View More View Less
  • 1 Corvinus University of Budapest Department of Botany and Soroksár Botanical Garden H-1118 Budapest Villányi út 29-43 Hungary
  • | 2 Corvinus University of Budapest Department of Vegetable and Mushroom Growing H-1118 Budapest Villányi út 29-43 Hungary
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $878.00

Ganoderma is a worldwide distributed genus of polyporoid fungi causing white-rot. The sporocarps of these species are popular drug in the traditional medicine of the Far East. Although several species are proven to contain chemicals of different biological activities, only Ganoderma lucidum is cultivated on the large scale. It is an important goal of mushroom growing to involve genetically diverse strains in this field of industry (e.g. for Agaricus, Pleurotus), thus the range of cultivated Ganoderma species should also be broadened in the future. Within the Carpathian Basin, we have the possibility to isolate strains from 6 species beside G. lucidum: G. adspersum, G. applanatum (syn. G. lipsiense), G. carnosum (syn. G. atkinsonii), G. cupreolaccatum (G. pfeifferi), G. resinaceum and G. valesiacum. In the present review, by describing the taxonomical status and the ecological characteristic of the species, we depict the biological background of the medicinal potential, as well as the cultivation possibilities (both sporocarp production and liquid mycelia cultures) of these species.

  • Acharya, K., Yonzone, P., Rai, M. & Rupa, A. (2005): Antioxidant and nitric oxide synthase activation properties of Ganoderma applanatum. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 10, 926–929.

    Rupa A. , 'Antioxidant and nitric oxide synthase activation properties of Ganoderma applanatum ' (2005 ) 10 Indian J. Exp. Biol. : 926 -929.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Adaskaveg, J.E. & Gilbertson, R.L. (1986): Cultural studies and genetics of sexuality of Ganoderma lucidum and G. tsugae in relation to the taxonomy of the G. lucidum complex. Mycologia, 5, 694–705.

    Gilbertson R.L. , 'Cultural studies and genetics of sexuality of Ganoderma lucidum and G. tsugae in relation to the taxonomy of the G. lucidum complex ' (1986 ) 5 Mycologia : 694 -705.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ainsworth, M. (2001): Stipes and spores in two British Ganoderma species. Field Mycol., 2, 64–65.

    Ainsworth M. , 'Stipes and spores in two British Ganoderma species ' (2001 ) 2 Field Mycol. : 64 -65.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Al-Fatimi, M., Wurster, M., Kreisel, H. & Lindequist, U. (2005): Antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of selected basidiomycetes from Yemen. Die Pharmazie, 10, 776–780.

    Lindequist U. , 'Antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of selected basidiomycetes from Yemen ' (2005 ) 10 Die Pharmazie : 776 -780.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Amaral, A.E., Carbonero, E.R., Simão, R.C.G., Kadowaki, M.K., Sassaki, G.L., Osaku, C.A., Gorin, P.A.J. & Iacomini M (2008): An unusual water-soluble β-glucan from the basidiocarp of the fungus Ganoderma resinaceum. Carbohyd. Polym., 72, 473–478.

    Iacomini M. , 'An unusual water-soluble β-glucan from the basidiocarp of the fungus Ganoderma resinaceum ' (2008 ) 72 Carbohyd. Polym. : 473 -478.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bernicchia, A. (1995): Some rare wood-inhabiting Italian Aphyllophorales. Mycol. Helv., 2. 3–26.

    Bernicchia A. , 'Some rare wood-inhabiting Italian Aphyllophorales ' (1995 ) 2 Mycol. Helv. : 3 -26.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bernicchia, A. (2005): Polyporaceae s.l. Fungi Europaei. (10. Ed.) Candusso. Alassio. Italy. pp. 228–241.

  • Binder, M., Hibbett, D.S., Larsson, K.H., Larsson, E., Langer, E. & Langer, G. (2005): The phylogenetic distribution of resupinate forms across the major clades of mushroom-forming fungi (Homobasidiomycetes). Syst. Biodiv., 3, 113–157.

