View More View Less
  • 1 University of Zagreb Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology Pierottijeva 6 10000 Zagreb Croatia
  • 2 Food industry - KRAŠ, d.d. Ravnice 48 10000 Zagreb Croatia
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $878.00

This study elucidates the key success of using statistical modelling in the design and development of a new product (milk toffee) as potential new functional food product. The standard milk toffee recipe was modified in order to produce new products with less sugar, more inulin, and decreased energy content. From the consumers point of view, a product has to be healthy (acceptable ingredients like low sugar content or inclusion of inulin) and tasty (good sensory properties). This is an opportunity to use chemometric strategies that can highlight information in relation to different ingredients and preferable taste attributes. Multivariate exploratory techniques were used in order to detect relationship between the milk toffee ingredients (sugar, water, condensed milk, glucose syrup, fat, salt, sorbitol, and emulsifier E 471) and sensory attributes of taste and texture (sweetness and hardness) chosen for this research.Results showed that the sweetness is a direct outcome of added sugar, glucose syrup, and condensed milk, and the hardness, as the next important sensory attribute of a milk toffee, is positively correlated with the content of fat, glucose syrup, water, salt, and E 471. Statistical modelling proved to be a useful tool for elucidating the relationship between ingredients and sensory properties of the milk toffee and can be a useful tool in the complex interpretations of changes in product design and development.

  • Aggett, P.J., Antoine, J.-M., Asp, N.-G., Bellisle, F., Contor, L., Cummings, J.H., Howlett, J., Müller, D.J.G., Persin, C., Pijls, L.T.J., Rechkemmer, G., Tuijtelaars, S. & Verhagen, H. (2005): PASSCLAIM Process for the assessment of scientific support for claims on foods. Consensus on criteria. Eur. J. Nutr., 44, 1–31.

    Verhagen H , 'PASSCLAIM Process for the assessment of scientific support for claims on foods. Consensus on criteria ' (2005 ) 44 Eur. J. Nutr. : 1 -31.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Arai, S. (2002): Global view on functional foods: Asian perspectives. Brit. J. Nutr., 88, S139–S143.

    Arai S , 'Global view on functional foods: Asian perspectives ' (2002 ) 88 Brit. J. Nutr. : S139 -S143.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Biström, M. & Nordström, K. (2002): Identification of key success factors of functional dairy foods product development. Trends Fd Sci. Technol., 13, 372–379.

    Nordström K , 'Identification of key success factors of functional dairy foods product development ' (2002 ) 13 Trends Fd Sci. Technol. : 372 -379.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bogue, J., Sorenson, D. & O’Keeffe, M. (2009): Cross-category innovativeness as a source of new product ideas: Consumers’ perceptions of over-the-counter pharmacological beverages. Fd Qual. Prefer., 20, 363–371.

    O’Keeffe M , 'Cross-category innovativeness as a source of new product ideas: Consumers’ perceptions of over-the-counter pharmacological beverages ' (2009 ) 20 Fd Qual. Prefer. : 363 -371.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bølling Johansen, S., Næs, T. & Hersleth, M. (2011): Motivation for choice and healthiness perception of calorie-reduced dairy products. A cross-cultural study. Appetite, 56, 15–24.

    Hersleth M , 'Motivation for choice and healthiness perception of calorie-reduced dairy products. A cross-cultural study ' (2011 ) 56 Appetite : 15 -24.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Britten, P., Haven, J. & Davis, C. (2006): Consumer research for development of educational messages for the MyPyramid Food Guidance System. J. Nutr. Educ. Behav., 38, S108–S123.

    Davis C , 'Consumer research for development of educational messages for the MyPyramid Food Guidance System ' (2006 ) 38 J. Nutr. Educ. Behav. : S108 -S123.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Budić-Leto, I., Vrhovšek, U., Gajdoš Kljusurić, J. & Lovrić, T. (2009): Anthocyanin pattern of skin extracts from the Babić and Plavac mali grapes and anthocyanin pattern of the produced wine. Acta Alimentaria, 38, 67–85.

    Lovrić T , 'Anthocyanin pattern of skin extracts from the Babić and Plavac mali grapes and anthocyanin pattern of the produced wine ' (2009 ) 38 Acta Alimentaria : 67 -85.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Childs, N.M. (1998): Public policy approaches to establishing health claims for food labels: an international comparison. Brit. Fd J., 100, 191–200.

