View More View Less
  • 1 Петрозаводский государственный университет, пр, Ленина, д. 33, RU-185910 Петрозаводск
  • | 2 Petrozavodsk State University, Petrozavodsk
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $634.00

Cross Mark

What brings together Daniel Defoe, Charles Dickens, Vsevolod Krestovsky, Nikolai Chernyshevsky, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Аlexander Kuprin, George Bernard Shaw, and Аstrid Lindgren, i.e. writers from different countries and belonging to different epochs? In their creative work, they all used stenography, or rapid writing, permitting a person to listen to true speech and record it simultaneously.

This paper discloses the role of stenography in literary activities of European and Russian writers in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Some researchers believe that the first ties between shorthand and literature appeared in the days of Shakespeare when the playwright's competitors used shorthand to put down the texts of his plays. Others have convincingly refuted this viewpoint, proving that such records never existed. The most famous English novelist in the 17th and 18th centuries Daniel Defoe can be considered one of the first writers who used shorthand in his literary work. The writers mastering the art of shorthand writing such as Defoe, Dickens, and Lindgren were popular in various professional spheres (among others, the secret service, journalism, and secretarial service) where they successfully applied their skills in shorthand writing.

Stenography was an integral part of a creative process of the authors who resorted to it (Dostoevsky, Krestovsky, Shaw, and Lindgren). It economized their time and efforts, saved them from poverty and from the terms of enslavement stipulated in the contracts between writers and publishers. It is mainly thanks to stenography that their works became renowned all over the world. If Charles Dickens called himself “the best writer-stenographer” of the 19th century, F. M. Dostoevsky became a great admirer of the “high art” of shorthand. He was the second writer in Russia (following V. Krestovsky), who applied shorthand writing in his literary work but the only one in the world literature for whom stenography became something more than just shorthand. This art modified and enriched the model of his creative process not for a while but for life, and it had an influence on the poetics of his novels and the story A Gentle Creature, and led to changes in the writer's private life. In the course of the years of the marriage of Dostoevsky and his stenographer Anna Snitkina, the author's artistic talent came to the peak. The largest and most important part of his literary writings was created in that period.

As a matter of fact, having become the “photograph” of live speech two centuries ago, shorthand made a revolution in the world, and became art and science for people. However, its history did not turn to be everlasting. In the 21st century, the art of shorthand writing is on the edge of disappearing and in deep crisis. The author of the paper touches upon the problem of revival of social interest in stenography and its maintenance as an art. Archival collections in Europe and Russia contain numerous documents written in short-hand by means of various shorthand systems. If humanity does not study shorthand and loses the ability to read verbatim records, the content of these documents will be hidden for us forever.

  • Adams 1933

    Adams Joseph Quincy : The Quarto of King Lear and Shorthand. Modern Philology 31 (1933): 135163.

  • Andersen 2018

    Andersen J. Astrid Lindgren. The Woman Behind Pippi Longstocking. New Haven, 2018.

  • Anderson 1882

    Anderson T. History of Shorthand. With a Review of Its Present Condition and Prospects in Europe and America. London, 1882.

  • Bowles 2017a

    Bowles H. Dickens's Shorthand Deciphered by Identifying ‘Sydney Smith’ Source Text. Notes and Queries 64 (2017): 614617.

  • Bowles 2017b

    Bowles H. Stenography and Orality in Dickens: Rethinking the Phonographic Myth. Dickens Studies Annual 48 (2017): 2144.

  • Bowles 2017c

    Bowles H. The Stenographic Creativity of Charles Dickens. Paper Presented at the 28th AIA Conference Worlds of Words: Complexity, Creativity and Conventionality in English Language, Literature and Culture. Pisa, 14-16 September 2017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Butler 1951

    Butler E. H. The Story of British Shorthand. London, 1951.

  • Davidson 2009

    Davidson A. Shakespeare in Shorthand. The Textual Mystery of King Lear. Newark, 2009.

  • Dickens 1850

    Dickens Charles : David Copperfield. London, 1850.

  • Dos Passos 1954

    Dos Passos John : Daniel Defoe. In: Ford Edwin H., Emery Edwin (ed.): Highlights in the History of the American Press. Minneapolis, 1954. 4652.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flavin

    Flavin Richard : Shakespeare and Shorthand.

