Author: T. Deák 1
View More View Less
  • 1 Corvinus University Budapest Department of Microbiology H-1118 Budapest Somlói ut 14. Hungary
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $878.00

Recent changes in classification of the four major groups of cultivable bacteria commonly encountered in foods are reviewed. Newly described species and genera as well as reassignment of former taxa belonging to Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria are considered. Taxonomic changes are surveyed derived from results of 16S rRNA gene analysis confirmed by other molecular techniques and traditional methods. The review is aimed to update relevant taxonomic information for those not directly involved in taxonomy, however, this kind of information will have significance in understanding the microbial ecology of food systems and promote improvement of preservation methods, fermentation technologies as well as enhance the safety of products.

  • Amann, R.I., Ludwig, W. & Schleifer, K.H. (2095): Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbiol. Rev., 59, 143–169.

    Schleifer K.H. , 'Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation ' (2095 ) 59 Microbiol. Rev. : 143 -169.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Anzai, Y., Kim, H., Park, J.-Y., Wakabayashi, H. & Oyaizu, H. (2000): Phylogenetic affiliation of the pseudomonads based on 16S rRNA sequence. Int. J. syst. evol. Microbiol., 50, 1563–1589.

    Oyaizu H. , 'Phylogenetic affiliation of the pseudomonads based on 16S rRNA sequence ' (2000 ) 50 Int. J. syst. evol. Microbiol. : 1563 -1589.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Arakawa, K., Kawai, Y., Iioka, H., Tanioka, M., Nishimura, J., Kitazawa, H., Tsurumi, K. & Saito, T. (2008): Microbial community analysis of food-spoilage bacteria in commercial custard creams using culture-dependent and independent methods. J. Dairy Sci., 91, 2938–2946.

    Saito T. , 'Microbial community analysis of food-spoilage bacteria in commercial custard creams using culture-dependent and independent methods ' (2008 ) 91 J. Dairy Sci. : 2938 -2946.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Baumgartner, A., Grand, M., Liniger, M. & Iversen, C. (2009): Detection and frequency of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) in different categories of ready-to-eat foods other than infant formula. Int. J. Fd Microbiol., 136, 189–192

    Iversen C. , 'Detection and frequency of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) in different categories of ready-to-eat foods other than infant formula ' (2009 ) 136 Int. J. Fd Microbiol. : 189 -192.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ben-Gigirey, B., Vieitfes, J.M., Kim, S.H., An, H., Villa, T.G. & Barros-Velázquez, J. (2002): Specific detection of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains in albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga). Fd Control, 13, 293–299.

    Barros-Velázquez J. , 'Specific detection of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains in albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) ' (2002 ) 13 Fd Control : 293 -299.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Campbell, B.J., Engel, A.S., Porter, M.L. & Takai, K. (2006): The versatile epsilon-proteobacteria: key players in sulphidic habitats. Nat. Rev. Microbiol., 4, 458–468.

    Takai K. , 'The versatile epsilon-proteobacteria: key players in sulphidic habitats ' (2006 ) 4 Nat. Rev. Microbiol. : 458 -468.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Capuzzo, C., Firrao, G., Mazzon, L., Squartini, A. & Girolami, V. (2005): ’Candidatus Erwinia dacicola’, a coevolved symbiotic bacterium of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin). Int. J. syst. evol. Microbiol., 55, 1641–1647.

    Girolami V. , '’Candidatus Erwinia dacicola’, a coevolved symbiotic bacterium of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) ' (2005 ) 55 Int. J. syst. evol. Microbiol. : 1641 -1647.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cleenwerck, I. & DE Vo, P. (2008): Polyphasic taxonomy of acetic acid bacteria: An overview of the currently applied methodology. Int. J. Fd Microbiol., 125, 2–14.