    Childs NM , 'Public policy approaches to establishing health claims for food labels: an international comparison ' (1998 ) 100 Brit. Fd J. : 191 -200.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Costa, A.I.A., Schoolmeester, D., Dekker, M. & Jongen, W.M.F. (2003): Exploring the use of consumer collages in product design. Trends Fd Sci. Technol., 14, 17–31.

    Jongen WMF , 'Exploring the use of consumer collages in product design ' (2003 ) 14 Trends Fd Sci. Technol. : 17 -31.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Delgado, G.T.C., Tamashiro, W.M.S.C. & Pastore, G.M. (2010): Immunomodulatory effects of fructans. Fd Res. Int., 43, 1231–1236.

    Pastore GM , 'Immunomodulatory effects of fructans ' (2010 ) 43 Fd Res. Int. : 1231 -1236.

  • Diplock, A.T., Aggett, P.J., Ashwell, M., Bornet, F., Fern, E.B. & Roberfroid, M.B. (1999): Scientific concepts of functional foods in Europe: Concensus document. Brit. J. Nutr., 81, S1–S27.

    Roberfroid MB , 'Scientific concepts of functional foods in Europe: Concensus document ' (1999 ) 81 Brit. J. Nutr. : S1 -S27.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gibson, G.R. & Williams, C.M. (2000): Functional foods — Concept to product. (6th ed.), CRC Press: Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge 374 pages.

    Williams CM , '', in Functional foods — Concept to product , (2000 ) -.

  • Horská, E., Ürgeová, J. & Prokeinová, R. (2011): Consumers’ food choice and quality perception: Comparative analysis of selected Central European countries. Agric. Econ.-Czech, 57, 493–499.

    Prokeinová R , 'Consumers’ food choice and quality perception: Comparative analysis of selected Central European countries ' (2011 ) 57 Agric. Econ.-Czech : 493 -499.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Horváth, K., Seregély, Zs., Andrássy, É., Dalmadi, I. & Farkas, J. (2008): A preliminary study using near infrared spectroscopy to evaluate freshness and detect spoilage in sliced pork meat. Acta Alimentaria, 37, 93–102.

    Farkas J , 'A preliminary study using near infrared spectroscopy to evaluate freshness and detect spoilage in sliced pork meat ' (2008 ) 37 Acta Alimentaria : 93 -102.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • ISO (1991): Sensory analysis — Methodology — Method of investigating sensitivity of taste. International Standard 3972:1991(E)

    '', in Sensory analysis — Methodology — Method of investigating sensitivity of taste , (1991 ) -.

  • ISO (1993): Sensory analysis — General guidance for the selection, training and monitoring of assessors. Part 1. Selected assessors. International Standard 8586-1:1993(E)

    '', in Sensory analysis — General guidance for the selection, training and monitoring of assessors. Part 1. Selected assessors , (1993 ) -.

  • ISO (2003): Sensory analysis — Methodology — General guidance to establish a sensory profile. International Standard 13299:2003(E)

    '', in Sensory analysis — Methodology — General guidance to establish a sensory profile , (2003 ) -.

  • ISO (2004): Sensory analysis — Methodology — Triangle test. International Standard 4120:2004(E)

    '', in Sensory analysis — Methodology — Triangle test , (2004 ) -.

  • ISO (2005): Sensory analysis — Methodology — General guidance. International Standard 6658:2005(E)

    '', in Sensory analysis — Methodology — General guidance , (2005 ) -.

  • ISO (2006): Sensory analysis — methodology — initiation and training of assessors in the detection and recognition of odours. International Standard 5496: 2006

    '', in Sensory analysis — methodology — initiation and training of assessors in the detection and recognition of odours , (2006 ) -.

  • ISO (2006): Sensory Analysis — Methodology — Ranking. International Standard 8587:2006(E)

    '', in Sensory Analysis — Methodology — Ranking , (2006 ) -.

  • ISO (2007): Sensory Analysis — General Guidance for the Design of Test Rooms. International Standard 8589:2007(E)

    '', in Sensory Analysis — General Guidance for the Design of Test Rooms , (2007 ) -.

  • ISO (2008): Sensory analysis — Vocabulary. International Standard 5492:2008(E)

    '', in Sensory analysis — Vocabulary , (2008 ) -.

