The Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire (Franziszeische Landesaufnahme) was based on the first triangulation net of the Empire, ordered by Emperor Francis I in 1806. Eight horizontal control points were later used as projection centers for the different parts of the Empire. However, two provinces, mapped in the very early phase of the survey, have no real terrain objects as projection centers. In spite of the earlier literature items, mainly concerning the cadastral systems, the map sheet systems of the Second Military Survey of Tyrol and Salzburg do not follow the Soldner-Cassini projections centered at Innsbruck and Gusterberg, respectively. Indeed, the design of these sheets is similar to the one of the First Military Survey in cartographic point of view also with respect to their projection. The systems of the 1:28 800 sheets in these provinces are not centered at Vienna (St. Stephen) or Gusterberg as it was indicated in the literature. Projection analysis shows that for these provinces a unified sheet system was introduced. It can be connected to an Innsbruck-Pfarrturm-centered Cassini projection but the projection center is not at any distinct point (sheet center, corner or boundary halving point) of the sheet system. This Cassini projection, however, is not suitable for precise georeferencing of the sheets of Tyrol and Salzburg as it results errors up to one kilometer. The map sheets of these provinces can be rectified using quadratic formulae with remnant errors of maximum 220 meters (Tyrol) and 500 meters (Salzburg), which are much higher values than the fitting accuracy of the sheets in other parts of the Empire. According to the analysis, Liechtenstein is also without definite projection center but it is covered by only one extended sheet and its rectification can be done with an accuracy of 30 meters.
Boltižiar M, Brůna V, Křováková K 2008:
, 27(1), 65–81.
Křováková K., '' (2008) 27Ekologia (Bratislava): 65-81.
Hofstätter E 1989: Contributions to the history of the Austrian surveys, Part I (in German). Bundesamt für Eich- und Vermessungwesen, Wien
Hofstätter E., '', in Contributions to the history of the Austrian surveys, Part I (in German), (1989) -.
Hofstätter E.Contributions to the history of the Austrian surveys, Part I (in German)1989)| false
Jankó A 2001:
(in Hungarian), 114, 103–129.
Jankó A., '' (2001) 114Hadtörténeti Közlemények (in Hungarian): 103-129.
Jankó A.Hadtörténeti Közlemények (in Hungarian)2001114103129)| false
Jankó A 2007: Military surveys of Hungary 1763–1950 (in Hungarian). Argumentum, Budapest
Jankó A., '', in Military surveys of Hungary 1763–1950 (in Hungarian), (2007) -.
Jankó A.Military surveys of Hungary 1763–1950 (in Hungarian)2007)| false
Kretschmer I, Dörflinger J, Wawrik F 2004: Austrian cartography (in German). Wiener Schriften zur Geographie und Kartographie, Band 15. Institut für Geographie und Regionalforschung der Universität Wien, Wien
Wawrik F., '', in Wiener Schriften zur Geographie und Kartographie, (2004) -.
Wawrik F.Wiener Schriften zur Geographie und Kartographie2004)| false
Marek J 1875: Technical protocols of the trigonometric operations of the cadastral systems (in German). Hungarian Royal State Press, Budapest
Marek J., '', in Technical protocols of the trigonometric operations of the cadastral systems (in German), (1875) -.
Marek J.Technical protocols of the trigonometric operations of the cadastral systems (in German)1875)| false
Mugnier C J 2004:
Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing
, 70, 265–267.
Mugnier C. J., '' (2004) 70Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing: 265-267.
Mugnier C. J.Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing200470265267)| false
NIMA, National Imagery and Mapping Agency, National Aeronautics and Space Administration GSFC (1997): WGS84 EGM96 (complete to degree and order 360) 1st Edition. NIMA-NASA GSFC, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
'', in WGS84 EGM96 (complete to degree and order 360), (1997) -.
WGS84 EGM96 (complete to degree and order 360)1997)| false
Potier E, Kielmann 1817: Triangulation of Tyrol — 1817. Manuscript in the Austrian Military Archive, document ID: Triangulation/29.
Snyder J P 1987: Map projections — a working manual. USGS Professional Papers 1395.