    Vo P. , 'Polyphasic taxonomy of acetic acid bacteria: An overview of the currently applied methodology ' (2008 ) 125 Int. J. Fd Microbiol. : 2 -14.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cocolin, L. & Ercolini, D. (2008): Molecular techniques in the microbial ecology of fermented foods. Springer, New York, 280 pages.

    Ercolini D. , '', in Molecular techniques in the microbial ecology of fermented foods , (2008 ) -.

  • Colwell, R.R. (2070): Polyphasic taxonomy of bacteria. — in: Iizuka, H. & Hasegawa, T. (Eds), Culture collections of microorganisms. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo. pp. 421–436

    Colwell R.R. , '', in Culture collections of microorganisms , (2070 ) -.

  • Corry, J.E.L., Jarvis, B., Passmore, S. & Hedges, A. (2007): A critical review of measurement uncertainty in the enumeration of food micro-organisms. Fd Microbiol., 24, 230–253.

    Hedges A. , 'A critical review of measurement uncertainty in the enumeration of food micro-organisms ' (2007 ) 24 Fd Microbiol. : 230 -253.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Coton, M., Laplace, J.M., Auffray, Y. & Coton, E. (2006): Polyphasic study of Zymomonas mobilis strains revealing the existence of a novel subspecies Z. mobilis subsp. francensis subsp. nov., isolated from French cider. Int. J. syst. evol. Microbiol., 56, 121–125.

    Coton E. , 'Polyphasic study of Zymomonas mobilis strains revealing the existence of a novel subspecies Z. mobilis subsp. francensis subsp. nov., isolated from French cider ' (2006 ) 56 Int. J. syst. evol. Microbiol. : 121 -125.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • De Beer, H., Hugo, C.J., Jooste, P.J., Willems, A., Vancanneyt, M., Coenye, T. & Vandamme A.R. (2005): Chryseobacterium vrystaatense sp. nov., isolated from raw chicken in a chicken-processing plant. Int. J. syst. evol. Microbiol., 55, 2149–2153.

    Vandamme A.R. , 'Chryseobacterium vrystaatense sp. nov., isolated from raw chicken in a chicken-processing plant ' (2005 ) 55 Int. J. syst. evol. Microbiol. : 2149 -2153.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • De Smef, S., DE Zutter, L., VAN Hende, J. & Houf, K. (2009): Arcobacter contamination on pre- and post-chilled bovine carcasses in minced beef at retail. J. appl. Microbiol., 108, 299–305.

    Houf K. , 'Arcobacter contamination on pre- and post-chilled bovine carcasses in minced beef at retail ' (2009 ) 108 J. appl. Microbiol. : 299 -305.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • De Vuyst, L. (2009): (GTG)5-PCR reference framework for acetic acid bacteria. FEMS microbiol. Lett., 301, 44–49.

    Vuyst L. , '(GTG)5-PCR reference framework for acetic acid bacteria ' (2009 ) 301 FEMS microbiol. Lett. : 44 -49.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Delbes, C., Ali-Mandjee, L. & Montel, M.-C. (2007): Monitoring bacterial communities in raw milk and cheese by culture-dependent and -independent 16S rRNA gene-based analyses. Appl. envir. Microbiol., 73, 1882–1891.

    Montel M.-C. , 'Monitoring bacterial communities in raw milk and cheese by culture-dependent and -independent 16S rRNA gene-based analyses ' (2007 ) 73 Appl. envir. Microbiol. : 1882 -1891.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • DSMZ (2009): Bacteria. Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH ( http://www.dsmz.de/microorganisms/bacteria_catalogue.php )

  • Dworkin, M., Falkow, S., Rosenberg, E., Schleifer, K.-H. & Stackebrandt, E. (Eds) (2006): The Prokaryotes. A handbook on the biology of bacteria. 3rd ed. Vols. 1–7. Springer, New York.

    '', in The Prokaryotes. A handbook on the biology of bacteria , (2006 ) -.

