lansing (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1935), 269 ff.

  • United States Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United State, World War 1918 (Washington: US Printing Office, 1933), supplement 1, vol. 1, 367.

  • Ibid., 368.

  • Magyar Képviselőház, Képviselőházi napló (Budapest, 1918), vol 41, 294-295.

  • Mihály Fülöp and Péter Sipos, Magyarország külpolitikája a XX. században (Budapest: Aula, 1998), 72.

  • Quoted in Romsics, The Dismantling of Hungary, 122.

  • Peter Pastor, "French War Aims against Austria-Hungary and the Treaty of Trianon," 20th Century Hungary and the Great Powers, ed. Ignác Romsics (Boulder, CO: Social Science Monographs, Distributed by Columbia University Press, 1995), 49.

  • M. W. Fodor, Plot and Counterplot in Central Europe. Conditions South of Hitler (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1937), 14.

  • Fülöp and Sipos, Magyarország külpolitikája, 84.

  • Magyar Szocialista Munkáspárt Központi Bizottságának Párttörténeti Intézete, A magyar munkásmozgalom történetének válogatott dokumentumai (Budapest: Kossuth, 1956), vol. 5, 266, and Mihály Károlyi, Egy egész világ ellen (Budapest: Gondolat, 1965), 352-353.

  • Tibor Hajdu, Az Őszirózsás Forradalom (Budapest: Kossuth, 1963), 170-174.

  • Michael Károlyi, Memoirs of Michael Károlyi: Faith without Illusion (New York: Dutton and Co., 1957), 130; Dominic Kosáry, A History of Hungary (Cleveleland: Benjamin Franklin Bibliophile Society, 1941), 381.

  • Ministerio degli affair esteri, I Documenti diplomatici Italiani (Rome: Istituto poliografico dello stato, 1956), vol. 1, ser. 6, 168.

  • Magda Adám, György Litván, and Mária Ormos, eds, Documents diplomatiques français sur l'histoire du basin des Carpates 1918-1932, vol. 1, Octobre 1918-Août 1919 (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1993), 112.

  • Budapest. Országos Levéltár, "Minisztertanácsi jegyzőkőnyvek," K 27 MT jvk, no 29, March 20, 1919.

  • Peter Pastor, Hungary between Wilson and Lenin: The Hungarian Revolution of 1918-1919 and the Big Three (Boulder, CO.: East European Quarterly, Distr. by Columbia University Press, 1976), 140-141.

  • For a facsimile of the document, see András Siklós, Magyarország 1818/1919. Események/Képek/Dokumentumok (Budapest: Kossuth, 1978), 255.

  • For a facsimile of the declaration, see Siklós, Magyarország 1918/1919, 260.

  • Pastor, "One Step Forward," 103.

  • Magda Imre and László Szücs, eds, A Forradalmi Kormányzótanács jegyzőkönyvei (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1986), 255.

  • Quoted in Borsányi, The Life of a Communist Revolutionary, 156.

  • Imre and Szerényi, eds, Budapest-Moszkva, 80-81.

  • For the text of his speech, see Vilmos Böhm, Két forradalom tüzében (Budapest: Népszava, 1946), 356-367.