  • Jeffery, M.S. (2001): Grained and ungrained confections — the basics. PMCA Production conference. pp. 97–110.

    Jeffery MS , '', in PMCA Production conference , (2001 ) -.

  • Jiménez-Colmenero, F., Sánchez-Muniz, F.J. & Olmedilla-Alonso, B. (2010): Collaborators design and development of meat-based functional foods with walnut: Technological nutritional and health impact. Fd Chem., 123, 959–967.

    Olmedilla-Alonso B , 'Collaborators design and development of meat-based functional foods with walnut: Technological nutritional and health impact ' (2010 ) 123 Fd Chem. : 959 -967.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jones, P.J.H., Asp, N.-G. & Silva, P. (2008): Evidence for health claims on foods: How much is enough? Introduction and general remarks. J. Nutr., 138, 1189S–1191S.

    Silva P , 'Evidence for health claims on foods: How much is enough? Introduction and general remarks ' (2008 ) 138 J. Nutr. : 1189S -1191S.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kalyani Nair, K., Kharb, S. & Thompkinson, D.K. (2010): Inulin dietary fiber with functional and health attributes — a review. Fd Rev. Int., 26, 189–203.

    Thompkinson DK , 'Inulin dietary fiber with functional and health attributes — a review ' (2010 ) 26 Fd Rev. Int. : 189 -203.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kobrehel Pintarić, I. (2009) Model razvoja funkcionalnih i dijetnih konditorskih proizvoda. (Model development of dietary and functional confectionery products.) Master Thesis, Zagreb University.

    Kobrehel Pintarić I , '', in Model razvoja funkcionalnih i dijetnih konditorskih proizvoda , (2009 ) -.

  • Kotilainen, L., Rajalahti, R., Ragasa, C. & Pehu, E. (2006): Health enhancing foods: Opportunities for strengthening the sector in developing countries. Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper 30.

    Pehu E , '', in Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper 30 , (2006 ) -.

  • Lando, A.M. & Labiner-Wolfe, J. (2007): Helping consumers make more healthful food choices: Consumer views on modifying food labels and providing point-of-purchase nutrition information at quick-service restaurants. J. Nutr. Educ. Behav., 39, 157–163.

    Labiner-Wolfe J , 'Helping consumers make more healthful food choices: Consumer views on modifying food labels and providing point-of-purchase nutrition information at quick-service restaurants ' (2007 ) 39 J. Nutr. Educ. Behav. : 157 -163.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lawless, H.T. & Heymann, H. (2010): Sensory evaluation of food. Principle and practice. (2nd ed.), Springer, New York, pp. 69–118.

    Heymann H , '', in Sensory evaluation of food. Principle and practice , (2010 ) -.

  • Lengard A.V., Verbeke, V., Vanhonacker, F., Næs, T. & Hersleth, M. (2010): General image and attribute perceptions of traditional food in six European countries. Fd Qual. Prefer., 22, 129–138.

    Hersleth M , 'General image and attribute perceptions of traditional food in six European countries ' (2010 ) 22 Fd Qual. Prefer. : 129 -138.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lundstedt, T., Hedenström, M., Soeria-Atmadja, D., Hammerling, U., Gabrielsson, J., Olsson, J. & Trygg, J. (2010): Dynamic modelling of time series data in nutritional metabonomics. A powerful complement to randomized clinical trials in functional food studies. Chemometr. Intell. Lab., 104, 112–120.

    Trygg J , 'Dynamic modelling of time series data in nutritional metabonomics. A powerful complement to randomized clinical trials in functional food studies ' (2010 ) 104 Chemometr. Intell. Lab. : 112 -120.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mollet, B. & Rowland, I. (2002): Functional foods: At the frontier between food and pharma. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol., 13, 483–485.

    Rowland I , 'Functional foods: At the frontier between food and pharma ' (2002 ) 13 Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. : 483 -485.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Murphy, O. (2001): Non-polyol low-digestible carbohydrates: food applications and functional benefits. Brit. J. Nutr., 85, 47–53.

    Murphy O , 'Non-polyol low-digestible carbohydrates: food applications and functional benefits ' (2001 ) 85 Brit. J. Nutr. : 47 -53.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Noble, A.C. & Ebeler, S.E. (2002): Use of multivariate statistics in understanding wine flavor. Fd Rev. Int., 18, 1–20.