  • Eichler, S., Christen, R., Höltje, C., Westphal, P., Bötel, J., Brettar, I., Mehling, A. & Höfler, M.G. (2006): Composition and dynamics of bacterial communities of a drinking water supply system as assessed by RNAand DNA-based 16S rRNA gene fingerprinting. Appl. envir. Microbiol., 72, 1858–1872.

    Höfler M.G. , 'Composition and dynamics of bacterial communities of a drinking water supply system as assessed by RNAand DNA-based 16S rRNA gene fingerprinting ' (2006 ) 72 Appl. envir. Microbiol. : 1858 -1872.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ercolini, D., Hil, P.J. & Dodd, C.E.R. (2003): Bacterial community structure and location in stilton cheese. Appl. envir. Microbiol., 69, 3540–3548.

    Dodd C.E.R. , 'Bacterial community structure and location in stilton cheese ' (2003 ) 69 Appl. envir. Microbiol. : 3540 -3548.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ercolini, D., Russo, F., Nasi, A., Ferranti, P. & Villani, F. (2009): Mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria from meat and their spoilage potential in vitro and in beef. Appl. envir. Microbiol., 75, 1990–2001.

    Villani F. , 'Mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria from meat and their spoilage potential in vitro and in beef ' (2009 ) 75 Appl. envir. Microbiol. : 1990 -2001.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Euzeby, J.P. (2009): List of prokaryotic names with standing in nomenclature (a folder available on the Internet: http://www.bacterio.net )

  • Friedman, M. (2007): Enterobacter sakazakii in food and beverages (other than infant formula and milk powder). Int. J. Fd Microbiol., 116, 1–10.

    Friedman M. , 'Enterobacter sakazakii in food and beverages (other than infant formula and milk powder) ' (2007 ) 116 Int. J. Fd Microbiol. : 1 -10.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Garrity, G.M. (Ed.) (2001–2009): Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology. 2nd ed, vols 1–4, Springer, New York.

    '', in Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology , (2001 ) -.

  • Giraffa, G. & Neviani, E. (2001): DNA-based, culture-independent strategies for evaluating microbial communities in food-associated ecosystems. Int. J. Fd Microbiol., 67, 19–34.

    Neviani E. , 'DNA-based, culture-independent strategies for evaluating microbial communities in food-associated ecosystems ' (2001 ) 67 Int. J. Fd Microbiol. : 19 -34.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gullo, M., DE Vero, L. & Giudici, P. (2009): Succession of selected strains of Acetobacter pasteurianus and other acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar. Appl. envir. Microbiol., 75, 2585–2589.

    Giudici P. , 'Succession of selected strains of Acetobacter pasteurianus and other acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar ' (2009 ) 75 Appl. envir. Microbiol. : 2585 -2589.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hantsis-Zacharov, E. & Halpern, M. (2007): Culturable psychrotrophic bacterial communities in raw milk and their proteolytic and lipolytic traits. Appl. envir. Microbiol., 73, 7162–7168.

    Halpern M. , 'Culturable psychrotrophic bacterial communities in raw milk and their proteolytic and lipolytic traits ' (2007 ) 73 Appl. envir. Microbiol. : 7162 -7168.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hantsis-Zacharov, E., Senderovich, Y. & Halpern, M. (2008): Chryseobacterium bovis sp. nov., isolated from raw cow’s milk. Int. J. syst. evol. Microbiol., 58, 1024–1028.

    Halpern M. , 'Chryseobacterium bovis sp. nov., isolated from raw cow’s milk ' (2008 ) 58 Int. J. syst. evol. Microbiol. : 1024 -1028.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Herzog, P., Winkler, I., Wolking, D., Kämpfer, P. & Lipski, A. (2008): Chryseobacterium ureilyticum sp. nov., Chryseobacterium gambrini sp. nov., Chryseobacterium pallidum sp. nov., and Chryseobacterium molle sp. nov., isolated from beer-bottling plants. Int. J. syst. evol. Microbiol., 58, 26–33.