  • Furbank-Owens 2016

    Furbank P. N. , Owens W. R. A Political Biography of Daniel Defoe. Abingdon, 2016.

  • Gitelman 1999

    Gitelman L. Scripts, Grooves, and Writing Machines. Representing Technology in the Edison Era. Stanford, 1999.

  • Hogarth-Dickens 1893

    Hogarth Georgina , Dickens Mary (ed.): Letters of Charles Dickens (1833-1870). London, 1893.

  • Kreikamp 2005

    Kreikamp I. Voice and the Victorian Storyteller. Cambridge, 2005. 6988.

  • Lovell 2015

    Lovell St. Stenography and the public sphere in modern Russia. Cahiers du monde russe 56 (2015): 291325.

  • Maccarthy 1969

    Maccarthy P. A. D. The Bernard Shaw Alphabet. In: Haas W. (ed.) Alphabets for English. Manchester, 1969. 105118.

  • Mann-Schwarzman

    Mann M. , Schwarzman S. A. Despotic Characters. Researching Shorthand at the New York Public Library.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marcus 1972

    Marcus S. Language into Structure. Pickwick Revisited. Daedalus 1972/1: 183202.

  • Schmidt 1886

    Schmidt Alexander : Shakespeare Lexicon. A Complete Dictionary of all the English Words, Phrases and Constructions in the Works of the Poet. London, 1886.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Summers 2011

    Summers Chris : Is stenography a dying art? BBC News, 27 April 2011.–13035979.

  • Алексеев 1936

    Алексеев Н. А. «Шифр» Н. Чернышевского. Красный архив 1936/3: 221225.

  • Гусев 1909

    Гусев Н. Н. Два года с Л. Н. Толстым. Дневник 10 апреля - 14 июня 1909 г.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Длусский 1874

    Длусский С. Что такое стенография? Значение ее в историческом, общественном и педагогическом отношениях. Санкт-Петербург, 1874.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Достоевская 1922

    Достоевская Л. Ф. Достоевский в изображении его дочери Л. Достоевской. Москва-Петроград, 1922.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Достоевская 2015

    Достоевская А. Г. Воспоминания. 1846-1917. Москва, 2015.

  • Достоевский 1985a

    Достоевский Ф. М. Полное собрание сочинений в 30 томах. Т. 28. Кн. 2. Ленинград, 1985.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Достоевский 1985b

    Достоевский Ф. М. Полное собрание сочинений в 30 томах. Т. 29. Кн. 2. Ленинград, 1985.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ершов 1880

    Ершов Н. А. Обзор русских стенографических систем. Санкт-Петербург, 1880.

  • Иванин 1858

    Иванин М. О стенографии или искусстве скорописи, в применении ее к русскому языку. Санкт-Петербург, 1858.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Кийко-Пошеманская 1978

    Кийко Е. И. , Пошеманская Ц. М. Неизвестный источник текста романа «Братья Карамазовы». В кн.: Достоевский. Материалы и исследования. Т. 3. Ленинград, 1978.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Кулешов 1983

    Кулешов Ф. И. Творческий путь А. И. Куприна. 1883-1907. Минск, 1983.

  • Куприн

    Куприн А. И. Из интервью разных лет.

  • Маркузе 1900

    Маркузе И. К. Воспоминания о В. В. Крестовском. Исторический вестник. Т. 79. Москва, 1900. 9791003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ольхин 1866

    Ольхин П. Руководство к русской стенографии по началам Габельсбергера. Санкт-Петербург, 1866.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Паперно 1996

    Паперно И. Семиотика поведения. Николай Чернышевский человек эпохи реализма. Москва, 1996.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Протасов 1928

    Протасов И. Ф. О рукописи Чернышевского. Вопросы стенографии и машинописи 1928/ 1928: 35.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Рейсер 1982

    Рейсер С. А. Русская палеография нового времени. Неография. Москва, 1982.

  • Чулков 1939

    Чулков Г. И. Как работал Достоевский. Москва, 1939.

  • Юрковский 1969

    Юрковский А. М. Стенография сквозь века. Очерки по истории стенографии. Москва, 1969.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation