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  • 1 Fuji Women’s University, Kita 16-jo, Nishi 2-chome, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 0010016,, Japan
  • 2 Hokurei Junior—Senior High School,, Shin’ei 448-1, Kiyota-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan
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The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the history of the Jöchid, placing emphasis on the “inner sources of the Jöchid”, especially on the Chingīz-nāma. First, we re-examine the essence of the term “Golden Horde”, and make an attempt to point out that the appellation “Golden Horde” used for the Jöchid may go back to earlier times than the late 16th century. Secondly, it is demonstrated that the Jöchid had been divided into Right and Left Wings after the reign of Toqtagha at the latest and this structure continued even after the unification of both wings by Toqtamïsh, a fact that historians in the Timurid Empire were also well aware of. Thirdly, the study shows that, at least by the late 14th century, it was recognised that the “White Horde” referred to the Right Wing or the entire Jöchid, while the “Blue Horde” to the Left Wing.

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