    Lipski A. , 'Chryseobacterium ureilyticum sp. nov., Chryseobacterium gambrini sp. nov., Chryseobacterium pallidum sp. nov., and Chryseobacterium molle sp. nov., isolated from beer-bottling plants ' (2008 ) 58 Int. J. syst. evol. Microbiol. : 26 -33.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hugenholtz, P., Goebel, B.M. & Pace, N.R. (2098): Impact of culture-independent studies on the emerging phylogenetic view of bacterial diversity. J. Bacteriol., 180, 4765–4774.

    Pace N.R. , 'Impact of culture-independent studies on the emerging phylogenetic view of bacterial diversity ' (2098 ) 180 J. Bacteriol. : 4765 -4774.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Humblot, C. & Guyot, J.-P. (2009): Pyrosequencing of tagged 16S rRNA gene amplicons for rapid deciphering of the microbiomes of fermented foods such as pearl millet slurries. Appl. envir. Microbiol., 75, 4354–4361.

    Guyot J.-P. , 'Pyrosequencing of tagged 16S rRNA gene amplicons for rapid deciphering of the microbiomes of fermented foods such as pearl millet slurries ' (2009 ) 75 Appl. envir. Microbiol. : 4354 -4361.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jagoueix, S., Bové, J.M. & Garnier, M. (2094): The phloem-limited bacterium of greening disease of citrus is a member of alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Int. J. syst. Bacteriol., 44, 379–386.

    Garnier M. , 'The phloem-limited bacterium of greening disease of citrus is a member of alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria ' (2094 ) 44 Int. J. syst. Bacteriol. : 379 -386.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jay, J.M. (2003): A review of recent taxonomic changes in seven genera of bacteria commonly found in foods. J. Fd Prot., 66, 1304–1309.

    Jay J.M. , 'A review of recent taxonomic changes in seven genera of bacteria commonly found in foods ' (2003 ) 66 J. Fd Prot. : 1304 -1309.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jooste, P.J. & Hugo, C.J. (2099): The taxonomy, ecology and cultivation of bacterial genera belonging to the family Flavobacteriaceae. Int. J. Fd Microbiol., 53, 81–94.

    Hugo C.J. , 'The taxonomy, ecology and cultivation of bacterial genera belonging to the family Flavobacteriaceae ' (2099 ) 53 Int. J. Fd Microbiol. : 81 -94.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Justé, A., Thomma, B.P.H.J. & Lievens, B. (2008): Recent advances in molecular techniques to study microbial communities in food-associated matrices and processes. Fd Microbiol., 25, 745–761.

    Lievens B. , 'Recent advances in molecular techniques to study microbial communities in food-associated matrices and processes ' (2008 ) 25 Fd Microbiol. : 745 -761.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kersters, K., Ludwig, W., Vancanneyt, M., De Vos, P., Gillis, M. & Schleifer, K.-H. (2096): Recent change in the classification of the pseudomonads: an overview. Syst. appl. Microbiol., 19, 465–477.

    Schleifer K.-H. , 'Recent change in the classification of the pseudomonads: an overview ' (2096 ) 19 Syst. appl. Microbiol. : 465 -477.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kersters, K., Devos, P., Gillis, M., Swings, J., Vandamme, P. & Stackebrandt, E. (2006): Introduction to the Proteobacteria. — in: Dworkin, M., Falkow, S., Rosenberg, E., Schleifer, K.H. & Stackebrandt, E. (Eds) The Prokaryotes: A handbook on the biology of bacteria. 3rd ed., Release 3.12. Springer, New York, pp. 3–37.

    Stackebrandt E. , '', in The Prokaryotes: A handbook on the biology of bacteria , (2006 ) -.

  • Lapage, S.P., Sneath, P.H.A., Lessel, E.F., Skerman, V.B.D., Seeliger, H.P.R. & Clark, W.A. (2092): International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. (2090 Revision). Am. Soc. Microbiol., Washington, D.C.