    Langer G. , 'The phylogenetic distribution of resupinate forms across the major clades of mushroom-forming fungi (Homobasidiomycetes) ' (2005 ) 3 Syst. Biodiv. : 113 -157.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Boudier, E. & Fischer, E. (1894): Rapport sur les espèces de Champignons trouvées pendant l’assemblée a Geneve et les excursions faites en Valais. Bull. Soc. Mycol. Fr., 41, 237–249.

    Fischer E. , 'Rapport sur les espèces de Champignons trouvées pendant l’assemblée a Geneve et les excursions faites en Valais ' (1894 ) 41 Bull. Soc. Mycol. Fr. : 237 -249.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • CABI (2011): The Index Fungorum. http://www.indexfungorum.org (Accessed: 07.11.2011.)

  • Cedano, M., Villaseñor, L. & Guzmán-Dávalos, L. (2001): Some Aphyllophorales tested for organic dyes. Mycologist, 2, 81–85.

    Guzmán-Dávalos L. , 'Some Aphyllophorales tested for organic dyes ' (2001 ) 2 Mycologist : 81 -85.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chang, S.T. & Miles P.G. (2004): Mushrooms — cultivation, nutritional value, medicinal effect, and environmental impact. CRC Press, USA. pp. 357–372.

    Miles P.G. , '', in Mushrooms — cultivation, nutritional value, medicinal effect, and environmental impact , (2004 ) -.

  • Chen, A.W. (2002): Natural log cultivation of the medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi). Mushr. Grow. Newsl., 9, 2–6.

    Chen A.W. , 'Natural log cultivation of the medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) ' (2002 ) 9 Mushr. Grow. Newsl. : 2 -6.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chen, A.W. (2004): Growing Ganoderma mushrooms. -in: Mush World (Ed.): Mushroom growers handbook 1. MushWorld-Heineart. Seoul. pp. 224–234.

  • Chen, C.F., Yang, X.T., Li, X.Q., Mi, K. & Yang, Q.Y. (2007): A comparison study on the physical/chemical properties and immunomodulatory activities of mycelial polysaccharide extracts from five Ganoderma species. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao, 4, 628–633.

    Yang Q.Y. , 'A comparison study on the physical/chemical properties and immunomodulatory activities of mycelial polysaccharide extracts from five Ganoderma species ' (2007 ) 4 Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao : 628 -633.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chen, Y., Bicker, W., Wu, J.Y., Xie, M.Y. & Lindner, W. (2010): Ganoderma species discrimination by dual-mode chromatographic fingerprinting: A study on stationary phase effects in hydrophilic interaction chromatography and reduction of sample misclassification rate by additional use of reversed-phase chromatography. J. Chromat., 1217, 1255–1265.

    Lindner W. , 'Ganoderma species discrimination by dual-mode chromatographic fingerprinting: A study on stationary phase effects in hydrophilic interaction chromatography and reduction of sample misclassification rate by additional use of reversed-phase chromatography ' (2010 ) 1217 J. Chromat. : 1255 -1265.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Christensen, M., Heilmann-Clausen, J., Walleyn, R. & Adamčik, S. (2004): Wood-inhabiting fungi as indicators of conservation value in European beech forests. -in: Marchetti M. (Ed.) Monitoring and indicators of forest biodiversity in Europe — from ideas to operationality. European Forestry Institute Proceedings. Saarijärvi. pp. 229–237.

  • Eman, H.F. & El-Zaher, A. (2010): Biodegradation of reactive dyes using soil fungal isolates and Ganoderma resinaceum. Annals Microbiol., 60, 269–278.

    El-Zaher A. , 'Biodegradation of reactive dyes using soil fungal isolates and Ganoderma resinaceum ' (2010 ) 60 Annals Microbiol. : 269 -278.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fushimi, K., Horikawa, M., Suzuki, K., Sekiya, A., Kanno, S., Shimura, S. & Kawagishi, H. (2010): Applanatines A-E from the culture broth of Ganoderma applanatum. Tetrahedron, 66, 9332–9335.

