View More View Less
  • 1 University of Szeged

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

Presented: European Conference on Educational Research 2019

Proposal Information

In recent years, factors suggesting that we are living in a world risk society (Beck, 1997, 2007; Beck & Grande 2004) have been strengthening. Economic and political crises, increasing poverty, new migration flows, political populism gaining strength, and technological changes (ICT and web2), in addition to the intensifying European youth vulnerabilities specified at the beginning of the century (Furlong, Stalder, & Azzopardi, 2000; Žnidarec Čučković, 2014), create new vulnerabilities for child and youth generations both in Europe (Sortheix, Parker, Lechner, & Schwartz, 2017) and in Hungary, such as the crisis of freedom, solidarity, empathy, values of autonomy (crisis of universal humanistic values and crisis of European values), furthermore, exposure to manipulations of the post-truth era, the “fear industry” (Beck, 2007). The influencing effects of the mass media have become dominant on young people’s thinking. Along with the appearance of web2 and smart devices, time spent talking with the family is decreasing; thus, the impact of the family on young people’s thinking and value orientations is also decreasing. The role of peer groups has been revalued. In most recent years, real, face-to-face friend communities have been taken over by virtual youth interpreting communities and influencers guiding the individual. As a consequence of all this, in Hungary, school age children use the Internet and social media as a basic source of information, which thus become fertile grounds for hoaxes, misconceptions, manipulative grouping of information, and claiming false facts. This vulnerability is reinforced by the phenomenon of increasing isolation, seclusion, measured among Hungarian youth (Gabor, 2012; Jancsak, 2013; Zsolnai, 2015), which means that children and young people leave the filter system of traditional interpreting communities (family and peer friend communities) that would restrict the spread of misconceptions and manipulation (Galan, 2014; Kasik, 2015). The Hungarian educational system is not prepared to provide answers for this phenomenon. This applies for the school subject of History and Civic Education, which provide civic education within the frameworks of educational documents (National Core Curriculum), with its key task to sensitize (educate) students in Grades 8 and 12 of public education (14- and 18-year-olds) into conscious, active citizens. Our earlier studies reveal that history education, due to its textbook-driven nature, performs its democratic education function to a lesser extent; contents reflecting on civic education issues are absent from history teacher education, and teachers do not feel prepared for this task (Jancsak, 2018).

Relying on the value theories of Rokeach (1968, 1973), Schwartz (1992, 2006), and Rezsohazy (2006), our research focus was whether the phenomenon of value crisis/value change could be detected among Hungarian children and young people in two school-life phases that are significant from the perspective of civic education. Our other research question aimed at discovering whether the phenomenon of value crisis appears, and how it appears, among teachers of History and Civic Education. Furthermore, we investigated what opinions students and history teachers hold concerning value transfer processes that are and that could be realized within the framework of History as a subject in case of certain European (universal and humanistic) social values such as freedom, solidarity, autonomy, democracy, right for making decisions, critical thinking, active citizenship, and empathy.

Methods

The empirical data of the present paper were gained through my studies conducted in Hungarian public education institutes. Questionnaires were administered in two age groups: among 8th graders in primary school (14-year-olds) and among 12th graders of secondary school before their matura exams (18-year-olds). The first data collection happened in the spring of 2017 and the second is happening in the spring of 2019. The venues of data collection were the 28 partner schools of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences – University of Szeged Oral History and History Education Research Group. In the two data collection phases of the research, questionnaires were and are administered among history teachers as well (2017: N = 133; planned for 2019: N = 200). The items on our questionnaire were based on Gabor’s (2012) adaptation of the questionnaires applied by Rokeach (1968), Inglehart (2000), and Schwartz (1992), for Hungarian youth research, and specified for the democratic and civic competencies, expected to appear in history education according to the Hungarian National Core Curriculum, and also supplemented with a group of questions on values of democratic competencies, critical thinking, historical thinking, and active citizenship. The independent variables of this study, in case of the students, are sex, age, cultural capital of family (parents’ qualifications as well as talking about historical and public topics), economic situation of family (financial situation), the interpreting community role of peer friend communities made up of real people, and online user habits. In case of the teachers, the independent variables are sex, age, year of earning a degree, and participation in further trainings.

