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  • 1 University of Environmental and Life Sciences Department of Mathematical Sciences and Technology POB 5003 N-1432 Ås Norway
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Military considerations in the early 1770s declared the need for a systematic mapping of the eastern regions of Norway along the border to Sweden. After a failed attempt of direct map sketching in the field, the geographical circle was introduced in 1779 to establish a triangular network as a backbone for further positioning of natural and man-made features. The resulting maps were used in preparation of fortresses and planning of defensive field operations. The scale of the triangular network was established by an astronomical baseline supported by linear baselines measured on frozen lakes during winter time. Many stations had latitude determinations from circum-meridian observations of the sun and stars to control the precision of the geodetic triangulation. When discrepancies became too large, a new baseline and a new reference point was selected. The original reference point was the flagpole of the fortress at Kongsvinger, which served as the zero-meridian for mapping in Norway until 1850. Other reference sites, for which accurate latitude and longitude were determined from several years of astronomical observations, were established in Trondheim, Bergen, and Kristiansand as the original triangular arc was expanded around the entire coast of southern Norway to close at Kongsvinger after 3 decades of observations. This allowed astronomical control of the geodetic results.

  • Aubert B 1814: Review of works executed for geodesy, topography, and hydrography in Norway (in French). Handwritten manuscript, in the archives of the Norwegian Mapping Authority

  • Bugge T 1778: Proposal to General Huth on the Geographical Survey of Norway (in Danish). Handwritten manuscript, in the Royal Library, Copenhagen (1304-I-2-No.21)

    Bugge T. , '', in Proposal to General Huth on the Geographical Survey of Norway (in Danish) , (1778 ) -.

  • Bugge T 1779a: Description of the surveying method employed for the Danish geographical maps (in Danish). Gyldendals Forlag, Copenhagen

    Bugge T. , '', in Description of the surveying method employed for the Danish geographical maps (in Danish) , (1779 ) -.

  • Bugge T 1779b: Handwritten statement, dated Copenhagen 4 May 1779; in the archives of the Norwegian Mapping Authority

  • Bugge T 1781: Observations of Jupiters moons in 1780, performed in Copenhagen, Christiania, and Fredrikshald, and the longitudes derived for these locations (in Danish), Føste Deel, 527–535.

  • Bugge T 1784a: Observationes Astronomicae Annis 1781, 1782 and 1783, Copenhagen, 87–94.

  • Bugge T 1784b: Astronomical observations and news from Copenhagen, Norway, Iceland, and Greenland (in German). Astronomisches Jahrbuch für das Jahr 1787, 159–165.

  • Bugge T 1785: Handwritten instruction on the coastal surveying of Norway, dated 2 May 1785. Original in the Royal Library, Copenhagen

    Bugge T. , '', in Handwritten instruction on the coastal surveying of Norway, dated 2 May 1785 , (1785 ) -.

  • Clasen C, Stricker C A 1781: Letter to T Bugge, dated 7 April 1781. Original in the Royal Library, Copenhagen. Also in Kopibok 1780–1788 of the Geographical Survey of Norway. Original in the archives of the Norwegian Mapping Authority

  • Clasen C, Stricker C A 1785a: Letter to T Bugge, dated 4 June 1785. Original in the Royal Library, Copenhagen

    Stricker C. A. , '', in Letter to T Bugge, dated 4 June 1785 , (1785 ) -.

  • Clasen C, Stricker C A 1785b: Letter to T Bugge, dated 17 December 1785. Original in the Royal Library, Copenhagen

    Stricker C. A. , '', in Letter to T Bugge, dated 17 December 1785 , (1785 ) -.

  • Clasen C, Stricker C A 1786: Letter to T Bugge, dated 3 June 1786. Original in the Royal Library, Copenhagen

    Stricker C. A. , '', in Letter to T Bugge, dated 3 June 1786 , (1786 ) -.

  • Lomholt A 1961: Surveying and map making under the auspices of the Royal Danish Academy of Science 1761–1843 (in Danish). Ejnar Munksgaard, Copenhagen

    Lomholt A. , '', in Surveying and map making under the auspices of the Royal Danish Academy of Science 1761–1843 (in Danish) , (1961 ) -.

  • Pettersen B R 2002: J. Astronomical History and Heritage , 5, 123–134.

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  • Pettersen B R 2005: J. Astronomical History and Heritage , 8, 123–128.

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  • Rick J J 1780a: Letter to T Bugge, dated 1 April 1780. Original in the Royal Library, Copenhagen

    Rick J. J. , '', in Letter to T Bugge, dated 1 April 1780 , (1780 ) -.

  • Rick J J 1780b: Astronomical observations in Christiania in 1779 and 1780 (in Norwegian). Handwritten observing log. Original in the archives of the Norwegian Mapping Authority

  • Rick J J, Wibe D 1779a: Letter to T Bugge, dated 19 June 1779. Original in the Royal Library, Copenhagen

    Wibe D. , '', in Letter to T Bugge, dated 19 June 1779 , (1779 ) -.

  • Rick J J, Wibe D 1779b: Letter to T Bugge, dated 23 October 1779. Original in the Royal Library, Copenhagen

    Wibe D. , '', in Letter to T Bugge, dated 23 October 1779 , (1779 ) -.

  • Rick J J, Wibe D 1780: Letter to T Bugge, dated 17 May 1780. Original in the Royal Library, Copenhagen

    Wibe D. , '', in Letter to T Bugge, dated 17 May 1780 , (1780 ) -.

  • Rick J J, Wibe D 1783: Letter to T Bugge, dated 31 May 1783. Original in the Royal Library, Copenhagen

    Wibe D. , '', in Letter to T Bugge, dated 31 May 1783 , (1783 ) -.

  • Rick J J, Wibe D, Vibe N A 1785: Letter to T Bugge, dated 13 October 1785. Original in the Royal Library, Copenhagen

    Vibe N. A. , '', in Letter to T Bugge, dated 13 October 1785 , (1785 ) -.

  • Seue C M 1878: Historical account of the Geographical Survey of Norway from its beginning in 1773 till the end of 1876 (in Norwegian). Grødahl and Søs Bogtrykkeri, Kristiania

    Seue C. M. , '', in Historical account of the Geographical Survey of Norway from its beginning in 1773 till the end of 1876 (in Norwegian) , (1878 ) -.

  • Wibe D 1781: Journal of summer operations for 1780 and 1781 (in Norwegian). Handwritten observing log. Original in the archives of the Norwegian Mapping Authority

  • Wibe D, Vibe N A 1785: Letter to T Bugge, dated 26 November 1785. Original in the Royal Library, Copenhagen

    Vibe N. A. , '', in Letter to T Bugge, dated 26 November 1785 , (1785 ) -.

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Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
2013
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó Springer
Nature Switzerland AG
Publisher's
Address
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Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2213-5812 (Print)
ISSN 2213-5820 (Online)