    Kawagishi H. , 'Applanatines A-E from the culture broth of Ganoderma applanatum ' (2010 ) 66 Tetrahedron : 9332 -9335.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gottlieb, A.M., Saidman, B.O. & Wright, J.E. (1998): Isoenzymes of Ganoderma species from southern South America. Mycol. Res., 4, 415–426.

    Wright J.E. , 'Isoenzymes of Ganoderma species from southern South America ' (1998 ) 4 Mycol. Res. : 415 -426.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gottlieb, A.M., Ferrer, E. & Wright, J.E. (2000): rDNA analyses as an aid to the taxonomy of species of Ganoderma. Mycol. Res., 9, 1033–1045.

    Wright J.E. , 'rDNA analyses as an aid to the taxonomy of species of Ganoderma ' (2000 ) 9 Mycol. Res. : 1033 -1045.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Győrfi, J. (2010): Gombabiológia, gombatermesztés. (Mushroom biology, mushroom growing.) Mezőgazda Kiadó, Budapest. pp. 313–319.

    Győrfi J. , '', in Gombabiológia, gombatermesztés , (2010 ) -.

  • Hibbett, D.S., Nilsson, R.H., Snyder, M., Fonseca, M., Costanzo, J. & Shonfeld, M. (2005): Automated phylogenetic taxonomy: an example in the homobasidiomycetes (mushroom-forming fungi). Syst. Biol., 4, 660–668.

    Shonfeld M. , 'Automated phylogenetic taxonomy: an example in the homobasidiomycetes (mushroom-forming fungi) ' (2005 ) 4 Syst. Biol. : 660 -668.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hoang-Minh, T., Le, T.L., Kasbohm, J. & Gieré, R. (2011): Substituting non-natural agents in UV-protection cream by a mixture of clay with Ganoderma pfeifferi extract. Appl. Clay Sci., 53, 66–72.

    Gieré R. , 'Substituting non-natural agents in UV-protection cream by a mixture of clay with Ganoderma pfeifferi extract ' (2011 ) 53 Appl. Clay Sci. : 66 -72.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hobbs, C. (1995): Medicinal mushrooms: An exploration of tradicional, healing and culture. Botanica Press, Summertown, Tennessee. p. 193.

    Hobbs C. , '', in Medicinal mushrooms: An exploration of tradicional, healing and culture , (1995 ) -.

  • Hong, S.G. & Jung, H.S. (2004): Phylogenetic analysis of Ganoderma based on nearly complete mitochondrial small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Mycologia, 4, 742–755.

    Jung H.S. , 'Phylogenetic analysis of Ganoderma based on nearly complete mitochondrial small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences ' (2004 ) 4 Mycologia : 742 -755.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Igmándy, Z. (1970): Magyarország taplógombái (II. rész). (Polypores of Hungary.) Mikol. Közl. Clus., 3, 109–112.

    Igmándy Z. , 'Magyarország taplógombái (II. rész) ' (1970 ) 3 Mikol. Közl. Clus. : 109 -112.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Igmándy, Z. (1991): A magyar erdők taplógombái. (Polypores of the Hungrian forests.) Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest. pp. 53–57.

    Igmándy Z. , '', in A magyar erdők taplógombái , (1991 ) -.

  • Jahn, H., Kotlaba, F. & Pouzar, Z. (1980): Ganoderma atkinsonii Jahn, Kotl. & Pouz., spec. nova, a parellel species to Ganoderma lucidum. Westfälische Pilzbriefe, 10–11, 97–120.

