View More View Less
  • 1 Slovak University of Agricultural Department of Storing and Processing Plant Products Tr. A. Hlinku 2 949 01 Nitra Slovakia
  • 2 The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Department of Crop Science P.O. Box 44 SE-230 53 Alnarp Sweden
Restricted access

Protein concentration and composition varies in different part of the wheat grain and also in different mill streams. This investigation aimed at determining protein concentration, composition and disulfide crosslinkings in different wheat flour mill streams. Flour mill streams were obtained by milling grains of two Slovakian bread wheat cultivars in a Brabender Quadromat Senior test mill. Protein concentration, amount of protein groups, amount and size distribution of polymeric and monomeric proteins, free thiol groups and disulfide crosslinkings were measured. The results showed that the break flour contained high amounts of gliadins and glutenin subunits, SDS-extractable large polymeric proteins and disulfide crosslinkings. The shorts contained high amounts of SDS-extractable and SDS-unextractable smaller monomeric proteins, SDS-unextractable larger monomeric proteins and free thiol groups. The bran contained high protein concentration, high amounts of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits, SDS-extractable and SDS-unextractable smaller monomeric proteins and SDS-unextractable larger monomeric proteins.

  • Antes, S., Wieser, H. 2000. Quantitative determination and localization of thiol groups in wheat flour. In: Shewry, P.R., Tatham, A.S. (eds), Wheat Gluten. Cambridge, UK: The Royal Society of Chemistry, pp. 211–214.

    Wieser H. , '', in Wheat Gluten , (2000 ) -.

  • Daniel, C., Triboi, E. 2001. Isolation of wheat grain compartments and their protein composition. Cereal Res. Comm. 29 :197–204.

    Triboi E. , 'Isolation of wheat grain compartments and their protein composition ' (2001 ) 29 Cereal Res. Comm. : 197 -204.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ellman, G.L. 1959. Tissue sulfhydryl groups. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 82 (1):70–77.

    Ellman G.L. , 'Tissue sulfhydryl groups ' (1959 ) 82 Arch. Biochem. Biophys. : 70 -77.

  • Finney, K.F., Barmore, M.A. 1948. Loaf volume and protein content of hard red winter and spring wheat. Cereal Chem. 25 :291–312.

    Barmore M.A. , 'Loaf volume and protein content of hard red winter and spring wheat ' (1948 ) 25 Cereal Chem. : 291 -312.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gupta, R.B., Khan, K., MacRitchie, F. 1993. Biochemical basis of flour properties in bread wheats. I. Effects of variation in the quantity and size distribution of polymeric protein. J. Cereal Sci. 18 :23–41.

    MacRitchie F. , 'Biochemical basis of flour properties in bread wheats. I. Effects of variation in the quantity and size distribution of polymeric protein ' (1993 ) 18 J. Cereal Sci. : 23 -41.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • ICC Standard Methods. 2001. Complete Edition incl. + 1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th , 5 th , 6 th and 7 th Supplement. International Association for Cereal Science and Technology, Vienna, Austria.

  • Johansson, E., Henriksson, P., Svensson, G., Heneen, W.K. 1993. Detection, chromosomal location and evaluation of the functional value of a novel high M r glutenin subunit found in Swedish wheats. J. Cereal Sci. 17 :237–245.

    Heneen W.K. , 'Detection, chromosomal location and evaluation of the functional value of a novel high Mr glutenin subunit found in Swedish wheats ' (1993 ) 17 J. Cereal Sci. : 237 -245.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Johansson, E., Prieto-Linde, M.-L., Jőnsson, J.Ő. 2001. Effects of wheat cultivar and nitrogen application on storage protein composition and breadmaking quality. Cereal Chem. 78 (1):19–25.

    Jőnsson J. , 'Effects of wheat cultivar and nitrogen application on storage protein composition and breadmaking quality ' (2001 ) 78 Cereal Chem. : 19 -25.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Johansson E., Prieto-Linde, M.-L., Svensson, G. 2004. Influence of nitrogen application rate and timing on grain protein composition and gluten strength in Swedish wheat cultivars. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 167 :345–350.