Conclusions

According to our expectations, in the two data collection phases, changes in the social environment of the youth and school in Hungary (e.g., the communication environment appearing in connection with the European Union and migration), the opinion forming of virtual interpreting community platforms (websites, Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter), and the reception of manipulative media contents all had an impact on students’ value orientations and structure of value judgments. This study revealed the expected research findings that the phenomenon of value crisis/value change (Rezsohazy, 2006) means the devaluation of universal (European) values and the preference of material values of a new type (financial well-being vs. equality and consumption vs. environmental awareness) and the preference of individual values (egocentrism vs. empathy, experiences vs. solidarity, individual vs. community, and benevolence and altruism vs. stereotypical thinking and hate). At the same time, it is also assumed that, in case of History and Civic Education as a subject, there is a chasm between the teachers, who are more sensitive from the point of view of critical and historical thinking, and new generations, being formed in school, who are exposed to new vulnerabilities.

References

  • Beck, U. (1997). Was ist Globalisierung? Irrtumer des Globalismus – Antworten auf Globalisierung [What is globalization? Errors of Globalism – Answers to Globalization]. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Suhrkamp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beck, U. (2007). Weltrisikogesellschaft, auf der Suhe nach der verlorenen Sicherheit [World risk society, in search of lost security]. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Suhrkamp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beck, U., & Grande, E. (2004). Das kosmopolitische Europa: Gesellschaft und Politik in der Zweiten Moderne [Cosmopolitan Europe: Society and politics in the second modernity]. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Suhrkamp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Furlong, A., Stalder, B., & Azzopardi, A. (2000). Vulnerable youth: Perspectives on vulnerability in education, employment and leisure in Europe. Strassbourg, France: European Youth Centre.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gabor, K. (2012). Valogatott ifjusagszociologiai tanulmanyok [Selected studies on youth sociology]. Szeged, Hungary: Belvedere Meridionale.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galan, A. (2014). Az internetfuggoseg kialakulasa es prevalenciaja: A hazai es nemzetkozi kutatasi eredmenyek osszefoglalasa [The formation and prevalence of Internet addiction. A summary of international and Hungarian research]. Metszetek, 3(1), 316327.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Inglehart, R. (2000). Globalization and postmodern values. Washington Quarterly, 23(1), 215228. doi:10.1162/016366000560665

  • Jancsak, Cs. (2013). Ifjusagi korosztalyok korszakvaltasban [Youth age groups – In the change of an era]. Budapest, Hungary: Uj Mandatum.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jancsak, C. (2018). Research-based education development in Hungarian Academy of Sciences – University of Szeged Oral History and History Education Research Group. In Z. Banreti, Cs. Jancsak, M. Kosa, & A. Kepiro (Eds.), Results and perspectives (pp. 3739). Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences – Belvedere Meridionale.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kasik, L. (2015). Relationship between cooperation, competition and family background at the ages of 8-18 in a Hungarian context. Hungarian Educational Research Journal, 5(1), 2545. doi:10.14413/herj.2015.01.03

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rezsohazy, R. (2006). Sociologie des valeurs [Sociology of values]. Paris, France: Armand Colin.

  • Rokeach, M. (1968). Beliefs, attitudes and values: A theory of organization and change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

  • Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human value. New York, NY: Free Press.

