Author: A. Anton 1
View More View Less
  • 1 University of Manitoba Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture & Food Science Winnipeg MB Canada R3T 2N2
Restricted access

Wheat flour tortillas are the fastest growing segment of the North American baking industry. As this market grows, the search for healthier alternatives to traditional foods also increases. Nutritionally, flour tortillas are rich in carbohydrates that generate a high glycemic index subsequent to ingestion, demonstrating a behaviour similar to white bread. Hence, the formulation of more nutritious tortillas, with higher levels of protein, dietary fiber and antioxidants, appears to be promising. Although the number of publications concerning the nutritional improvement of flour tortillas is limited, attempts utilizing soybean, whole wheat, and triticale flours have been reported. Additionally, as different ingredients are added to traditional formulations, the texture is very likely to be affected, as are the shelf-life and other sensory properties. Among other additives, hydrocolloids have been reported to improve the textural qualities of bakery goods and flour tortillas. They comprise a number of water-soluble polysaccharides with varied chemical structures providing a range of functional properties that make them suitable to this application. This paper discusses the tortilla market, reviews research attempting to develop novel and nutritious products, and discusses the application of hydrocoloids as texture improvers.

  • Lucca, P.A., Trepper, B.J. 1994. Fat replacers and the functionality of fat in foods. Trends in Food Science and Technology 5 :12–19.

    Trepper B.J. , 'Fat replacers and the functionality of fat in foods ' (1994 ) 5 Trends in Food Science and Technology : 12 -19.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ribotta, P.D., Perez, G.T., Leon, A.E., Anon, M.C. 2004. Effect of emulsifier and guar gum on micro structural, rheological and baking performance of frozen bread dough. Food Hydrocolloids 18 :305–313.

    Anon M.C. , 'Effect of emulsifier and guar gum on micro structural, rheological and baking performance of frozen bread dough ' (2004 ) 18 Food Hydrocolloids : 305 -313.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rojas, J.A., Rosell, C.M., de Barber, C.B. 1999. Pasting properties of different wheat flour-hydrocolloid systems. Food Hydrocolloids 13 :27–33.

    Barber C.B. , 'Pasting properties of different wheat flour-hydrocolloid systems ' (1999 ) 13 Food Hydrocolloids : 27 -33.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Saldana, G., Brown, H.E. 1984. Nutritional composition of corn and flour tortillas. Journal of Food Science 49 :1202–1209.

    Brown H.E. , 'Nutritional composition of corn and flour tortillas ' (1984 ) 49 Journal of Food Science : 1202 -1209.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Seetharaman, K., McDonough, C.M., Waniska, R.D., Rooney, L.W. 1997. Microstructure of wheat flour tortillas: Effects of soluble and insoluble fibers. Food Science and Technology International 3 :181–188.

    Rooney L.W. , 'Microstructure of wheat flour tortillas: Effects of soluble and insoluble fibers ' (1997 ) 3 Food Science and Technology International : 181 -188.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bárcenas, M.E., Rosell, C.M. 2005. Effect of HPMC addition on the microstructure, quality and aging of wheat bread. Food Hydrocolloids 19 :1037–1043.

    Rosell C.M. , 'Effect of HPMC addition on the microstructure, quality and aging of wheat bread ' (2005 ) 19 Food Hydrocolloids : 1037 -1043.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bárcenas, M.E., Rosell, C.M. 2006. Different approaches for improving the quality and extending the shelf life of the partially baked bread: low temperatures and HPMC addition. Journal of Food Engineering 72 :92–99.

    Rosell C.M. , 'Different approaches for improving the quality and extending the shelf life of the partially baked bread: low temperatures and HPMC addition ' (2006 ) 72 Journal of Food Engineering : 92 -99.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Berne, S. 2005. Flatbread by design. Baking and Snack International, October, November, December, 27–29.

  • Cardenas, J.D.F., Godines, M.G.A., Tristan, T.Q., Serrano, E.R. 2005. Effect of nutritionally fortified tortillas on growth and physical development in the pig. Nutrition Research 25 :711–716.

