View More View Less
  • 1 University of Zaragoza, Spain
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $532.00

The epigraphic expression of plural female divinities, represented sometimes in triads, is a feature of Romano-Celtic realms. This is the case of the Matres and Matronae, as well as the Fortunae, with epithets expressing the local identity of the divine personality – or of their cult group – in an increasingly globalized world such as the Roman Empire.

In this context, my aim is to focus on the Iunones. We have about 70 inscriptions dedicated to these deities, sometimes appearing with the epitet Augustae, others as Matronae, Montanae, Domesticae, Suleviae, associated with other deities such as IOM, Hercules, Genius Loci or the Augustorum Numina, or assimilated to the Gabiae. The sacred geography of the Iunones includes Italy (with a higher density in Venetia and Histria, but with manifestations in Transpadana, Umbria, Aemilia, Latium and Campania), but they are also testamented in diverse provinces of Celtic tradition, such as Germania Inferior, Noricum, Belgium, Aquitania, Lugdunensis or Narbonensis. The analysis of individual or collective dedicants, the activities commemorated in the altars, and the processes that make visible – at a regional or local level – these goddesses in theonyms related to the Roman Iuno, are the aims of this paper.

  • Bassi, C. 2008: Una dedica alle Iunones da Riva del Garda (Trentino). In Sartori, A. (a cura di): Dedicanti e cultores nelle religioni celtiche. VIII Workshop F.E.R.C.A.N., Gargnano del Garda (9–12 maggio 2007). Milano, pp. 4359.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bauchhens, G.Neumann, G. (Hrsg.) 1987: Matronen und verwandte Gottheiten. Bonn

  • Bayet, J. 1957: Histoire politique et psychologique de la religion romaine. Paris

  • Cunliffe, B. et alii 1985: The Temple of Sulis Minerva at Bath. 3 vols. Oxford

  • Chiai, G. F.Häussler, R.Kunst, K. (Hrsg.) 2012: Interpretatio Romana/ Graeca/Indigena. Religiöse Kommunikation zwischen Globalisierung und Partikularisierung [Mediterraneo Antico. Economia, Società, Culture XV 1–2]. Pisa–Roma

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chilver, G. E., 1941: Cisalpine Gaul. Social and Economic History from 49 BC to the Death of Traian. Oxford

  • Degrassi, A. 1972: Inscriptiones Latinae Liberae Rei Publicae. Firenze

  • Dumézil, G. 1954: Juno S.M.R. Eranos 52, pp. 105119.

  • Dumézil, G. 1974: Religion romaine antique. Paris

  • Garman, A. G. 2008: The Cult of the Matronae in the Roman Rhineland: An Historical Evaluation of the Archaeological Evidence. Lewiston, NY

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Girardi, C. 2017: Sulle tracce dei luoghi di culto delle divintà plurali in Gallia Cisalpina. In Häussler, R.King, A. (eds): Celtic Religions in the Roman Period. Personal, Local and Global. Aberystwyth, pp. 387400.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gómez Pantoja, J. 1999: Las Madres de Clunia. In Villar, F.Beltrán, F. (eds): Pueblos, lenuas y escrituras en la Hispania Prerromana. Actas del Vii Coloquio sobre Lenguas y Culturas Paleohispánicas (Zaragoza, 12 a 15 de Marzo de 1997). Salamanca–Zaragoza, pp. 421432.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gregori, G. L. 2000: Brescia romana. Ricerche di prosopografia e storia sociali. II. Analisi ei documenti. Roma

  • Guzzo, P. G.Moscati, S.Susini, G. (eds) 1995: Antichi genti d’Italia. Roma

  • Heichelheim, F. 1930: Matres. In Realencyclopädie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft 14, pp. 22132250. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Micheldorf_Lorenzenberg_68_Filialkirche_ hl_Laurentius_Westwand_Iunones-Weihealtar-Fragment_07082014_056.jpg (consulted on 17 January 2018)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ihm, M. 1887: Der Mutter-oder Matronenkultus und seine Denkmäler. Bonner Jahrbücher 83, pp. 1200.

  • Ihm, M. 1894: Iuno; Matres. In Roscher, W. H.: Ausführliches Lexicon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie. Leipzig, Vol. II, coll. 615–618; coll. 2464–2488.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jufer, N.Luginbühl, T. 2001: Répertoire des dieux galois. Les noms des divinités celtiques connus par l’épigraphie, les textes anticues et la toponymie. Paris

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Juliis, E. M. De 2004: The Etruscans in Puglia. In Bernardini, P.Camporeale, G. (eds): The Etruscans outside Etruria. Los Angeles, pp. 260267.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lambrechts, P. 1942: Contribution à l’études des divinités celtiques. Brugge

  • Landucci Gattinoni, F. 1986: Un culto celtico nella Gallia Cisalpina. Le Matronae-Iunones a sud delle Alpi. Milano

  • Liertz, U.-M. 1998: Kult und Kaiser. Roma

  • Manini Calderini, O. 1972: I Celti e le “Dee Matronae” nel Novarese en el Bieliese. Boll. Novara 63, pp. 4765.

  • Pascal, C. B. 1964: The Cults of the Cisalpine Gaul. Bruxelles

  • Pascal, R. 1941: On the Origins of the Liturgical Drama of the Middle Ages. The Modern Language Review 36.3, pp. 369387.

  • Pascale, E. 2009: Death and Resurrection in Art. Los Angeles

  • Peter, R. 1978: Hercules. In Roscher, W. H.: Ausführliches Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie. Hildesheim–New York, colls. 2253–2298. (Nachdruck der Ausgabe Leipzig 1884–1886)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raepsaet-Charlier, M.-Th. 1975: La datation des inscriptions latins dans les provinces occidentales de l’Empire Romain d’après les formules “In h(onorem) d(omus) d(ivinae)” et “DEO, DEAE”. In Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II 3, pp. 232282.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raepsaet-Charlier, M.-Th. 1993: Diis deabusque sacrum. Formulare votif et datation dans les Trois-Gaules et les Deux Germanies. Paris

  • Rives, J. 1992: The Iuno Feminae in Roman Society. Echos du monde classique/Classical Views 36 (N.S. 11), pp. 3349.

  • Rose, H. 1948: Ancient Roman Religion. London

  • Sartori, A. 1995: Un viandante tra “Iuno e le Iunones”. Epigraphica 57, pp. 235237.

  • Schilling, R. 1979: Rites, cultes, dieux de Rome. Paris

  • Sena Chiesa, G. 1982: Candida Marmorum Fragmenta. Spunti di ricerca su alcuni rilievi romani di Angera. In Studi in onore di Mario Bartalone. Varese, pp. 11125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spagnolo Garzoli, G. 1996: Un aspetto dell’iconografia del culto delle Matrone su ceramica commune a rilievo. Quaderni della Soprintendenza archeologica del Piemonte 14, pp. 89115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whatmough, J. 1937: The Foundations of Roman Italy. London

  • Wissowa, G. 1912: Religion und Kultus der Römer. Zweite Auflage. München

  • Woolf, G. D. 2003: Local Cult in Imperial Context: the Matronae revisited. In Noelke, P.Naumann-Steckner, F.Schneider, B. (Hrsg.): Romanisation und Resistenz in Plastik, Architektur und Inschriften der Provinzen des Imperium Romanum. Neue Funde und Forschungen. Mainz, pp. 131138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zaccaria, C. 20012002: Alla ricerca di divinità “celtiche” nell’Italia settentrionale in età romana. Revisione della documentazione per le Regiones IX, X, XI. Veleia 18–19, pp. 129166. Annexe: Votive Altars to the Iunones

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation