View More View Less
  • * Hungarian National Museum, Department of Archaeology, Múzeum krt. 14–16, H–1088 Budapest, Hungary
  • ** Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 29–33 Konkoly Thege Miklós Str., H–1121 Budapest, Hungary
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $636.00

The following study deals with a looted metal sheet artefact probably originating from the Balkan region. Our main goal is to give a preliminary technological characterization of the object by the aid of four different analytical methods (macro- and microscopic observations, Neutron and X-ray Radiography, X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy). Using these different techniques together allowed us to characterize this complex metal sheet object more precisely than it would have been possible by traditional archaeological methods. According to our results, it seems that the technological characters of the artefact (e.g. the manufacturing technology, decorations, repair marks) are very similar to the metal sheet cauldrons of the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age.

  • Addinsoft. 2016. XLSTAT 2016 =

    Addinsoft. 2016. XLSTAT 2016: Data Analysis and Statistical Solution for Microsoft Excel. Paris 2016.

  • Anheuser 2009 =

    K. Anheuser: Technological study of a Byzantine trumpet bell. Historic Brass Society Journal 21 (2009) 93101.

  • Armada 2011 =

    X.-L. Armada: 9. Feasting metals and the ideology of power in the Late Bronze Age of Atlantic Iberia. In: Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner. Feasting rituals in the prehistoric societies of Europe and the Near East. Eds: G. A. Jiménez, S. Montón-Subías, M. S. Romero. Oxford 2011, 158183.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bartík 2001 =

    J. Bartík: Štítová puklica z nezmánej lokality z okolia Banskej Bystrice (Die Schildbuckel aus einer unbekannten Fundstelle in der Umgebung von Banská Bystrica). ZbSNM 95 – Archeológia 11 (2001) 7382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blažeket al. 1998 =

    J. BlažekM. ErnéeL. Smejtek: Die bronzezeitlichen Gußformen in Nordwestböhmen. Beiträge zur Ur- und Frühgeschichtliche Nordwestböhmen 3. Nordböhmische Bronzefunde 2. Most 1998.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Бочкарёв 2010 =

    B. C. Бочкарёв: Культурогенез и древнее металлопроизводство Восточной Европы [Culture Genesis and the Ancient Metal Production of Eastern Europe]. Санкт-Петербург 2010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bordas 2016 =

    F. Bordas: Trois nouveaux fragments de chauldrons des types de Cloonta et de Portglenone découverts dans le Nord-Ouest de la France. Notes préliminaires sur la découverte du dépôt de la Chapelle des Roches (Le Châtallier, Orne), Broze final atlantique 3. BSPF 113/1 (2016) 131152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Craddock 2009 =

    P. Craddock: Scientific Investigation of Copies, Fakes and Forgeries. Oxford 2009.

  • Darnay 1899 =

    K. Darnay: Sümegh és vidékének őskora [Prehistory of Sümegh and its Vicinity]. ArchKözl 22 (1899) 585.

  • Dergačev 2002 =

    V. Dergačev: Die äneolithischen und bronzezeitlichen Metallfunde aus Moldavien. PBF XX/9. Stuttgart 2002.

  • Egg 1996 =

    M. Egg: Einige Bemerkungen zum hallstattzeitlichen Wagengrab von Somlóvásárhely, Kom. Veszprém in Westungarn. JRGZM 43 (1996) 327352.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Geiger 1994 =

    A. Geiger: Treibverzierte Bronzerundschilde der italischen Eisenzeit aus Italien und Griechenland. PBF III/1. Stuttgart 1994.

  • Gerloff 1986 =

    S. Gerloff: Bronze Age class A cauldrons. Typology, origins and chronology. JAID 116 (1986) 84115.

  • Gerloff 2010 =

    S. Gerloff: Atlantic Cauldrons and Buckets of the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages in Western Europe. With a review of comparable vessels from Central Europe and Italy. PBF II/18. Stuttgart 2010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Giumlia-Mair 2005 =

    A. Giumlia-Mair: On surface analysis and archaeometallurgy. Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 239 (2005) 3543.

  • Goodway–Chen 1996 =

    M. GoodwayY. Chen: Fröslunda shields: Cymbals or symbols? Laborativ Arkeologi 9 (1996) 4952.

  • Green 1998 =

    M. J. Green: Vessels of death: Sacred cauldrons in archaeology and myth. AntJ 78 (1998) 6384.

  • Hampel 1886 =

    J. Hampel: A bronzkor emlékei Magyarhonban. I.: Képes atlasz [Antiquities of Bronze Age in Hungary]. Budapest 1886.

  • van der Heide 1991 =

    G. J. van der Heide: Brass instrument metal working techniques: The Bronze Age to the industrial revolution. Historic Brass Society Journal 3/1 (1991) 122150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Höglinger 1996 =

    P. Höglinger: Der spätbronzezeitliche Depotfund von Sipbachzell/OÖ. Linz 1996.

  • Hundt 1953 =

    H.-J. Hundt: Über Tüllenhaken und -gabeln. Germania 31 (1953) 145155.

  • Ilon 2002 =

    G. Ilon: Ein spätbronzezeitlicher Hortfund aus Szombathely (Steinamanger), Kom. Vas (Ungarn). Altertum 47 (2002) 149169.

  • Jockenhövel 1982 =

    A. Jockenhövel: Zu den ältesten Tüllenhämmern aus Bronze. Germania 80 (1982) 459467.

  • Kemenczei 2003 =

    T. Kemenczei: Der erste Bronzefunde von Bodrogkeresztúr. ArchÉrt 128 (2003) 1749.

  • Kemenczei 2009 =

    T. Kemenczei: Studien zu den Denkmälern skythisch geprägter Alföld Gruppe. IPH 12. Budapest 2009.

  • Kiset al. 2015 =

    Z. KisL. SzentmiklósiT. BelgyaM. BalaskóL. Z. HorváthB. Maróti: Neutron based imaging and element-mapping at the Budapest Neutron Centre. Physics Procedia 69 (2015) 4047

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Кривцова-Гракова 1955 =

    O. A. Кривцова-Гракова: Степное Поволжье и Причерноморье в эпоху поздней бронзы [Volga steppe and the Black Sea Region in the Late Bronze Age]. МИА 46. Москва 1955.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Клочко–Козыменко 2017 =

    В. И. КлочкоA. B. Козыменко: Древний металл Украины [Ancient metal of Ukraine]. Киев 2017.

  • Kockelmann–Kirfel 2006 =

    W. KockelmannA. Kirfel: Neutron diffraction imaging of cultural objects. Archaeometry Workshop (2006) 2006/III./2.

  • Kytlicová 1991 =

    O. Kytlicová: Die Bronzegefäße in Böhmen. PBF II/12. Stuttgart 1991.

  • László 1982 =

    P. László: Várvölgy. RégFüz I/34 (1982) 27.

  • Mozsolics 1984 =

    A. Mozsolics: Ein Beitrag zum Metallhandwerk der ungarischen Bronzezeit. BRGK 65 (1983) 1972.

  • Mätthaus 1980 =

    S. Mätthaus: Die Bronzegefäße der kretisch-mykenischen Kultur. PBF II/1. München 1980.

  • Mundell Mango–Bennett 1994 =

    M. Mundel MangoA. Bennett: The Sevso Treasure. Part One. JRA Suppl. Ser. 12/1. Ann Arbor 1994.

  • Molloy 2009 =

    B. Molloy: For Gods or men? A reappraisal of the function of European Bronze Age shields. Antiquity 83 (2009) 10521064.

  • Nagy–Tóth 1990 =

    M. NagyE. Tóth: The Seuso cauldron. Is the Seuso Treasure from Hungary? Minerva 1/10 (1990) 2223.

  • Needham–Bowman 2005 =

    S. NeedhamS. Bowman: Flesh-hooks, technological complexity and the Atlantic Bronze Age feasting complex. EJA 8/2 (2005) 91136.