    Pouzar Z. , 'Ganoderma atkinsonii Jahn, Kotl. & Pouz., spec. nova, a parellel species to Ganoderma lucidum ' (1980 ) 10–11 Westfälische Pilzbriefe : 97 -120.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jeong, S.S., Eo, S.K., Kim, Y.S. & Han, S.S. (1999): Anti-influenza virus activity of water soluble substance from Elfvingia applanata alone and in combinations with interferons. Yakhak Hoeji, 43, 467–473.

    Han S.S. , 'Anti-influenza virus activity of water soluble substance from Elfvingia applanata alone and in combinations with interferons ' (1999 ) 43 Yakhak Hoeji : 467 -473.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Karsten, P.A. (1881): Enumeratio Boletinearum et Polyporearum Fennicarum, systemate novo dispositarum. Revue Mycol., 9, 16–19.

    Karsten P.A. , 'Enumeratio Boletinearum et Polyporearum Fennicarum, systemate novo dispositarum ' (1881 ) 9 Revue Mycol. : 16 -19.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Keller, A.C., Keller, J., Maillard, M.P. & Hostettmann, K. (1997): A lanostane-type steroid from the fungus Ganoderma carnosum. Phytochem., 5, 963–965.

    Hostettmann K. , 'A lanostane-type steroid from the fungus Ganoderma carnosum ' (1997 ) 5 Phytochem. : 963 -965.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kim, S.H., Lee, J.N., Kim, S.H., Oh, S.J., An, S.W. & Lee, J.H. (1998): Studies on screening and comparison of biological activities from fruiting body and mycelium of Elfvingia applanata. Korean J. Appl. Micro. Biotechnol., 26, 331–337.

    Lee J.H. , 'Studies on screening and comparison of biological activities from fruiting body and mycelium of Elfvingia applanata ' (1998 ) 26 Korean J. Appl. Micro. Biotechnol. : 331 -337.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kirk, P.M., Cannon, P.F., Stalpers, J.A. & Minter, D.W. (Eds) (2008): Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi. CABI Europe, Wallingford. p. 272.

    '', in Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi , (2008 ) -.

  • Kizilcik, M., Yamac, M. & van Griensven, L. (2010): Medium selection for exopolysaccharide and biomass production in submerged cultures of culinary-medicinal mushrooms from Turkey. Int. J. Med. Mushr., 1, 63–71.

    Griensven L. , 'Medium selection for exopolysaccharide and biomass production in submerged cultures of culinary-medicinal mushrooms from Turkey ' (2010 ) 1 Int. J. Med. Mushr. : 63 -71.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kovalenko, O.G., Polishchuk, E.N. & Wasser, S.P. (2010): Glycans of higher basisdiomycetes mushroom Ganoderma adspersum (Schulzer) Donk: isolation and antiphytoviral activity. Biotechnology, 5, 83–91.

    Wasser S.P. , 'Glycans of higher basisdiomycetes mushroom Ganoderma adspersum (Schulzer) Donk: isolation and antiphytoviral activity ' (2010 ) 5 Biotechnology : 83 -91.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lee, W.Y., Park, Y., Ahna, J.K., Kab, K.H. & Park, S.Y. (2007): Factors influencing the production of endopolysaccharide and exopolysaccharide from Ganoderma applanatum. Enz. Microbial Technol., 40, 249–254.

    Park S.Y. , 'Factors influencing the production of endopolysaccharide and exopolysaccharide from Ganoderma applanatum ' (2007 ) 40 Enz. Microbial Technol. : 249 -254.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Leonard, A.C. (1998): Two Ganoderma species compared. Mycologist, 2, 65–68.

    Leonard A.C. , 'Two Ganoderma species compared ' (1998 ) 2 Mycologist : 65 -68.

  • Ma, J.Q., Liu, C.M., Qin, Z.H., Jiang, J.H. & Sun, Y.Z. (2011): Ganoderma applanatum terpenes protect mouse liver against benzo(α)pyren-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Env. Toxicol. Pharm., 31, 460–468.

