View More View Less
  • 1 Please ask the editor of the journal.
  • 2 Collegium Budapest Szentháromság u. 2. HU–1014 Budapest
Restricted access

A common problem of non-enzymatic artificial replicator systems is product inhibition leading to parabolic instead of exponential amplification. Exponential chemical replication of oligonucleotides was recently achieved by an iter- ative, stepwise procedure, which employs the surface of a solid support, and which was called SPREAD (i.Surface Promoted Replication and Exponential Amplification of DNA analoguesli). We here report on theoretical insights into the design of an autonomous variant of the SPREAD procedure. The corresponding program simulates a given set of chemical reactions coupled to a chromatographic process where the chromatographic column is treated as a se- ries of connected cells. The crucial step is a template-directed reaction occurring at the surface: Thus, we assumed that two parabolic replicators compete for their building blocks in the chromatographic column. A simplified, semi-analytic treatment confirms that competing parabolic replicators that spread on mineral surfaces are amenable for Darwinian selection under a wide range of parameter values. We believe that the chromatographized replicator model is relevant to the origin of life on earth. The chromatographic column is equivalent to a tunnel or a riverbed of minerals in which water containing the resources is continuously running through.

  • von Kiedrowski, G. (1996): Primordial soupe or crěpes? Nature 381:20-21.

    'Primordial soupe or crěpes? ' () 381 Nature : 20 -21.

  • Eigen, M. (1971): Selforganization of matter and the evolution of biological macromolecules. Naturwissenschaften 58: 465-523.

    'Selforganization of matter and the evolution of biological macromolecules ' () 58 Naturwissenschaften : 465 -523.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sievers, D. and von Kiedrowski, G. (1998): Self-replication of hexadeoxynucleotide analogues: Autocatalysis versus cross-catalysis. Chem. Eur. J. 4:629-641.

    'Self-replication of hexadeoxynucleotide analogues: Autocatalysis versus cross-catalysis ' () 4 Chem. Eur. J : 629 -641.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wills, P. R., Kauffman, S. A., Stadler, B. M. R. and Stadler, P. F. (1998): Selection dynamics in autocatalytic systems: Templates replicating through binary ligation. Bull. Math. Biol. 160:1073-1098.

    'Selection dynamics in autocatalytic systems: Templates replicating through binary ligation ' () 160 Bull. Math. Biol : 1073 -1098.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wintner, E. A., Conn, M. M. and Rebek, J. (1994): Studies in molecular replication. Acc. Chem. Res. 27:198-203.

    'Studies in molecular replication ' () 27 Acc. Chem. Res : 198 -203.

  • Yao, S., Ghosh, I., Zutshi, R. and Chmielewski, J. (1998): Selective amplification by auto- and cross-catalysis in a replicating peptide system. Nature 396:447-450.

    'Selective amplification by auto- and cross-catalysis in a replicating peptide system ' () 396 Nature : 447 -450.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zielinski, W. S. and Orgel, L. E. (1987): Autocatalytic synthesis of a tetranucleotide analogue. Nature 327:346-347.

    'Autocatalytic synthesis of a tetranucleotide analogue ' () 327 Nature : 346 -347.

  • Terfort, A. and von Kiedrowski, G. (1992): Self-replication during condensation of 3-aminobenzamidines with 2-formylphenoxyacetic acids. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 31:654-656.

    'Self-replication during condensation of 3-aminobenzamidines with 2-formylphenoxyacetic acids ' () 31 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl : 654 -656.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tjivikua, T., Ballester, P. and Rebek, J. (1990): A self-replicating system. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112:1249-1250.

    'A self-replicating system ' () 112 J. Am. Chem. Soc : 1249 -1250.

  • Varga, Z. and Szathmáry, E. (1997): An extremum principle for parabolic competition. Bull. Math. Biol. 59: 1145-1154.

    'An extremum principle for parabolic competition ' () 59 Bull. Math. Biol : 1145 -1154.