    Ebeler SE , 'Use of multivariate statistics in understanding wine flavor ' (2002 ) 18 Fd Rev. Int. : 1 -20.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Parkar, S.G., Redgate, E.L., Wibisono, R., Luo, X., Koh, E.T.H. & Schröder, R. (2010): Gut health benefits of kiwifruit pectins: Comparison with commercial functional polysaccharides. J. Funct. Fds, 2, 210–218.

    Schröder R , 'Gut health benefits of kiwifruit pectins: Comparison with commercial functional polysaccharides ' (2010 ) 2 J. Funct. Fds : 210 -218.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Peré-Trepat, E., Ross, A.B., Martin, F.-B., Rezzi, S., Kochhar, S., Hasselbalch, A.L., Kyvik, K.O. & Sørensen, T.I.A. (2010): Chemometric strategies to assess metabonomic imprinting of food habits in epidemiological studies. Chemometr. Intell. Lab., 104, 95–100.

    Sørensen TIA , 'Chemometric strategies to assess metabonomic imprinting of food habits in epidemiological studies ' (2010 ) 104 Chemometr. Intell. Lab. : 95 -100.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Piccone, P., Rastelli, S.L. & Pittia, P. (2011): Aroma release and sensory perception of fruit candies model systems. Procedia Fd Sci., 1, 1509–1515.

    Pittia P , 'Aroma release and sensory perception of fruit candies model systems ' (2011 ) 1 Procedia Fd Sci. : 1509 -1515.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pravdova, V., Boucon, C., de Jong, S., Walczak, B. & Massart, D.L. (2002): Three-way principal component analysis applied to food analysis: an example. Anal. Chim. Acta, 462, 133–148.

    Massart DL , 'Three-way principal component analysis applied to food analysis: an example ' (2002 ) 462 Anal. Chim. Acta : 133 -148.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Roberfroid, M.B. (1999): Concepts in functional foods: The case of inulin and oligofructose J. Nutr., 129, 1398–1401.

    Roberfroid MB , 'Concepts in functional foods: The case of inulin and oligofructose ' (1999 ) 129 J. Nutr. : 1398 -1401.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sepp, H., Abrahamsson, L., Lennernäs Junberger, M. & Risvik, E. (2002): The contribution of food groups to the nutrient intake and food pattern among pre-school children. Fd Qual. Prefer., 13, 107–116.

    Risvik E , 'The contribution of food groups to the nutrient intake and food pattern among pre-school children ' (2002 ) 13 Fd Qual. Prefer. : 107 -116.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Siró, I., Kápolna, E., Kápolna, B. & Lugasi, A. (2008): Functional food product development marketing and consumer acceptance. A review. Appetite, 51, 456–467.

    Lugasi A , 'Functional food product development marketing and consumer acceptance. A review ' (2008 ) 51 Appetite : 456 -467.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Stone, H. & Sidel, J.L. (2004): Sensory evaluation practice. (3rd ed.), Elsevier, Academic Press, San Diego California, pp. 57–76.

    Sidel JL , '', in Sensory evaluation practice , (2004 ) -.

  • Szakály, Z., Szente, V., Kövér, G., Polereczki, Z. & Szigeti, O. (2012): The influence of lifestyle on health behavior and preference for functional foods. Appetite, 58, 406–413.

    Szigeti O , 'The influence of lifestyle on health behavior and preference for functional foods ' (2012 ) 58 Appetite : 406 -413.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Urala, N. & Lähteenmäki, L. (2007): Consumers changing attitudes towards functional foods. Fd Qual. Prefer., 18, 1–12.

    Lähteenmäki L , 'Consumers changing attitudes towards functional foods ' (2007 ) 18 Fd Qual. Prefer. : 1 -12.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Verbeke, W. (2005): Consumer acceptance of functional foods: socio-demographic cognitive and attitudinal determinants. Fd Qual. Prefer., 16, 45–57.

    Verbeke W , 'Consumer acceptance of functional foods: socio-demographic cognitive and attitudinal determinants ' (2005 ) 16 Fd Qual. Prefer. : 45 -57.

    • Search Google Scholar

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Aug 2020 3 0 0
Sep 2020 3 0 0
Oct 2020 1 0 0
Nov 2020 5 2 0
Dec 2020 1 0 0
Jan 2021 0 0 0
Feb 2021 0 0 0