    Sun Y.Z. , 'Ganoderma applanatum terpenes protect mouse liver against benzo(α)pyren-induced oxidative stress and inflammation ' (2011 ) 31 Env. Toxicol. Pharm. : 460 -468.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mattock, G. (2001): Notes on British Ganoderma species — emphasising the annual species and G. carnosum. Field Mycol., 2, 60–64.

    Mattock G. , 'Notes on British Ganoderma species — emphasising the annual species and G ' (2001 ) 2 carnosum. Field Mycol. : 60 -64.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ming, D.S., Chilton, J., Fogarty, F. & Towers, G.H.N. (2002): Chemical constituents of Ganoderma applanatum of British Columbia forests. Fitoterapia, 73, 147–152.

    Towers G.H.N. , 'Chemical constituents of Ganoderma applanatum of British Columbia forests ' (2002 ) 73 Fitoterapia : 147 -152.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mohanty, P.S., Harsh, N.S.K. & Pandey, A. (2011): First report of Ganoderma resinaceum and G. weberianum from north India based on ITS sequence analysis and micromorphology. Mycosphere, 4, 469–474.

    Pandey A. , 'First report of Ganoderma resinaceum and G. weberianum from north India based on ITS sequence analysis and micromorphology ' (2011 ) 4 Mycosphere : 469 -474.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Moncalvo, J.M. (2000): Systematics of Ganoderma. -in: Flood, J., Bridge, P.D. & Holderness, M. (Eds): Ganoderma Diseases of Perennial Crops. CABI, Wallingford. pp. 23–46.

    Moncalvo J.M. , '', in Ganoderma Diseases of Perennial Crops , (2000 ) -.

  • Moncalvo, J.M. & Ryvarden, L. (1997): A nomenclatural study of the Ganodermataceae Donk. Syn. Fung. 11. Fungiflora: Oslo, Norway. http://www.nhbs.com/synopsis_fungorum_volume_11_a_nomenclature_study_of_tefno_63672.htm

    Ryvarden L. , '', in Syn. Fung. 11 , (1997 ) -.

  • Moncalvo, J.M. & Buchanan, P.K. (2008): Molecular evidence for long distance dispersal across the Southern Hemisphere in the Ganoderma applanatum-australe species complex (Basidiomycota). Mycol. Res., 112, 425–436.

    Buchanan P.K. , 'Molecular evidence for long distance dispersal across the Southern Hemisphere in the Ganoderma applanatum-australe species complex (Basidiomycota) ' (2008 ) 112 Mycol. Res. : 425 -436.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Moncalvo, J.M., Wang, H.F. & Hseu, R.S. (1995): Gene phylogeny of the Ganoderma lucidum complex based on ribosomal DNA sequences: comparison with traditional taxonomic characters. Mycol. Res., 99, 1489–1499.

    Hseu R.S. , 'Gene phylogeny of the Ganoderma lucidum complex based on ribosomal DNA sequences: comparison with traditional taxonomic characters ' (1995 ) 99 Mycol. Res. : 1489 -1499.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Moncalvo, J.M., Vilgalys, R., Redhead, S.A., Johnson, J.E., James, T.Y., Aime, M.C., Hofstetter, V., Verduin, S.J.W., Larsson, E., Baroni, T.J., Thorn, R.G., Jacobsson, S., Clemencon, H. & Miller, O.K. (2002): One hundred and seventeen clades of euagarics. Mol. Phyl. Evol., 23, 357–400.

    Miller O.K. , 'One hundred and seventeen clades of euagarics ' (2002 ) 23 Mol. Phyl. Evol. : 357 -400.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Moradali, M.F., Mostafavib, H., Hejaroudea, G.A., Tehrania, A.S., Abbasic, M. & Ghodsa, S. (2006): Investigation of potential antibacterial properties of methanol extracts from fungus Ganoderma applanatum. Chemotherapy, 52, 241–244.

