View More View Less
  • 1 Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre 1/AF Bidhannagar Kolkata 700 064 India
  • | 2 Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics 1/AF Bidhannagar Kolkata 700 064 India
Restricted access

Helium was first observed in the sun and subsequently much later on the earth. Starting from the early days of its discovery, helium continues to be entwined with the Indian scientific scenario in more ways than one. The element thus has a special charm and significance to the currently emerging situation where it is applied to solve problems in the exceptionally challenging field of tracing the formation of earthquakes and anticipating its occurrence. The present article delves into some of the broader aspects of the problem through a historical approach. The paper also deals with the statistical analysis of the pre-seismic geochemical (He and 222Rn) anomalies recorded at our existing field site laboratories ahead of some major earthquakes that occurred in and around India. A description of the experimentally recorded geochemical (He, F, Cl, SO 4 −− , and B) and geophysical (temperature, pH, conductivity) characteristics of some thermal springs of north and north-east India is included. A dedicated mass spectrometer analyzed intensities of 3He and 4He in air sample made in our laboratory and implication of the pre-seismic enhancement of 3He/4He ratios measured in thermal spring gases is briefly discussed.

  • American Chemical Society, National Historic Chemical Landmarks, The discovery of helium in natural gas; — Available online in http://portal.acs.org/portal/acs/corg/content

  • Baksi A K 1995: Chemical Geology, 121, No. 1–4, 73–90.

    Baksi A. K. , '' (1995 ) 121 Chemical Geology : 73 -90.

  • Bella F, Pettinelli E 1989: In: Radon Monitoring in Radioprotection, Environmental Radioactivity and Earth Sciences. L Tommasino, G Furlan, H A Khan, M Monin eds, World Scientific ICTP, Trieste, Italy. Singapore, New Jersey, London and Hong Kong

    Pettinelli E. , '', in Radon Monitoring in Radioprotection, Environmental Radioactivity and Earth Sciences , (1989 ) -.

  • Biagi P F, Ermini A, Cozzi E, Khatkevich Y M, Gordeev E I 2000: Hydrogeochemical Precursors in Kamchatka (Russia) Related to the Strongest Earthquakes in 1988–1997. Natural Hazards, 21, 2–3.

    Gordeev E. I. , 'Hydrogeochemical Precursors in Kamchatka (Russia) Related to the Strongest Earthquakes in 1988–1997 ' (2000 ) 21 Natural Hazards : 2 -3.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chaudhuri H, Das N K, Bhandari R K, Ghose D, Sen P, Sinha B 2010: Radiat. Meas., 45, 143–146.

    Sinha B. , '' (2010 ) 45 Radiat. Meas. : 143 -146.

  • Cherdyntsev V V 1961: Abundance of Chemical Elements (Translated by W Nichiporuk). University of Chicago Press

  • Cleve P T 1895a: Chem. News, 71, 212.

    Cleve P. T. , '' (1895 ) 71 Chem. News : 212 -.

  • Cleve P T 1895b: Chem. News, 71, 201.

    Cleve P. T. , '' (1895 ) 71 Chem. News : 201 -.

  • Craig H, Lupton J E, Welhan J A, Poreda R 1993: Geophys. Res. Lett., 5, 897–900.

    Poreda R. , '' (1993 ) 5 Geophys. Res. Lett. : 897 -900.

  • Cook G A, 1961: 1st edn, Argon, Helium and the Rare Gases, Interscience Publishers, New York/London, Vol. 1, p. 18.

    Cook G. A. , '', in Argon, Helium and the Rare Gases , (1961 ) -.

  • Das N K, Bhandari R K, Ghose D, Sen P, Sinha B 2005: Current Science, 89, 1399–1404.

    Sinha B. , '' (2005 ) 89 Current Science : 1399 -1404.

  • Das N K, Choudhury H, Bhandari R K, Ghose D, Sen P, Sinha B 2006a: Radiat. Meas., 41, 634–637.

    Sinha B. , '' (2006 ) 41 Radiat. Meas. : 634 -637.

  • Das N K, Bhandari R K, Ghose D, Sen P, Sinha B 2006b: Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 64, 144–148.

    Sinha B. , '' (2006 ) 64 Applied Radiation and Isotopes : 144 -148.

  • Das N K, Bhandari R K, Ghose D, Sen P, Sinha B 2009a: Acta Geod. Geoph. Hung., 44, 357–365.