    Clark W.A. , '', in International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria , (2092 ) -.

  • Maukonen, J. & Saarela, M. (2009): Microbial communities in industrial environment. Curr. Opin. Microbiol., 12, 238–243.

    Saarela M. , 'Microbial communities in industrial environment ' (2009 ) 12 Curr. Opin. Microbiol. : 238 -243.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pablos, M., Rodriguez-Calleja, J.M., Santos, J.A., Otero, A. & García-López, M.-L. (2009): Occurrence of motile Aeromonas in municipal drinking water and distribution of genes encoding virulence factors. Int. J. Fd Microbiol., 135, 158–164.

    García-López M.-L. , 'Occurrence of motile Aeromonas in municipal drinking water and distribution of genes encoding virulence factors ' (2009 ) 135 Int. J. Fd Microbiol. : 158 -164.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Palleroni, N.J., Kunisawa, R., Contopoulo, R. & Doudoroff, M. (2073): Nucleic acid homologies in the genus Pseudomonas. J. system. Bacteriol., 23, 333–339.

    Doudoroff M. , 'Nucleic acid homologies in the genus Pseudomonas ' (2073 ) 23 J. system. Bacteriol. : 333 -339.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Quiňones, B., Parker, C.T., Janda, J.M., Miller, W.G. & Mandrell, R.E. (2007): Detection and genotyping of Arcobacter and Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken samples by use of DNA oligonucleotide arrays. Appl. envir. Microbiol., 73, 3645–3655.

    Mandrell R.E. , 'Detection and genotyping of Arcobacter and Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken samples by use of DNA oligonucleotide arrays ' (2007 ) 73 Appl. envir. Microbiol. : 3645 -3655.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Richards, G.P., Watson, M.A., Crane, E.J., Burt, I.G. & Bushek, D. (2008): Shewanella and Photobacterium spp. in oysters and seawater from the Delaware Bay. Appl. envir. Microbiol., 74, 3323–3327.

    Bushek D. , 'Shewanella and Photobacterium spp. in oysters and seawater from the Delaware Bay ' (2008 ) 74 Appl. envir. Microbiol. : 3323 -3327.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Roh, S.W., Kim, K.-H., Nam, Y.-D., Chang, H.-W., Park, E-J. & Bae, J.-W. (2010): Investigation of archaeal and bacterial diversity in fermented seafood using barcoded pyrosequencing. ISME J., 4, 1–16.

    Bae J.-W. , 'Investigation of archaeal and bacterial diversity in fermented seafood using barcoded pyrosequencing ' (2010 ) 4 ISME J. : 1 -16.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rondon, M.R., August, P.R., Bettermann, A.D., Brady, S.F., Grosman, T.H., Liles, M.R., Loiacono, K.A., Lynch, B.A., Macneil, I.A., Minor, C., Tiong, C.L., Gilman, M., Osburne, S., M.S., Clardy, J., Handelsman, J. & Goodman, R.M. (2000): Cloning the soil metagenome: a strategy for accessing the genetic and functional diversity of uncultured microorganisms. Appl. envir. Microbiol., 66, 2541–2547.

    Goodman R.M. , 'Cloning the soil metagenome: a strategy for accessing the genetic and functional diversity of uncultured microorganisms ' (2000 ) 66 Appl. envir. Microbiol. : 2541 -2547.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schirmer, B.C., Heir, E. & Langsrud, S. (2009): Characterization of the bacterial spoilage flora in marinated pork products. J. appl. Microbiol., 106, 2106–2116.

    Langsrud S. , 'Characterization of the bacterial spoilage flora in marinated pork products ' (2009 ) 106 J. appl. Microbiol. : 2106 -2116.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Simőes, L.C., Simőes, M., Oliveira, R. & Vieira, M.J. (2007): Potential of the adhesion of bacteria isolated from drinking water to materials. J. basic Microbiol., 47, 174–183.

