Author: Cuilan Liu 1
View More View Less
  • 1 Harvard University Department of South Asian Studies 1 Bow Street Cambridge MA 02138 USA
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $624.00

This article reconsiders how the ṣaḍvārgika monks, or monks in the band of six, are represented in Vinaya, the codified Buddhist law texts. Conventionally, these ṣaḍvārgika monks are portrayed as evil figures whose behaviours have subsequently become exemplary of monastic violations in Vinaya literature. In this article, I discover a neglected alternative discourse in which the ṣaḍvārgika monks are perceived as supporters of Buddhism who were well educated in various secular and religious subjects. Specifically, this study reveals that the authors of two Chinese texts Lüjie benshu 律戒本疏 (T2788) and Guan wuliangshou jing yishu 觀無量壽經義疏 (T1749) argued that the ṣaḍvārgika monks are noble figures who had purposefully acted out various misdeeds to facilitate the promulgation of the Buddhist monastic law, which only becomes necessary when the situation requires it.

  • Anālayo (2010): Channa’s Suicide in the SaŃyukta-āgama. Buddhist Studies Review vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 125–137.

    Anālayo , 'Channa’s Suicide in the SaŃyukta-āgama ' (2010 ) 27 Buddhist Studies Review : 125 -137.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Barua, Beni Madhab (1934): The Old Brāhmī inscription of Mahāsthāth. The Indian Historical Quarterly vol. 10, pp. 57–66.

    Barua B M , 'The Old Brāhmī inscription of Mahāsthāth ' (1934 ) 10 The Indian Historical Quarterly : 57 -66.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Beal, Samuel (1885): The Buddhist Records of the Western World: Translated From the Chinese of Hiuen Tsiang. Boston, J.R.OSGOOD & CO.

    Beal S , '', in The Buddhist Records of the Western World: Translated From the Chinese of Hiuen Tsiang , (1885 ) -.

  • Clarke, Shayne (2009a): Locating Humour in Indian Buddhist Monastic Law Codes: A Comparative Approach. Journal of Indian Philosophy vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 311–330.

    Clarke S , 'Locating Humour in Indian Buddhist Monastic Law Codes: A Comparative Approach ' (2009 ) 37 Journal of Indian Philosophy : 311 -330.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Clarke, Shayne (2009b): Monks Who Have Sex: Posojika Penance in Indian Buddhist Monasticisms. Journal of Indian Philosophy vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 1–43.

    Clarke S , 'Monks Who Have Sex: Posojika Penance in Indian Buddhist Monasticisms ' (2009 ) 37 Journal of Indian Philosophy : 1 -43.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Clarke, Shayne (forthcoming): Family Matters in Indian Buddhist Monasticisms. Honolulu, University of Hawai’i Press.

  • Dhammananda, K. Sri (2002): What Buddhists Believe. Kuala Lumpur, Buddhist Missionary Society.

    Dhammananda K S , '', in What Buddhists Believe , (2002 ) -.

  • Dhirasekera, Jotiya (1970): The Rebels against the Codified Law in Buddhist Monastic Discipline. Bukkyōu Kenkyū 仏教研究 vol. 1, pp. 90–77.

    Dhirasekera J , 'The Rebels against the Codified Law in Buddhist Monastic Discipline ' (1970 ) 1 Bukkyōu Kenkyū 仏教研究 : 90 -77.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dhirasekera, Jotiya (1982): Buddhist Monastic Discipline: A Study of Its Origin and Development in Relation to the Sutta and Vinaya Pitakas. PhD thesis. Ceylon, University of Ceylon.

    Dhirasekera J , '', in Buddhist Monastic Discipline: A Study of Its Origin and Development in Relation to the Sutta and Vinaya Pitakas , (1982 ) -.

  • Dutt, Nalinaksha (1942): Gilgit Manuscripts, vol. III, part l2. Calcutta, Calcutta Oriental Press.

    '' (1942 ) III Gilgit Manuscripts : -.

  • Gokhale, Balkrishna Govind (1989): Revolt within the Pale: Challenges to the Buddha’s Authority. Journal of Buddhist Studies vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 11–21.