  • Schwartz, S. (2006). Basic human values: Theory, measurement, and applications. Revue Francaise de Sociologie, 47(4), 929–968+977+981. doi:10.3917/rfs.474.0929

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the structure and content of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 165). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sortheix, F., Parker, P., Lechner, C., & Schwartz, S. (2019). Changes in young Europeans’ values during the global financial crisis. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 10(1), 1525. doi:10.1177/1948550617732610

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Žnidarec Čučković, A. (2014). Understanding the right to education from critical pedagogy point within human rights and democracy teaching. Hungarian Educational Research Journal, 4(2), 1934. doi:10.14413/herj.2014.02.03

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zsolnai, A. (2015). Social and emotional competence. Hungarian Educational Research Journal, 5(1), 110. doi:10.14413/herj.2015.01.01

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Beck, U. (1997). Was ist Globalisierung? Irrtumer des Globalismus – Antworten auf Globalisierung [What is globalization? Errors of Globalism – Answers to Globalization]. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Suhrkamp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beck, U. (2007). Weltrisikogesellschaft, auf der Suhe nach der verlorenen Sicherheit [World risk society, in search of lost security]. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Suhrkamp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beck, U., & Grande, E. (2004). Das kosmopolitische Europa: Gesellschaft und Politik in der Zweiten Moderne [Cosmopolitan Europe: Society and politics in the second modernity]. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Suhrkamp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Furlong, A., Stalder, B., & Azzopardi, A. (2000). Vulnerable youth: Perspectives on vulnerability in education, employment and leisure in Europe. Strassbourg, France: European Youth Centre.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gabor, K. (2012). Valogatott ifjusagszociologiai tanulmanyok [Selected studies on youth sociology]. Szeged, Hungary: Belvedere Meridionale.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galan, A. (2014). Az internetfuggoseg kialakulasa es prevalenciaja: A hazai es nemzetkozi kutatasi eredmenyek osszefoglalasa [The formation and prevalence of Internet addiction. A summary of international and Hungarian research]. Metszetek, 3(1), 316327.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Inglehart, R. (2000). Globalization and postmodern values. Washington Quarterly, 23(1), 215228. doi:10.1162/016366000560665

  • Jancsak, Cs. (2013). Ifjusagi korosztalyok korszakvaltasban [Youth age groups – In the change of an era]. Budapest, Hungary: Uj Mandatum.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jancsak, C. (2018). Research-based education development in Hungarian Academy of Sciences – University of Szeged Oral History and History Education Research Group. In Z. Banreti, Cs. Jancsak, M. Kosa, & A. Kepiro (Eds.), Results and perspectives (pp. 3739). Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences – Belvedere Meridionale.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kasik, L. (2015). Relationship between cooperation, competition and family background at the ages of 8-18 in a Hungarian context. Hungarian Educational Research Journal, 5(1), 2545. doi:10.14413/herj.2015.01.03

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rezsohazy, R. (2006). Sociologie des valeurs [Sociology of values]. Paris, France: Armand Colin.

  • Rokeach, M. (1968). Beliefs, attitudes and values: A theory of organization and change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

  • Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human value. New York, NY: Free Press.

  • Schwartz, S. (2006). Basic human values: Theory, measurement, and applications. Revue Francaise de Sociologie, 47(4), 929–968+977+981. doi:10.3917/rfs.474.0929

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the structure and content of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 165). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sortheix, F., Parker, P., Lechner, C., & Schwartz, S. (2019). Changes in young Europeans’ values during the global financial crisis. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 10(1), 1525. doi:10.1177/1948550617732610

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Žnidarec Čučković, A. (2014). Understanding the right to education from critical pedagogy point within human rights and democracy teaching. Hungarian Educational Research Journal, 4(2), 1934. doi:10.14413/herj.2014.02.03

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zsolnai, A. (2015). Social and emotional competence. Hungarian Educational Research Journal, 5(1), 110. doi:10.14413/herj.2015.01.01

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Sep 2020 0 72 11
Oct 2020 0 48 2
Nov 2020 0 114 39
Dec 2020 0 73 3
Jan 2021 0 27 7
Feb 2021 0 45 3
Mar 2021 0 0 0