    Ghodsa S. , 'Investigation of potential antibacterial properties of methanol extracts from fungus Ganoderma applanatum ' (2006 ) 52 Chemotherapy : 241 -244.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mothana, R.A.A., Ali, N.A.A., Jansen, R., Wegner, U., Mentel, R. & Lindequist, U. (2003): Antiviral lanostanoid triterpenes from the fungus Ganoderma pfeifferi. Fitoterapia, 74, 177–180.

    Lindequist U. , 'Antiviral lanostanoid triterpenes from the fungus Ganoderma pfeifferi ' (2003 ) 74 Fitoterapia : 177 -180.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Murill, W.A. (1902): The Polyporaceae of North America. I. The genus Ganoderma. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 29, 599–608.

    Murill W.A. , 'The Polyporaceae of North America. I. The genus Ganoderma ' (1902 ) 29 Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club : 599 -608.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Nishitoba, T., Goto, S., Sato, H. & Sakamura, S. (1988): Bitter triterpenoids from the fungus Ganoderma applanatum. Phytochem., 28, 193–197.

    Sakamura S. , 'Bitter triterpenoids from the fungus Ganoderma applanatum ' (1988 ) 28 Phytochem. : 193 -197.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Niu, X.M., Li, S.H., Xiao, W.L., Sun, H.D. & Che, C.T. (2007): Two new lanostanoids from Ganoderma resinaceum. J. Asian. Nat. Prod. Res., 6–8, 659–664.

    Che C.T. , 'Two new lanostanoids from Ganoderma resinaceum ' (2007 ) 6–8 J. Asian. Nat. Prod. Res. : 659 -664.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ofodile, L.N., Uma, N.U., Kokubun, T., Grayer, R.J., Ogundipe, O.T. & Simmonds, M.S. (2005): Antimicrobial activity of some Ganoderma species from Nigeria. Phytother. Res., 4, 310–313.

    Simmonds M.S. , 'Antimicrobial activity of some Ganoderma species from Nigeria ' (2005 ) 4 Phytother. Res. : 310 -313.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Paterson, R.R.M. (2006): Ganoderma — A therapeutic fungal biofactory. Phytochemistry, 67, 1985–2001.

    Paterson R.R.M. , 'Ganoderma — A therapeutic fungal biofactory ' (2006 ) 67 Phytochemistry : 1985 -2001.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Paterson, R.R.M. (2007): Ganoderma disease of oil palm — A white rot perspective necessary for integrated control. Crop Protection, 26, 1369–1376.

    Paterson R.R.M. , 'Ganoderma disease of oil palm — A white rot perspective necessary for integrated control ' (2007 ) 26 Crop Protection : 1369 -1376.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Patouillard, N. (1889): Le genre Ganoderma. Bul. Soc. Mycologique Fr. 5, 64–80.

    Patouillard N. , 'Le genre Ganoderma ' (1889 ) 5 Bul. Soc. Mycologique Fr. : 64 -80.

  • Petre, M. & Teodorescu, A. (2011): Medicinal mushrooms cultivation through the solid-state and submerged fermentations of agricultural wastes. Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Mush. Biol. Mush. Prod., pp. 377–382.

  • Petre, M., Bejan, C., Visoiu, E., Tita, I. & Olteanu, A. (2007): Mycotechnology for optimal recycling of winery and vine wastes. Int. J. Med. Mush., 9, 241–243.

    Olteanu A. , 'Mycotechnology for optimal recycling of winery and vine wastes ' (2007 ) 9 Int. J. Med. Mush. : 241 -243.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rigas, F., Papadopoulou, K., Dritsa, V. & Doulia, D. (2007): Bioremediation of a soil contaminated by lindane utilizing the fungus Ganoderma australe via response surface methodology. J. Haz. Mat., 140, 325–332.

    Doulia D. , 'Bioremediation of a soil contaminated by lindane utilizing the fungus Ganoderma australe via response surface methodology ' (2007 ) 140 J. Haz. Mat. : 325 -332.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rösecke, J. & König, W.A. (2000): Constituents of various wood-rotting basidiomycetes. Phytochemistry, 54, 603–610.