    Gokhale B G , 'Revolt within the Pale: Challenges to the Buddha’s Authority ' (1989 ) 1 Journal of Buddhist Studies : 11 -21.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hecker, Hellmuth (2003): Mahāmoggallāna: Master of Psychic Power. In: Thera Nyanaponika (ed.): Great Disciples of the Buddha: Their Lives, Their Works, Their Legacy. Someville, Wisdom Publications, pp. 67–106.

    Hecker H , '', in Great Disciples of the Buddha: Their Lives, Their Works, Their Legacy , (2003 ) -.

  • Hirakawa, Akira 平川彰 (1993): Nihyaku-gojikkai no kenkyūe 二百五十戒の研究. Tōkyō, Shunjūsha.

    Hirakawa A , '', in Nihyaku-gojikkai no kenkyūe 二百五十戒の研究 , (1993 ) -.

  • Hirakawa, Akira 平川彰 (1997): Bukkyōukanbon daijiten 佛教漢梵大辭典.Tokyo, The Reiyukai.

    Hirakawa A , '', in Bukkyōukanbon daijiten 佛教漢梵大辭典 , (1997 ) -.

  • Horner, Isaline Blew (1942): Book of the Discipline, Part 3. Oxford, The Pali Text Society.

    Horner I B , '', in Book of the Discipline, Part 3 , (1942 ) -.

  • Horner, Isaline Blew (1969): The Book of the Discipline, Suttavibhaṅga, vol. III. Oxford, The Pāli Text Society.

  • Kasuga, Reichi 春日礼智 (1971): Rokugun biku to jushichigun biku 六群比丘と十七群比丘. Indogaku Bukkyōgaku kenkyū 印度學佛教學研究 vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 342–347.

    Kasuga R , 'Rokugun biku to jushichigun biku 六群比丘と十七群比丘 ' (1971 ) 20 Indogaku Bukkyōgaku kenkyū 印度學佛教學研究 : 342 -347.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Keown, Damien (2003): A Dictionary of Buddhism. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

    Keown D , '', in A Dictionary of Buddhism , (2003 ) -.

  • Malalasekera, George Peiris (1937): Dictionary of Pali Proper Names. New Delhi, J. Jetley.

    Malalasekera G P , '', in Dictionary of Pali Proper Names , (1937 ) -.

  • Mochizuki, Shinkō 望月信亨 (1954-1958): Mochizuki Bukkyō daijiten望月佛教大辞典. Tōkyō, Sekai Seiten Kankō Kyōkai.

    Mochizuki S , '', in Mochizuki Bukkyō daijiten望月佛教大辞典 , (1954 ) -.

  • Pio, Edwina (1988): Buddhist Psychology: A Modern Perspective. New Delhi, Abhinav Publications.

    Pio E , '', in Buddhist Psychology: A Modern Perspective , (1988 ) -.

  • Prebish, Charles (2002): Buddhist Monastic Discipline: The Sanskrit Prātimokṣa Sūtras of the MahāsāŃghikas and Mūlasarvāstivādins. Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.

    Prebish C , '', in Buddhist Monastic Discipline: The Sanskrit Prātimokṣa Sūtras of the MahāsāŃghikas and Mūlasarvāstivādins , (2002 ) -.

  • Rego, Aurelius (2009): A Study of the Role and Function of the Monks and Nuns of the Groups-of- Six in Vinaya Literature. Master Thesis. Ontario, McMaster University.

    Rego A , '', in A Study of the Role and Function of the Monks and Nuns of the Groups-of- Six in Vinaya Literature , (2009 ) -.

  • Sarkar, Susobhan Chandra (1981): Some Critical Observations on the Chabbaggiya Bhikkhus. In: Silver Jubilee Celebration Committee of the Sikkim Research Institute of Tibetology and Other Buddhist Studies (eds): Aspects of Buddhism. New Delhi, Vision Books, pp. 107–119.

    Sarkar S C , '', in Aspects of Buddhism , (1981 ) -.

  • Schopen, Gregory (2003): The Suppression of Nuns and the Ritual Murder of Their Special Dead in Two Buddhist Monastic Texts. In: Wilson, Liz (ed.): The Living and the Dead: Social Dimensions of Death in South Asia Religions. Albany, State University of New York Press, pp. 127–158.

