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  • 1 UNC. College of Agriculture CC 509 Córdoba 5000 Argentina
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The objective of this research was to evaluate the actual agronomic performance in bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and hexaploid triticale ( X Triticosecale Wittmack) based on the use of a selection index constituted by eleven traits measured at plot level. Two samples of 142 S 0 hexaploid triticale progenies and 89 S 0 bread wheat progenies were sown under rainfed conditions and a selection index was constituted using the following traits: spikes (n o plant −1 and n o plot −1 ), grain and biological yield (g plot −1 ), harvest index (%), 1000 grain weight (g), grain (n o plot −1 ), grain and biomass yield (g spike −1 ), harvest index spike −1 (%) and straw yield (g spike −1 ). A disruptive selection intensity of 7.0 % (triticale) and 11.2% (bread wheat) was applied in both directions of the frequency distributions for the selection index. The 20 S 1 triticale families (ten per group) and 20 S 1 bread wheat families (ten per group) were evaluated during 2003. Grain and biological yield (g m −2 ), spikes (n o m −2 ), 1000 grain weight (g), harvest index (%) and grain (n o m −2 ) were measured and the differential and the response to selection were estimated from the S 0 progenies and S 1 derived families, respectively. A higher number of significant differences between the higher and lower index group mean values were observed for the bread wheat germplasm. In both species and for all measured traits, the mean values corresponding to the higher group were greater than those observed in the lower one. These results confirm that using a selection index it is possible to get a harmonic yield improvement in both species.

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Cereal Research Communications
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ISSN 0133-3720 (Print)
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