    König W.A. , 'Constituents of various wood-rotting basidiomycetes ' (2000 ) 54 Phytochemistry : 603 -610.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ryvarden, L. (1991): Genera of polypores. Nomenclature and taxonomy. Synopsis fungorum 5. Fungiflora, Oslo, Norway. 363 pages

  • Ryvarden, L. (2004): Neotropical polypores. Part 1: Introduction, Ganodermataceae & Hymenochaetaceae. Synopsis Fungorum, 19. Fungiflora, Oslo, Norway. p. 72.

  • Ryvarden, L. & Gilbertson, R.L. (1993): European polypores. Vol. 1. (Abortiporus — Lindtneria). Synopsis Fungorum 6. Fungiflora, Oslo, Norway. pp. 268–282.

  • Sadava, D., Still, D.W., Mudry, R.R. & Kane, S.E. (2009): Effect of Ganoderma on drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant small-cell lung carcinoma cells. Cancer Letters, 277, 182–189.

    Kane S.E. , 'Effect of Ganoderma on drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant small-cell lung carcinoma cells ' (2009 ) 277 Cancer Letters : 182 -189.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Seo, G.S. & Kirk, P.M. (2000): Ganodermataceae: nomenclature and classification. -in: Flood, J., Bridge, P.D. & Holderness, M. (Eds): Ganoderma Diseases of Perennial Crops. CABI, Wallingford. pp. 3–22.

    Kirk P.M. , '', in Ganoderma Diseases of Perennial Crops , (2000 ) -.

  • Smania, A.J., Delle-Monache, F., Smania, E.F.A. & Cuneo, R.S. (1999): Antibacterial activity of steroidal compounds isolated from Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) fruit body. Int. J. Med. Mush., 1, 325–330.

    Cuneo R.S. , 'Antibacterial activity of steroidal compounds isolated from Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) fruit body ' (1999 ) 1 Int. J. Med. Mush. : 325 -330.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Smith, B.J. & Sivasithamparam, K. (2000a): Isozymes of Ganoderma species from Australia. Mycol. Res., 8, 952–961.

    Sivasithamparam K. , 'Isozymes of Ganoderma species from Australia ' (2000 ) 8 Mycol. Res. : 952 -961.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Smith, B.J. & Sivasithamparam, K. (2000b): Internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequence of five species of Ganoderma from Australia. Mycol. Res., 8, 943–951.

    Sivasithamparam K. , 'Internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequence of five species of Ganoderma from Australia ' (2000 ) 8 Mycol. Res. : 943 -951.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Stamets, P. (2000): Growing Gourmet and medicinal mushrooms. (3rd ed.) Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, pp. 349–366.

    Stamets P. , '', in Growing Gourmet and medicinal mushrooms , (2000 ) -.

  • Suay, I., Arenal, F., Asenio, F., Basilio, A., Cabello, M., Diez, M.T., Garcia, J.B., del Val, A.G., Gorrochategui, J., Hernandez, P., Pleaez, F. & Vicente, M.F. (2000): Screening of basidiomycetes for antimicrobial activities. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 2, 129–139.

    Vicente M.F. , 'Screening of basidiomycetes for antimicrobial activities ' (2000 ) 2 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek : 129 -139.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Szili, I. (2008): Gombatermesztők könyve. (Book for mushroom growers.) Mezőgazda Kiadó, Budapest. pp. 153–155.

    Szili I. , '', in Gombatermesztők könyve , (2008 ) -.

  • Timo, H., Niedermeyer, J., Lindequist, U., Mentel, R., Gordes, D., Schmidt, E., Thurow, K. & Lalk, M. (2005): Antiviral terpenoid constituents of Ganoderma pfeifferi. J. Nat. Prod., 68, 1728–1731.

