View More View Less
  • 1 University of Szeged, H-1205 Budapest, Pannonia u. 3, Hungary
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $624.00

Sanskrit pāmara and its Prakrit and Modern Indo-Aryan equivalents have a broad semantic field. The meaning of the word ranges from a very negative connotation “a low man”, “an outcast”, “a fool” to a positive term denoting a peasant who is a member of a rural community with full powers. The present paper explores the various shades of meaning of the word and their possible social background. The term first appeared in early mediaeval times and has remained productive in the various Modern Indo-Aryan languages spoken in India. The negative connotations of the word are typical of traditional Sanskrit lexicons, while the positive ones were used by poets and playwrights.

  • Abhidhānacintāmaṇi see Śāstrī (1964)

  • Amarakoṣa see Sardesai–Padhye (1969)

  • Āryāsaptaśatī see Hardy (2009)

  • Āryāsaptaśatī see Minakakis (2011)

  • Bal, B. G. (ed. and trans.) (1895): The Bhaminivilasa of Panditraja Jagannatha with a Sanskrit Gloss Bhushana of Mahadeo Suri Dikshita Panditaraja. Bombay.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Banerji, S. C. (ed.) (1965): Sad-ukti-karṇāmṛta of Śrīdharadāsa. Calcutta.

  • Bergaigne, A. (ed. and trans.) (1872): Le Bhâminî-Vilâsa. Recueil de sentences du Pandit Djagannâtha. Paris.

  • Bhāminīvilāsa see Bal (1895)

  • Burrow, T. (1973): The Sanskrit Language. London.

  • Deśīnāmamālā see Pischel (1880)

  • Dezső, Cs.Goodall, D. (eds and trans.) (2012): Dāmodaraguptaviracitaṃ Kuṭṭanīmatam & The Bawd’s Counsel. Groningen.

  • Dhvanyāloka see Ingalls–Masson–Patwardhan (1990)

  • Gaüdavaho see Suru (1975)

  • Hardy, J. F. (ed. and trans.) (2009): Āryāsaptaśatī. Seven Hundred Elegant Verses by Govardhana. New York.

  • Hitopadeśa see Schlegel–Lassen (1829)

  • Hitopadeśa see Kāle (1980)

  • Hoshing, J. (ed.) (1968): Medinīkośa of Śrī Medinīkara. Varanasi.

  • Ingalls, D. H. H. (trans.) (1965): An Anthology of Sanskrit Poetry. Vidyākara’s “Subhāṣitaratnako-ṣa”. Cambridge, Massachusetts.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ingalls, D. H. H.Masson, J. M.Patwardhan M. V. (eds and trans.) (1990): The Dhvanyāloka of Ānandavardhana with the Locana of Abhinavagupta. Cambridge, Massachusetts.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kapstein, M. T. (ed. and trans.) (2009): The Rise of Wisdom Moon by Krishna-mishra. New York.

  • Karpūra-Mañjarī of Rāja-Çekhara see Konow (1901)

  • Kāle, M. R. (ed. and trans.) (1980): Hitopadeśa of Nārāyaṇa. Delhi–Varanasi–Patna.

  • Khoroche, P.Tieken, H. (trans.) (2009): Poems on Life and Love in Ancient India. Hāla’s Sattasaī. New York.

  • Konow, S. (ed. and trans.) (1901): Rāja-Çekhara’s Karpūra-Mañjarī. Cambridge, Massachusetts.

  • Kosambi, D. D.Gokhale, V. V. (eds) (1957): The Subhāṣitaratnakoṣa Compiled by Vidyākara. Cambridge, Massachusetts.

  • Kuṭṭanīmatam see Dezső–Goodall (2012) Mallison, J. (ed. and trans.) (2006): Messenger Poems by Kālidāsa, Dhoyī, and Rūpa Goswāmin. New York.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Medinīkośa see Hoshing (1968)

  • Minakakis, D. (ed. and trans.) (2011): Upaniṣads of the Non-Dualism of Love: Govardhana’s Āryāsaptaśatī. Dissertation zur Erlangung der Würde des Doktors der Philosophie der Universität Hamburg. edis.sub.uni-hamburg.de/volltexte/2015/7602/pdf/Dissertation (retrieved on 16.2.2017).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MSS = Sternbach, L (1977): Mahā-Subhāṣita-ṣaṃgrahaḥ, Vol. III. ed. by Bhaskaran Nair, S. Hoshiarpur.

  • MW = Monier-Williams, M. (1960): A Sanskrit–English Dictionary. Oxford.

  • Olivelle, P. (trans.) (1998): Upaniṣads. Oxford.

  • Pavanadūta see Mallison (2006)

  • Pāia-sadda-mahannavo see Sheth (1963)

  • Pischel, R. (ed.) (1880): The Deśīnāmamālā of Hemachandra. Bombay (Bombay Sanskrit Series 17).

  • Platts, J. T. (1884): A Dictionary of Urdū, Classical Hindī, and English. London. 2 vols.

  • Ramanathan, R. R. (trans.) (1977): MSS No. 5728.

  • Rājataraṅgiṇī see Stein (1892)

  • Rājataraṅgiṇī see Stein (1900)

  • Saduktikarṇāmṛta see Banerji (1965)

  • Saduktikarṇāmṛta see Ramanathan (1977)

  • Sardesai, N. G.Padhye, D. G. (eds and trans.) (1969): Amarakoṣa of Amarasiṃha. Poona.

  • Sattasaī see Weber (1881) and Khoroche–Tieken (2009)

  • Śāstrī, H. (ed.) (1964): Abhidhāna Cintāmaṇi of Śrī Hemacandrāchārya. Varanasi.

  • Śāstrī, H. (ed.) (1971): Vaijayantī of Yādavaprakāśa. Varanasi.

  • Schlegel, A. G.Lassen, C. (eds) (1829): Hitopadesas id est institutio salutaris. Bonnae ad Rhenum. Pars I.

  • Sheth, H. D. T. (1963): Pāia-sadda-mahaṇṇavo. A Comprehensive Prakrit Hindi Dictionary. Varanasi (Prakrit Text Society Series 7).

  • Sircar, D. C. (1966): Indian Epigraphical Glossary. Delhi–Varanasi–Patna.

  • Stein, M. A. (ed.) (1892): Kalhaṇa’s Rājataraṅgiṇī, Vol. I. Sanskrit Text with Critical Notes. Bombay–Leipzig.

  • Stein, M. A. (trans.) (1900): Kalhaṇa’s Rājataraṅgiṇī. A Chronicle of the Kings of Kaśmīr, Vol. I–II. Westminster.

  • Subhāṣitaratnakoṣa see Kosambi–Gokhale (1957)

  • Suru, N. G. (ed. and trans.) (1975): Gaüdavaho by Vākpatirāja. Ahmedabad–Varanasi (Prakrit Text Society Series 18).

  • Vaijayantī see Śāstrī (1971)

  • Weber, A. (ed.) (1881): Das Saptaçatakam des Hāla. Leipzig (Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes 7, Nr. 4).

  • Zysk, K. G. (1985): Religious Healing in the Veda. Philadelphia (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society Vol. 75, Part 7).