  • von Kiedrowski, G. (1986): A self-replicating hexadeoxynucleotide. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 25:932-935.

    'A self-replicating hexadeoxynucleotide ' () 25 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl : 932 -935.

  • von Kiedrowski, G. (1993): Minimal replicator theory I: Parabolic versus exponential growth. Bioorg. Chem. Front. 3:113-146.

    'Minimal replicator theory I: Parabolic versus exponential growth ' () 3 Bioorg. Chem. Front : 113 -146.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • von Kiedrowski, G., Wlotzka, B., Helbing, J., Matzen, M. and Jordan, S. (1991): Parabolic growth of a hexadeoxynucleotide analogue bearing a 3'-5'-phosphoamidate link. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 30:423-426, ibid. 892.

    'Parabolic growth of a hexadeoxynucleotide analogue bearing a 3'-5'-phosphoamidate link ' () 30 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl : 423 -26.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wächtershäuser, G. (1988): Before enzymes and templates: Theory of surface metabolism. Microbiol. Rev. 52:452-484.

    'Before enzymes and templates: Theory of surface metabolism ' () 52 Microbiol. Rev : 452 -484.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wang, B. and Sutherland, I. O. (1997): Self-replication in a Diels-Alder reaction. Chem. Commun. 16:1495-1496.

    'Self-replication in a Diels-Alder reaction ' () 16 Chem. Commun : 1495 -1496.

  • Feng, Q., Park, T. K. and Rebek, J. (1992): Crossover reactions between synthetic replicators yield active and inactive recombinants. Science 256:1179-1180.

    'Crossover reactions between synthetic replicators yield active and inactive recombinants ' () 256 Science : 1179 -1180.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ferris, J. P., Hill, A. R., Liu, R. and Orgel, L. E. (1996): Synthesis of long prebiotic oligomers on mineral surfaces. Nature 381:59-61.

    'Synthesis of long prebiotic oligomers on mineral surfaces ' () 381 Nature : 59 -61.

  • Hong, J.-I., Feng, Q., Rotello, V. and Rebek, J. (1992): Competition, cooperation, and mutation: Improving a synthetic replicator by light irradiation. Science 255:848-850.

    'Competition, cooperation, and mutation: Improving a synthetic replicator by light irradiation ' () 255 Science : 848 -850.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kuhn, H. and Waser, J. (1981): Molecular self-organization and the origin of life. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 20: 500-520.

    'Molecular self-organization and the origin of life ' () 20 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl : 500 -520.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lee, D. H., Granja, J. R., Martinez, J. A., Severin, K. and Ghadiri, M. R. (1996): A self-replicating peptide. Nature 382:525-528.

    'A self-replicating peptide ' () 382 Nature : 525 -528.

  • Li, T. and Nicolaou, K. C. (1994): Chemical self-replication of palindromic duplex DNA. Nature 369:218-221.

    'Chemical self-replication of palindromic duplex DNA ' () 369 Nature : 218 -221.

  • Lifson, S. and Lifson, H. (1999): Models of prebiotic replication: Survival of the fittest versus extinction of the unfittest. J. Theor. Biol. 199:425-433.

    'Models of prebiotic replication: Survival of the fittest versus extinction of the unfittest ' () 199 J. Theor. Biol : 425 -433.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Luther, A., Brandsch, R. and von Kiedrowski, G. (1998): Surface-promoted replication and exponential amplification of DNA analogues. Nature 396:245-248.

    'Surface-promoted replication and exponential amplification of DNA analogues ' () 396 Nature : 245 -248.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Martin, B., Micura, R., Pitsch, S. and Eschenmoser, A. (1997): Pyranosyl-RNA: Further observations on replication. Helv. Chim. Acta 80:1901-1951.

    'Pyranosyl-RNA: Further observations on replication ' () 80 Helv. Chim. Acta : 1901 -1951.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Maynard Smith, J. and Szathmáry, E. (1995): The Major Transitions in Evolution. Freeman, Oxford.