    Lalk M. , 'Antiviral terpenoid constituents of Ganoderma pfeifferi ' (2005 ) 68 J. Nat. Prod. : 1728 -1731.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Usui, T., Iwasaki, Y., Mizuno, T., Tanaka, M., Shinkai, K. & Arakawa, M. (1983): Isolation and characterization of anti-tumor active β-d-glucans from the fruit bodies of Ganoderma applanatum. Carbohydrate Res., 115, 273–280.

    Arakawa M. , 'Isolation and characterization of anti-tumor active β-d-glucans from the fruit bodies of Ganoderma applanatum ' (1983 ) 115 Carbohydrate Res. : 273 -280.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Utomo, C., Werner, S., Niepold, F. & Deising H.B. (2005): Identification of Ganoderma, the causal agent of basal stem rot disease in oil palm using a molecular method. Mycopathologia, 159, 159–170.

    Deising H.B. , 'Identification of Ganoderma, the causal agent of basal stem rot disease in oil palm using a molecular method ' (2005 ) 159 Mycopathologia : 159 -170.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Vries, R.P.D., Wiebenga, A.D., Coutinho, P.M. & Henrissat, B. (2011): Plant polysaccharide degradation by fungi. Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Mush. Biol. Mush. Prod., pp. 16–21.

  • Wasser, S.P. (2005): Reishi or Ling Zhi (Ganoderma lucidum). -in: Coates, P.M., Betz, J.M., Blackman, M.R., Cragg, G.M., Levine, M., Moss, J. & White, J.D. (Eds): Encyclopedia of dietary supplements. Marcel Dekker, New York (USA), pp. 3–622.

    Wasser S.P. , '', in Encyclopedia of dietary supplements , (2005 ) -.

  • Wasser, S.P., Zmitrovich, I.V., Didukh, M.Ya., Spirin, W.A. & Malysheva, V.F. (2006): Morphological traits of Ganoderma lucidum complex. Highlighting G. tsugae var. jannieae: the current generalization. Ruggell, Liechtenstein, 187 pages.

    Malysheva V.F. , '', in Morphological traits of Ganoderma lucidum complex. Highlighting G. tsugae var. jannieae: the current generalization , (2006 ) -.

  • Woo-Sik, J., Yun-Ju, C., Doo-Hyun, C., So-Deuk, P., Young-Bok, Y. & Soon-Ja, S. (2009): Culture conditions for the mycelial growth of Ganoderma applanatum. Mycobiology, 2, 94–102.

    Soon-Ja S. , 'Culture conditions for the mycelial growth of Ganoderma applanatum ' (2009 ) 2 Mycobiology : 94 -102.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yamac, M. & Bilgili, F. (2006): Antimicrobial activities of fruit bodies and/or mycelial cultures of some mushroom isolates. Pharmaceut. Biol., 9, 660–667.

    Bilgili F. , 'Antimicrobial activities of fruit bodies and/or mycelial cultures of some mushroom isolates ' (2006 ) 9 Pharmaceut. Biol. : 660 -667.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yang, B.K., Jung, Y.S. & Song, C.H. (2007): Hypoglycemic effects of Ganoderma applanatum and Collybia confluens exo-polymers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Phytotherapy Res., 11, 1066–1069.

    Song C.H. , 'Hypoglycemic effects of Ganoderma applanatum and Collybia confluens exo-polymers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats ' (2007 ) 11 Phytotherapy Res. : 1066 -1069.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zjawiony, J.K. (2004): Biologically active compounds from Aphyllophorales (Polypore) fungi. J. Nat. Prod., 67, 300–310.

    Zjawiony J.K. , 'Biologically active compounds from Aphyllophorales (Polypore) fungi ' (2004 ) 67 J. Nat. Prod. : 300 -310.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • JGI: http://www.jgi.doe.gov (accessed: 03/11/2011)

  • MycoBank: http://www.mycobank.org (accessed: 03/11/2011)

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 22 22 1
Full Text Views 97 96 0
PDF Downloads 49 48 0