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  • 1 The Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce Department of Ancient History ul. Żeromskiego 5 25-369 Kielce Poland
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The Hellenistic kings’ mechanism for revealing divine power leaves no conceptual doubt, which is why it is generally accepted that the military deed, with time not necessarily an authentic one, was a major and even central element forming the basis of the cult of the ruler. The question, however, arises as to the framework within which a “military deed” could be performed in the context of the changing ontological status of women, and thus of female Hellenistic rulers. It should be considered that the concept of the military deed of female rulers as the basis of Hellenistic monarchical ideology was certainly not born on the battlefield, where queens basically did not appear. However, in spite of the lack of a military basis, the fighting female ruler is present in Hellenistic ideology. This situation begs the question of whether the armed deed, as in the case of male rulers, was at all necessary to associate the queens with war. Possibly it is a case of the reverse — maybe the military deed was a consequence rather than the cause of the cult of these female rulers, since female historical figures did not change their ontological status as a result of the armed deed.

  • Chaniotis, A.: War in the Hellenistic World. Oxford 2005, 2.

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  • Bing, P.: Posidippus and the Admiral: Kallikrates of Samos in the Milan Epigrams. GRBS 43 (2002–2003) 258–259.

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  • Pomeroy (n. 12) 20.

  • Callim. 228 Pfeiffer.

  • For the divine attributes of queens, see Ashton (n. 35) 115–142.

  • Lonis, R.: Guerre et religion en Grèce à l’époque classique. Recherches sur les rites, les dieux, l’ideologie de la victoire. Paris 1979, 199: “...il n’y a pas de divinités spécifiques de la guerre...”

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  • Kostuch, L.: Pantes theoi. Polemos and Ares on the Battlefield. The Greek Concept of the War Deity. Symbolae Philologorum Posnaniensium Graecae et Latinae 21 (2011) 41–48.

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  • Fantuzzi, M. - Hunter, R. L.: Tradition and Innovation in Hellenistic Poetry. Cambridge 2004, 381: “war was...‘the concern of men’... and this was true for gods as well, with the sole exception of Athena”.

    Hunter R L , '', in Tradition and Innovation in Hellenistic Poetry , (2004 ) -.

  • See Chaniotis (n. 1) 143–165, esp. 164; Pritchett, W. K.: The Greek State at War. Vol. III: Religion. Berkeley - Los Angeles 1979, 29–39.

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  • Paus. 3. 3. 15; 3. 17. 5; 3. 23. 1.

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    Flemberg J , '', in Venus armata. Studien zur bewaffneten Aphrodite in der griechischen-römischen Kunst , (1991 ) -.

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  • Anth. Pal. 9. 320; Plut. Constit. Lac. 28.

  • Theocr. 15; Reed (n. 2).

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  • For the street in Alexandria named after Arsinoe Chalkioikos: Fantuzzi-Hunter (n. 48) 382.

 

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