Author: DÁvid Kara
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  • 1 Indiana University Department of CEUS Bloomington Goodbody Hall 157, 1011 East 3rd Street Bloomington Indiana 47405-7005 USA
  • | 2 Hungarian Academy of Sciences Institute of Ethnology H-1014 Budapest Országház u. 30 Hungary
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After the formation of the Chagatay and Jochi Uluses the local Mongol nobility was converted to Islam and assimilated by the local Kirghiz and Kipchak Turkic nomads. When these Uluses were disintegrated into smaller hordes (Özbeg, Nogay, Kazak, Kirghiz, etc.), the Turkic-speaking Muslim nobility ruled the newly-formed new nomadic states. The epic tradition of these nomads underwent fundamental changes, and the heroes of the epic songs became the historical or legendary founders of the tribes. When the Oirat Mongols and Jungars attacked their territories during in 16th–18th centuries the Buddhist Oirats became the major enemies of the Muslim Turks who called them Kalmak . But the meaning of Kalmak is broader in the epic tradition of these Turkic peoples: it can mean Non-Muslim or enemy of all kind. The present article analyses the historical and cultural background of the word Kalmak in written and oral sources.

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Editor(s)-in-Chief: Gábor KÓSA

Editorial Board

  • Benedek PÉRI (Eötvös Loránd University)
  • Ágnes BIRTALAN (Eötvös Loránd University)
  • Csaba DEZSŐ (Eötvös Loránd University)
  • Bert FRAGNER (Austrian Academy of Sciences)
  • Peter B. GOLDEN (Rutgers University)
  • Imre HAMAR (Eötvös Loránd University)
  • Zoltán SZOMBATHY (Eötvös Loránd University)
  • István VÁSÁRY(Eötvös Loránd University)
  • Yutaka YOSHIDA (Kyoto University)
  • Peter ZIEME (Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities)

 

Dr. Gábor Kósa
Editor-in-Chief
Institute of East Asian Studies
Eötvös Loránd University
Múzeum krt. 4/F
H-1088 Budapest, Hungary
kosa.gabor@btk.elte.hu

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2020  
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2019  
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13
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Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
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Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
1950
Publication
Programme
2021 Volume 74
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 0001-6446 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2667 (Online)