    Vieira M.J. , 'Potential of the adhesion of bacteria isolated from drinking water to materials ' (2007 ) 47 J. basic Microbiol. : 174 -183.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sleator, R.D., Shortall, C. & Hill, C. (2008): Metagenomics. Lett. appl. Microbiol., 47, 361–366.

    Hill C. , 'Metagenomics ' (2008 ) 47 Lett. appl. Microbiol. : 361 -366.

  • Stackebrandt, E., Murray, R.G.E. & Trüper, H.G. (2088): Proteobacteria classis nov., a name for the phylogenetic taxon that includes the “purple bacteria and their relatives”. Int. J. syst. Bacteriol., 38, 321–325.

    Trüper H.G. , 'Proteobacteria classis nov., a name for the phylogenetic taxon that includes the “purple bacteria and their relatives” ' (2088 ) 38 Int. J. syst. Bacteriol. : 321 -325.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tindall, B.J., Grimont, P.A.D., Garrity, G.M. & Euzeby, J.P. (2005): Nomenclature and taxonomy of the genus Salmonella. Int. J. syst. evol. Microbiol., 55, 521–524.

    Euzeby J.P. , 'Nomenclature and taxonomy of the genus Salmonella ' (2005 ) 55 Int. J. syst. evol. Microbiol. : 521 -524.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Torsvik, V. & Ovreas, L. (2002): Microbial diversity and function in soil: from genes to ecosystems. Curr. Opin. Microbiol., 5, 240–245.

    Ovreas L. , 'Microbial diversity and function in soil: from genes to ecosystems ' (2002 ) 5 Curr. Opin. Microbiol. : 240 -245.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Vandamme, P., Bernardet, J.-F., Segers, P., Kersters, K. & Holmes, B. (2094): New perspectives in the classification of the flavobacteria: description of Chtysobacterium gen. nov., Bergeyella gen. nov., and Empedobacter nom. Rev. int. J. syst. Bacteriol., 44, 827–831.

    Holmes B. , 'New perspectives in the classification of the flavobacteria: description of Chtysobacterium gen. nov., Bergeyella gen. nov., and Empedobacter nom ' (2094 ) 44 Rev. int. J. syst. Bacteriol. : 827 -831.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Vandamme, P., Pot, B., Gillis, M., De Vos, P., Kersters, K. & Swings, J. (2096): Polyphasic taxonomy, a consensus approach to bacterial systematics. Microbiol. Rev., 60, 407–438.

    Swings J. , 'Polyphasic taxonomy, a consensus approach to bacterial systematics ' (2096 ) 60 Microbiol. Rev. : 407 -438.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Vogel, B.F., Venkateswaran, K., Satomi, M. & Gram, L. (2005): Identification of Shewanella baltica as the most important H2S-producing species during iced storage of Danish marine fish. Appl. envir. Microbiol., 71, 6689–6697.

    Gram L. , 'Identification of Shewanella baltica as the most important H2S-producing species during iced storage of Danish marine fish ' (2005 ) 71 Appl. envir. Microbiol. : 6689 -6697.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Willems, A., Goor, M., Thielemans, S., Gillis, M., Kersters, K. & De Ley, J. (2092): Transfer of several phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species to Acidovorax as Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae subsp. nov. comb. nov., Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, Acidovorax avenae subsp. cattleyae, and Acidovorax konjaci. Int. J. syst. Bacteriol., 42, 107–119.

    Ley J. , 'Transfer of several phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species to Acidovorax as Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae subsp. nov. comb. nov., Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, Acidovorax avenae subsp. cattleyae, and Acidovorax konjaci ' (2092 ) 42 Int. J. syst. Bacteriol. : 107 -119.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Woese, C.R. (2087): Bacterial evolution. Microbiol. Rev., 51, 221–271.

    Woese C.R. , 'Bacterial evolution ' (2087 ) 51 Microbiol. Rev. : 221 -271.