  • Northover 2010 =

    P. Northover: Construction of Atlantic cauldrons and buckets. In: Gerloff 2010, 3141.

  • Patay 1968a =

    P. Patay: Urnenfelderzeitliche Bronzeschilde im Karpatenbecken. Germania 46 (1968) 241248.

  • Patay 1968b =

    P. Patay: Utóbronzkori bronzedényekről (On the bronze vessels of the Urnfield Age). ArchÉrt 95 (1968) 6681.

  • Patay 1990 =

    P. Patay: Die Bronzegefäße in Ungarn. PBF II/10. München 1990.

  • Peltz 2001 =

    U. Peltz: Der makedonische Schild aus Pergamon der Antikensammlung Berlin. JbBM 43 (2001) 331343.

  • Petrescu-Dîmboviţa 1977 =

    M. Petrescu-Dîmboviţa: Depozitele de bronzuri din România (Les dépôts de bronzes de la Roumanie). Bucureşti 1977.

  • Petrescu-Dîmboviţa 1978 =

    M. Petrescu-Dîmboviţa: Die Sicheln in Rumänien mit Corpus der jung- und spätbronzezeitlichen Horte Rumäniens. PBF XVIII/1. München 1978.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prüssing 1991 =

    G. Prüssing: Die Bronzegefäße in Österreich. PBF II/5. Stuttgart 1991.

  • Рашаjcки 1975 =

    P. Рашаjc ки: Остава Месиħ-Шупаjа код Вршца [Hoard from Mesić–Supaja near Vršac]. In: Праисториjске оставе у Србиjи и Воjводини I – Les Depots préhistoriques de la Serbie et de la Voivodine. Red.: М. Гарашанин, Н. Тасић. Fontes archaeologiae Serbiae I/1. Београд 1975, 6368.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robbiola–Blengino–Fiaud 1998 =

    L. RobbiolaJ-M. BlenginoC. Fiaud: Morphology and mechanisms of formation of natural patinas on archaeological Cu-Sn alloys. Corrosion Science 39 (1998) 20832111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Semenov 1964 =

    S. A. Semenov: Prehistoric Technology: An Experimental Study of the Oldest Tools and Artefacts from Traces of Manufacture and Wear. London 1964.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Soroceanu 2008 =

    T. Soroceanu: Die vorskythenzeitlichen Metallgefäße im Gebiet des heutigen Rumänien – Vasele de metal prescitice de pe actualul teritoriu al României. Cluj-Napoca 2008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Szabó 2013 =

    G. Szabó: A dunántúli urnamezős kultúra fémművessége az archaeometallurgiai vizsgálatok tükrében – The Metallurgy of the Transdanubian Urnfield Culture in Light of Archaeometallurgical Investigations. Specimina electronica antiquitatis 1. Pécs 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Szentmártoni Darnay 1889 =

    K. Szentmártoni Darnay: A sümeghi etruszk bronz edényekről [On Etruscan bronze vessels from Sümegh]. ArchÉrt 9 (1889) 258263.

  • Szilágyiet al. 2017 =

    V. SzilágyiZ. KisL. Szentmiklósi: Neutron imaging for archaeometry. Archaeometry Workshop (2016) 2016/XIII./3.

  • Thomaset al. 2011 =

    T. R. ThomasB.-G. RosénH. ZahouaniL. BluntM. El Mansori: Traceology, quantifying finishing machining and function: A tool and wear mark characterization study. Wear 271 (2011) 553558.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Uckelmann 2012 =

    M. Uckelmann: Die Schilde der Bronzezeit in Nord-, West- und Zentraleuropa. PBF III/4. Stuttgart 2012.