    Sinha B. , '' (2009 ) 44 Acta Geod. Geoph. Hung. : 357 -365.

  • Das N K, Bhandari R K, Ghose D, Sen P, Sinha B 2009b: Current Science, 96, 1031–1032.

    Sinha B. , '' (2009 ) 96 Current Science : 1031 -1032.

  • Denghong W, Yuchuan C, Zhigang X, Hongyang L, Tiande L 1999: Helium isotopic study on mantle degassing in the Altay orogenic zone, China. Chinese Science Bulletin, 44, 1050–1053, Science Press, co-published with Springer-Verlag GmbH, ISSN, 1001-6538.

    Tiande L. , 'Helium isotopic study on mantle degassing in the Altay orogenic zone, China ' (1999 ) 44 Chinese Science Bulletin : 1050 -1053.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Faul H 1954: A symposium on nuclear phenomena in the earth sciences, Nuclear Geology. John Wiley and Sons, New York

    Faul H. , '', in Nuclear Geology , (1954 ) -.

  • Fleischer R L 1997: Radon in earthquake prediction: Radon Measurements by Etched Track Detectors: Applications in Radiation protection, Earth Sciences and the Enviroment. S A Durrani, R Ilic eds, World Scientific, Singapore, 285–299.

    Fleischer R. L. , '', in Radon in earthquake prediction: Radon Measurements by Etched Track Detectors: Applications in Radiation protection, Earth Sciences and the Enviroment , (1997 ) -.

  • Fleischer R L, Mogro-Campero A 1985: Association of subsurface radon changes in Alaska and the Northeastern United States with earthquakes. Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 49, 1061–1071.

    Mogro-Campero A. , 'Association of subsurface radon changes in Alaska and the Northeastern United States with earthquakes ' (1985 ) 49 Geochim Cosmochim Acta : 1061 -1071.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Frankland and Lockyer 1868: Announce the existence of an element in the sun unknown on earth and name it helium. In: Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), 17, p. 91.

    Lockyer , 'Announce the existence of an element in the sun unknown on earth and name it helium ' (1868 ) 17 Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) : 91 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ghose D, Das N K, Sinha B 1996: Current Science, 71, 56–58.

    Sinha B. , '' (1996 ) 71 Current Science : 56 -58.

  • Ghose D, Chawdhury D P, Sinha B 2002: Current Science, 82, 993–996.

    Sinha B. , '' (2002 ) 82 Current Science : 993 -996.

  • Graham D W, Christic D M, Harpp K S, Lupton J E 1993: Science, 262, 5142, 2023–2026.

    Lupton J. E. , '' (1993 ) 262 Science : 5142 -.

  • Gregory R G, Durrance E M 1987: J. Geophys. Res., 92, 12,567–12,586.

    Durrance E. M. , '' (1987 ) 92 J. Geophys. Res. : 12,567 -12,586.

  • Gülec N, Hilton D R, Mutlu H 2002: Chemical Geology, 187, 129–142.

    Mutlu H. , '' (2002 ) 187 Chemical Geology : 129 -142.

  • Hillebrand W F 1890: Bull. U.S. Geol. Survey, 78, 43–78.

    Hillebrand W. F. , '' (1890 ) 78 Bull. U.S. Geol. Survey : 43 -78.

  • Hurley P M 1954: The helium age method and distribution and migration in rock — In Faul H 1954, A symposium on nuclear phenomena in the earth sciences. Nuclear Geology, John Wiley and Sons, New York

    Hurley P. M. , '', in A symposium on nuclear phenomena in the earth sciences. Nuclear Geology , (1954 ) -.

  • India Meteorological Department (IMD) website reports — Available online in http://www.imd.gov.in/section/seismo/dynamic/welcome.htm

  • Italiano F, Martelli M, Martinelli G, Nuccio P M, Paternoster M 2001: Significance of Earthquake Related Anomalies in Fluids of Val D’Agri (Southern Italy). Vol. 13, 249–257.

    Paternoster M. , '' (2001 ) 13 Significance of Earthquake Related Anomalies in Fluids of Val D’Agri (Southern Italy) : 249 -257.

  • Janssen P J C 1868: Compt. Rend., 76, 838–839.

    Janssen P. J. C. , '' (1868 ) 76 Compt. Rend. : 838 -839.