  • Woese, C.R., Kandler, O. & Whelis, M.L. (2090): Towards a natural system of organisms: proposals for the domains Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya. Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. USA, 87, 4576–4579.

    Whelis M.L. , 'Towards a natural system of organisms: proposals for the domains Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya ' (2090 ) 87 Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. USA : 4576 -4579.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Woese, C.R. & Fox, G.E. (2077): Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: the primary kingdoms. Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. USA, 74, 5088–5090.

    Fox G.E. , 'Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: the primary kingdoms ' (2077 ) 74 Proc. Natn. Acad. Sci. USA : 5088 -5090.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wommack, K.E., Bhavsar, J. & Ravel, J. (2008): Metagenomics: read length matters. Appl. envir. Microbiol., 74, 1453–1463.

    Ravel J. , 'Metagenomics: read length matters ' (2008 ) 74 Appl. envir. Microbiol. : 1453 -1463.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yabuchi, E., Kawamura, Y., Kosako, Y. & Ezaki, T. (2098): Emendation of the genus Achromobacter and Achromobacter xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano) and proposal of Achromobacter ruhlandii (Packer and Vishniac) comb. nov., Achromobacter piechaudii (Kiredjian et al.) comb. nov., and Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans (Rüger and Tan) comb. nov. Microbiol. Immunol., 42, 429–438.

    Ezaki T. , 'Emendation of the genus Achromobacter and Achromobacter xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano) and proposal of Achromobacter ruhlandii (Packer and Vishniac) comb. nov., Achromobacter piechaudii (Kiredjian et al.) comb. nov., and Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans (Rüger and Tan) comb. nov. Microbiol ' (2098 ) 42 Immunol. : 429 -438.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yamada, Y. & Yukphan, P. (2008): Genera and species in acetic acid bacteria. Int. J. Fd Microbiol., 125, 15–24.

    Yukphan P. , 'Genera and species in acetic acid bacteria ' (2008 ) 125 Int. J. Fd Microbiol. : 15 -24.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yarza, P., Richter, M., Peplies, J., Euzeby, J., Amann, R., Schleifer, K.-H., Ludwig, W., Glöckner, F.O. & Rosselló-Móra, R. (2008): The all-species living tree project: A 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic tree of all sequenced type strains. System. appl. Microbiol., 31, 241–250.

    Rosselló-Móra R. , 'The all-species living tree project: A 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic tree of all sequenced type strains ' (2008 ) 31 System. appl. Microbiol. : 241 -250.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zreik, L., Bové, J.M. & Garnier, M. (2098): Phylogenetic characterization of the bacterium-like organism associated with marginal chlorosis of strawberry and proposition of a Candidatus taxon for the organism, “Candidatus Phlomobacter fragariae”. Int. J. syst. Bacteriol., 48, 257–261.

    Garnier M. , 'Phylogenetic characterization of the bacterium-like organism associated with marginal chlorosis of strawberry and proposition of a Candidatus taxon for the organism, “Candidatus Phlomobacter fragariae” ' (2098 ) 48 Int. J. syst. Bacteriol. : 257 -261.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zwielehner, J., Handschur, M., Michaelsen, A., Irez, S., Demel, M., Denner, W.B.M. & Haslberger, A.G. (2008): DGGE and real-time PCR analysis of lactic acid bacteria in bacterial communities of the pyllosphere of lettuce. Molec. Nutr. Fd Res. 52, 614–623.

    Haslberger A.G. , 'DGGE and real-time PCR analysis of lactic acid bacteria in bacterial communities of the pyllosphere of lettuce ' (2008 ) 52 Molec. Nutr. Fd Res. : 614 -623.

    • Search Google Scholar

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Sep 2020 6 0 0
Oct 2020 3 0 0
Nov 2020 7 0 0
Dec 2020 2 0 0
Jan 2021 1 0 0
Feb 2021 3 0 0
Mar 2021 0 0 0