    Svensson G. , 'Influence of nitrogen application rate and timing on grain protein composition and gluten strength in Swedish wheat cultivars ' (2004 ) 167 J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. : 345 -350.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kuktaite, R., Johansson, E., Juodeikiene, G. 2000. Composition and concentration of proteins in Lithuanian wheat cultivars: relationships with bread-making quality. Cereal Res. Comm. 28 :195–202

    Juodeikiene G. , 'Composition and concentration of proteins in Lithuanian wheat cultivars: relationships with bread-making quality ' (2000 ) 28 Cereal Res. Comm. : 195 -202.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Menovska, M., Knezevic, D., Ivanoski, M. 2002. Protein allelic composition, dough rheology, and baking characteristics of flour mill streams from wheat cultivars with known and varied baking qualities. Cereal Chem. 79 :720–725.

    Ivanoski M. , 'Protein allelic composition, dough rheology, and baking characteristics of flour mill streams from wheat cultivars with known and varied baking qualities ' (2002 ) 79 Cereal Chem. : 720 -725.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Payne, P.I., Nightingale, M.A., Krattiger, A.F., Holt, L.M. 1987. The relationship between HMW gluten subunit composition and the bread-making quality in British-grown wheat varieties. J. Sci. Food Agric. 40 :51–65.

    Holt L.M. , 'The relationship between HMW gluten subunit composition and the bread-making quality in British-grown wheat varieties ' (1987 ) 40 J. Sci. Food Agric. : 51 -65.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pojic, M., Mastilovic, J., Psodorov, D. 2004. Technological quality of flour mill streams and its significance for end-use flour production. In: Ugarcic-Hardi, Z. (ed.), Flour-Bread’ 03: Proceedings of International Congress: 4 th Croatian Congress of Cereal Technologists, Faculty of Food Technology, University of Josip Juraj Strossmayer, Osijek, Croatia, pp. 179–188.

    Psodorov D. , '', in Flour-Bread’ 03: Proceedings of International Congress: 4th Croatian Congress of Cereal Technologists, Faculty of Food Technology , (2004 ) -.

  • Prabhashankar, P., Rao, P.H. 1999. Lipids in wheat flour streams. J. Cereal Sci. 30 :315–322.

    Rao P.H. , 'Lipids in wheat flour streams ' (1999 ) 30 J. Cereal Sci. : 315 -322.

  • Prabhasankar, P., Sudha, M.L., Rao, P.H. 2000. Quality characteristics of wheat flour milled streams. Food Res. Int. 33 :381–386.

    Rao P.H. , 'Quality characteristics of wheat flour milled streams ' (2000 ) 33 Food Res. Int. : 381 -386.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rani, K.U., Rao, U.J.S.P., Leelavathi, K., Rao, P.H. 2001. Distribution of enzymes in wheat flour mill streams. J. Cereal Sci. 34 :233–242.

    Rao P.H. , 'Distribution of enzymes in wheat flour mill streams ' (2001 ) 34 J. Cereal Sci. : 233 -242.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • SAS 1985. User’s Guide: Statistics. Version 5 Edition. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc., USA.

    '', in User’s Guide: Statistics , (1985 ) -.

  • Sutton, K.H., Simmons, L.D. 2006. Molecular level protein composition of flour mill streams from a pilot-scale flour mill and its relationship to product quality. Cereal Chem. 83 :52–56.

    Simmons L.D. , 'Molecular level protein composition of flour mill streams from a pilot-scale flour mill and its relationship to product quality ' (2006 ) 83 Cereal Chem. : 52 -56.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Thannhauser, T.W., Koniski, Y., Scheraga, H.A. 1987. Analysis for disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins. Methods Enzymol. 143 :115–119.

    Scheraga H.A. , 'Analysis for disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins ' (1987 ) 143 Methods Enzymol. : 115 -119.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wall, J.S. 1979. The role of wheat proteins determining baking quality. In: Laidman, D.L., Wyn Jones, R.G. (eds), Recent Advances in the Biochemistry of Cereals, London, New York, Academy, pp. 275–311.

    Wall J.S. , '', in Recent Advances in the Biochemistry of Cereals , (1979 ) -.

  • Wieser, H., Seilmeier, W. 1998. The influence of nitrogen fertilization on quantities and proportions of different protein types in wheat flour. J. Sci. Food Agric. 76 :49–55

    Seilmeier W. , 'The influence of nitrogen fertilization on quantities and proportions of different protein types in wheat flour ' (1998 ) 76 J. Sci. Food Agric. : 49 -55.

    • Search Google Scholar