  • Kawabe 1987: Geochemical J., 2, 105–117.

    Kawabe , '' (1987 ) 2 Geochemical J. : 105 -117.

  • Keesom W H 1942a: Helium. Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam, London, New York, Princeton, 1942 reprinted without revision 1959

    Keesom W. H. , '', in Helium , (1942 ) -.

  • Keesom W H 1942b: Helium. Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam, London, New York, Princeton, 1942 reprinted without revision 1959

    Keesom W. H. , '', in Helium , (1942 ) -.

  • Keesom W H 1942c: Helium. Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam, London, New York, Princeton, 1942 reprinted without revision 1959

    Keesom W. H. , '', in Helium , (1942 ) -.

  • Keyser H Ch 1895: Helium in the gases from springs at Wildbad in the Black Forest., News, 2 (1895), 223; Chem.-Ztg., 19 (1895), 1549.

    Keyser H. C. , 'Helium in the gases from springs at Wildbad in the Black Forest. ' (1895 ) 2 News : 223 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kockarts G 1973: Space Science Reviews, Vol. 14, 723–757.

    Kockarts G. , '' (1973 ) 14 Space Science Reviews : 723 -757.

  • KU history website, High on helium; — Available on line in http://www.kuhistory.com/proto/story.asp?id=104

  • Lebrun Ph 2003: Cryogenics, Key to Advanced Science and Technology, Bull., IIR, No. 2003-6.

  • Lind S C 1925: The origin of terrestrial helium and its association with other gases. Proc., N.A.S. 11(12), 772–779.

    Lind S. C. , 'The origin of terrestrial helium and its association with other gases ' (1925 ) 11 Proc., N.A.S. : 772 -779.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mayne K I 1956: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 9,4, 174–182.

    Mayne K. I. , '' (1956 ) 9 Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta : 174 -182.

  • Monnin M, Seidel J L 1988: C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 307, 1363–1368.

    Seidel J. L. , '' (1988 ) 307 C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris : 1363 -1368.

  • Morikawa N, Kazahaya K, Masuda H, Ohwada M, Nakama A, Nagao K, Sumino H 2008: Geochemical J., 42, 61–74.

    Sumino H. , '' (2008 ) 42 Geochemical J. : 61 -74.

  • Nagar R K, Vishwanathan G, Surendra S, Sankaranaraanan A 1996: Geol. Surv. India Spl. Pub., 45, 349–360.

    Sankaranaraanan A. , '' (1996 ) 45 Geol. Surv. India Spl. Pub. : 349 -360.

  • Onnes H K 1908: Compt. rend., 147, 421.

    Onnes H. K. , '' (1908 ) 147 Compt. rend. : 421 -.

  • Oxburg E R, O’Nions R K 1987: Science, 237, 1583–1588.

    O’Nions R. K. , '' (1987 ) 237 Science : 1583 -1588.

  • Ozima M, Podosek F A 1983a: Noble Gas Geochemistry. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Podosek F. A. , '', in Noble Gas Geochemistry , (1983 ) -.

  • Ozima M, Podosek F A 1983b: Noble Gas Geochemistry. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Podosek F. A. , '', in Noble Gas Geochemistry , (1983 ) -.

  • Planinic J, Radolic V, Vukovic B 2004: Radon as an earthquake Precursor. Nuclear Instrument and methods A, 530, 568–574.

    Vukovic B. , 'Radon as an earthquake Precursor ' (2004 ) 530 Nuclear Instrument and methods A : 568 -574.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ramsay W 1895a: J. Chem. Soc., 67, 1107–1108.

    Ramsay W. , '' (1895 ) 67 J. Chem. Soc. : 1107 -1108.

  • Ramsay W 1895b: Helium a Gaseous Constituent of Certain Minerals, Part 1. Proc. Roy. Soc., 58, 80–89.

    Ramsay W. , 'Helium a Gaseous Constituent of Certain Minerals, Part 1 ' (1895 ) 58 Proc. Roy. Soc. : 80 -89.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rankama K 1963: Progress in Isotope Geology. Interscience Publishers, John Wiley and Sons, New York, London, 169–172.

    Rankama K. , '', in Progress in Isotope Geology , (1963 ) -.

  • Rayet G 1869: Helium in the Terrestrial Atmosphere. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 68, 320; Available on line in http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1973SSRv…14..723K

    Rayet G. , '', in Helium in the Terrestrial Atmosphere , (1869 ) -.