    Schopen G , '', in The Living and the Dead: Social Dimensions of Death in South Asia Religions , (2003 ) -.

  • Schopen, Gregory (2004a): Buddhist Monks and Business Matters: Still More Papers on Monastic Buddhism in India. Honolulu, University of Hawai’i Press.

    Schopen G , '', in Buddhist Monks and Business Matters: Still More Papers on Monastic Buddhism in India , (2004 ) -.

  • Schopen, Gregory (2004b): On Buddhist Monks and Dreadful Deities: Some Monastic Devices for Updating the Dharma. In: Bodewitz, Henk W. - Minoru Hara (eds): Gedenkschrift J. W. de Jong. Tokyo, The International Institute for Buddhist Studies, pp. 161–184.

    Schopen G , '', in Gedenkschrift J. W. de Jong , (2004 ) -.

  • Schopen, Gregory (2007): The Learned Monks as a Comic Figure: On Reading a Buddhist Vinaya as Indian literature. Journal of Indian Philosophy vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 201–226.

    Schopen G , 'The Learned Monks as a Comic Figure: On Reading a Buddhist Vinaya as Indian literature ' (2007 ) 35 Journal of Indian Philosophy : 201 -226.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schopen, Gregory (2010): On Incompetent Monks and Able Urbane Nuns in a Buddhist Monastic Code. Journal of Indian Philosophy vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 107–131.

    Schopen G , 'On Incompetent Monks and Able Urbane Nuns in a Buddhist Monastic Code ' (2010 ) 38 Journal of Indian Philosophy : 107 -131.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shengyen 圣严 (2010): Shengzhe de gushi 圣者的故事. Beijing, Huaxia chubanshe.

    Shengyen , '', in Shengzhe de gushi 圣者的故事 , (2010 ) -.

  • Shi, Changyi 釋常憶 (1992): You liu qun bi qiu zhi fan jie guang qi ren qi shi 由六群比丘之犯戒 觀其人其事. Shizi hou 狮子吼 vol. 31, No. 7, pp. 10–18.

    Shi C , 'You liu qun bi qiu zhi fan jie guang qi ren qi shi 由六群比丘之犯戒 觀其人其事 ' (1992 ) 31 Shizi hou 狮子吼 : 10 -18.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Strong, John (1992): Sanskrit Buddhism in North India and Southeast Asia. New Jersey, Princeton University Press.

    Strong J , '', in Sanskrit Buddhism in North India and Southeast Asia , (1992 ) -.

  • Talim, Meena (1972): Woman in Early Buddhist Literature. Bombay, University of Bombay.

    Talim M , '', in Woman in Early Buddhist Literature , (1972 ) -.

  • Tanaka, K. 田中敬信 (1975): Ningen no honshitsu to hakai shisō 人間の本質と破戒思想}. Shugakū kenkyū 宗学研究 vol. 17, pp. 163–168.

    Tanaka K , '' (1975 ) 17 Shugakū kenkyū 宗学研究 : 163 -168.

  • Watters, Thomas (1905): On Yuan Chwang’s Travels in India. London, Royal Asiatic Society.

    Watters T , '', in On Yuan Chwang’s Travels in India , (1905 ) -.

  • Witzel, Michael (1995): Who is Channa? Manuscript of a lecture delivered at Academia Sinica in Taiwan.

    Witzel M , '', in Who is Channa? Manuscript of a lecture delivered at Academia Sinica in Taiwan , (1995 ) -.

  • Zheng, Acai 郑阿财 (2007): Dun huang fo jiao si yuan gong neng zhi kao cha yu yanjiu: Yi Dun huang yu shi ku wei zhong xin 敦煌佛教寺院功能之考察与研究:以敦煌与石窟为中心. Jiayi, Nanhua University.

    Zheng A , '', in Dun huang fo jiao si yuan gong neng zhi kao cha yu yanjiu: Yi Dun huang yu shi ku wei zhong xin 敦煌佛教寺院功能之考察与研究:以敦煌与石窟为中心. , (2007 ) -.