    The Major Transitions in Evolution , ().

  • Orgel, L. E. (1995): Unnatural selection in chemical systems. Acc. Chem. Res. 28:109-118.

    'Unnatural selection in chemical systems ' () 28 Acc. Chem. Res : 109 -118.

  • Orgel, L.E. (1998): Polymerisation on the rocks: Theoretical introduction. Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 28:227-234.

    'Polymerisation on the rocks: Theoretical introduction ' () 28 Orig. Life Evol. Biosph : 227 -234.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pieters, R. J., Huc, I. and Rebek, J. (1994): Reciprocal template effect in a replication cycle. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 106:1579-1581.

    'Reciprocal template effect in a replication cycle ' () 106 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl : 1579 -1581.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Reinhoudt, D. N., Rudkevich, D. M. and de Jong, F. (1996): Kinetic analysis of the Rebek self-replicating system: Is there a controversy? J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118: 6880-6889.

    'Kinetic analysis of the Rebek self-replicating system: Is there a controversy? ' () 118 J. Am. Chem. Soc : 6880 -6889.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Severin, K., Lee, D. H., Martinez, J. A., Vieth, M. and Ghadiri, M. R. (1998): Dynamic error correction in auto-catalytic peptide networks. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 37: 126-128.

    'Dynamic error correction in auto-catalytic peptide networks ' () 37 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl : 126 -128.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sievers, D. and von Kiedrowski, G. (1994): Self-replication of complementary nucleotide-based oligomers. Nature 369: 221-224.

    'Self-replication of complementary nucleotide-based oligomers ' () 369 Nature : 221 -224.

  • Cairns-Smith, G. (1982): Genetic Takeover and the Mineral Origins of Life. Cambridge University Press, New York.

    Genetic Takeover and the Mineral Origins of Life , ().

  • Bernal, L. D. (1951): The Physical Basis of Life. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.

    The Physical Basis of Life , ().

  • Cairns-Smith, G. (1971): The Life Puzzle. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh.

    The Life Puzzle , ().

  • Achilles, T. and von Kiedrowski, G. (1993): A self-replicating system from three precursors. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 32:1198-1201.

    'A self-replicating system from three precursors ' () 32 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl : 1198 -1201.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bag, B. G. and von Kiedrowski, G. (1996): Templates, auto-catalysis and molecular replication. Pure and Appl. Chem. 86:2145-2155.

    'Templates, auto-catalysis and molecular replication ' () 86 Pure and Appl. Chem : 2145 -2155.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sievers, D., Achilles, T., Burmeister, J., Jordan, S., Terfort, A. and von Kiedrowski, G. In Self-Reproduction of Supramolecular Structures - From Synthetic Structures to Models of Minimal Living Systems. Kluwer Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 45-64.

    Self-Reproduction of Supramolecular Structures - From Synthetic Structures to Models of Minimal Living Systems , () 45 -64.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Szathmáry, E. (1989): Simple growth laws and their evolutionary consequences. Oxf Surv. Evol. Biol. 6:169-205.

    'Simple growth laws and their evolutionary consequences ' () 6 Oxf Surv. Evol. Biol : 169 -205.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Szathmáry, E. (1991): Simple growth laws and selection consequences. Trends Ecol. Evolut. 6:366-370.

    'Simple growth laws and selection consequences ' () 6 Trends Ecol. Evolut : 366 -370.

  • Szathmáry, E. and Gladkih, I. (1989): Sub-exponential growth and coexistence of non-enzymatically replicating templates. J. Theor. Biol. 138:55-58.

    'Sub-exponential growth and coexistence of non-enzymatically replicating templates ' () 138 J. Theor. Biol : 55 -58.

    • Search Google Scholar

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Aug 2020 4 0 1
Sep 2020 2 0 0
Oct 2020 0 0 0
Nov 2020 2 9 3
Dec 2020 3 0 0
Jan 2021 0 0 0
Feb 2021 0 0 0