  • Reimer G M 1990: In: Preceding the Loma Prieta Earthquake, Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 71; 8, 289.

    Reimer G. M. , '' (1990 ) 71 Preceding the Loma Prieta Earthquake, Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union : 289 -.

  • Rogers G S 1921: Helium-Bearing Natural Gas. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper, 121, 60.

    Rogers G. S. , 'Helium-Bearing Natural Gas ' (1921 ) 121 U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper : 60 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rutherford E, Royd T 1909: Phil. Mag., 17, 281–287.

    Royd T. , '' (1909 ) 17 Phil. Mag. : 281 -287.

  • Sano Y, Wakita H 1988: Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 61, 1153–1157.

    Wakita H. , '' (1988 ) 61 Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. : 1153 -1157.

  • Sano Y, Takahata N, Igarashi G, Koizumi N, Sturchio N C 1998: Chemical Geology, 150, 171–179.

    Sturchio N. C. , '' (1998 ) 150 Chemical Geology : 171 -179.

  • Sugisaki R, Aoki T 1993: J. Earth Planet. Sci., 40, 17–26.

    Aoki T. , '' (1993 ) 40 J. Earth Planet. Sci. : 17 -26.

  • Sugisaki R, Sugiura T 1985: Science, 229, 261–262.

    Sugiura T. , '' (1985 ) 229 Science : 261 -262.

  • Sugisaki R, Ito T, Nagamine K, Kawabe I 1996: Gas Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 139, Nos 1–2, 239–249.

    Kawabe I. , '' (1996 ) 139 Gas Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. : 239 -249.

  • Sumino H, Nakai S, Nagao K, Notsu K 2000: Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 1211–1214.

    Notsu K. , '' (2000 ) 27 Geophys. Res. Lett. : 1211 -1214.

  • Thomas D M 1988: Pure Appl. Geophys., 126, 241–266.

    Thomas D. M. , '' (1988 ) 126 Pure Appl. Geophys. : 241 -266.

  • Thomson W 1871: Nature, Presidential Address to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 4, 261–278.

    Thomson W. , '' (1871 ) 4 Nature, Presidential Address to the British Association for the Advancement of Science : 261 -278.

  • Torgersen T, Drenkard S, Farley K, Schlosser P, Shapiro A 1994: Noble Gas Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry. J Matsuda ed., Terra Scientific Publishing Company, Tokyo, 279–292.

    Shapiro A. , '', in Noble Gas Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry , (1994 ) -.

  • Toutain J P, Baubron J C 1999: Tectonophys, 304, 1–27.

    Baubron J. C. , '' (1999 ) 304 Tectonophys : 1 -27.

  • US Geological Survey (USGS) website reports — Available online in http://earthquake. usgs.gov

  • Yang T F, Lan T F, Lee H, Fu C, Chuang P et al. 2005: Geochemical J., S9, 469–480.

    Chuang P. , '' (2005 ) S9 Geochemical J. : 469 -480.

  • Yang T F, Fu C C, Walia V, Chen C H, Chyi L L, Liu T K, Song S R, Lee M, Lin C W, Lin C C 2006: Pure Appl. Geophys., 163, 693–709.

    Lin C. C. , '' (2006 ) 163 Pure Appl. Geophys. : 693 -709.

  • Zmazek B, Zivcic M, Todorovski L, Dzeroski S, Vaupotic J, Kobal I 2005: Applied Geochemistry, 20, 1106–1119.

    Kobal I. , '' (2005 ) 20 Applied Geochemistry : 1106 -1119.

AGG Editorial Office
Address: P.O. Box 5, H-9401 Sopron, Hungary
Phone: (36 99) 508 340
Fax: (36 99) 508 355
E-mail: actagg@ggki.hu

  • Impact Factor (2019): 0.909
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2019): 0.337
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2019): 18
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q3 Building and Construction
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q3 Geology
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q3 Geophysics
  • Impact Factor (2018): 0.942
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2018): 0.314
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2018): 17
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q3 Geology
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q3 Geophysics

For subscription options, please visit the website of Springer Nature.

Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
2013
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó Springer
Nature Switzerland AG
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
CH-6330 Cham, Switzerland Gewerbestrasse 11.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2213-5812 (Print)
ISSN 2213-5820 (Online)