    Serrano E.R. , 'Effect of nutritionally fortified tortillas on growth and physical development in the pig ' (2005 ) 25 Nutrition Research : 711 -716.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Collar, C., Armero, E., Martinez, J.C. 1998. Lipid biding of formula bread doughs. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und-Forschung 207 :110–121.

    Martinez J.C. , 'Lipid biding of formula bread doughs ' (1998 ) 207 Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und-Forschung : 110 -121.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cornell, M. 1998. Talkin’ about tortillas: Producers look toward consumer education and new markets to continue sales momentum. Baking and Snack Magazine 20 :37–44.

    Cornell M. , 'Talkin’ about tortillas: Producers look toward consumer education and new markets to continue sales momentum ' (1998 ) 20 Baking and Snack Magazine : 37 -44.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dalgetty, D.D., Baik, B.K. 2006. Fortification of bread with hulls and cotyledon fibers isolated from peas, lentils, and chickpeas. Cereal Chemistry 83 :269–274.

    Baik B.K. , 'Fortification of bread with hulls and cotyledon fibers isolated from peas, lentils, and chickpeas ' (2006 ) 83 Cereal Chemistry : 269 -274.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dally, V., Navarro, L. 1999. Flour tortillas: a growing sector of the U.S. food industry. Cereal Foods World 44 :457–459.

    Navarro L. , 'Flour tortillas: a growing sector of the U.S. food industry ' (1999 ) 44 Cereal Foods World : 457 -459.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dhingra, S., Jood, S. 2001. Organoleptic and nutritional evaluation of wheat breads supplemented with soybean and barley flour. Food Chemistry 77 :479–488.

    Jood S. , 'Organoleptic and nutritional evaluation of wheat breads supplemented with soybean and barley flour ' (2001 ) 77 Food Chemistry : 479 -488.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Doxastakis, G., Zafiriadis, I., Irakli, M., Marlani, H., Tananaki, C. 2002. Lupin, soya and triticale addition to wheat flour doughs and their effect on rheological properties. Food Chemistry 77 :219–227.

    Tananaki C. , 'Lupin, soya and triticale addition to wheat flour doughs and their effect on rheological properties ' (2002 ) 77 Food Chemistry : 219 -227.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Friend, C.P., Ross, R.G., Waniska, R.D., Rooney, L.W. 1995. Effects of additives in wheat flour tortillas. Cereal Foods World 40 :494–497.

    Rooney L.W. , 'Effects of additives in wheat flour tortillas ' (1995 ) 40 Cereal Foods World : 494 -497.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Friend, C.P., Serna-Saldivar, S.O., Waniska, R.D., Rooney, L.W. 1992. Increasing the fiber content of wheat flour tortillas. Cereal Foods World 37 :325–328.

    Rooney L.W. , 'Increasing the fiber content of wheat flour tortillas ' (1992 ) 37 Cereal Foods World : 325 -328.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Friend, C.P., Waniska, R.D., Rooney, L.W. 1993. Effects of hydrocolloids on processing and qualities of wheat tortillas. Cereal Chemistry 70 :252–256.

    Rooney L.W. , 'Effects of hydrocolloids on processing and qualities of wheat tortillas ' (1993 ) 70 Cereal Chemistry : 252 -256.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gonzales-Agramon, M., Serna-Saldivar, S.O. 1988. Effect of defatted soybean and soybean isolate fortification on the nutritional, physical, chemical and sensory properties of wheat flour tortillas. Journal of Food Science 53 :793–797.

    Serna-Saldivar S.O. , 'Effect of defatted soybean and soybean isolate fortification on the nutritional, physical, chemical and sensory properties of wheat flour tortillas ' (1988 ) 53 Journal of Food Science : 793 -797.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Guarda, A., Rosell, C.M., Benedito, C., Galotto, M.J. 2004. Different hydrocolloids as bread improvers and antistaling agents. Food Hydrocolloids 18 :214–247.

    Galotto M.J. , 'Different hydrocolloids as bread improvers and antistaling agents ' (2004 ) 18 Food Hydrocolloids : 214 -247.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gurkin, S. 2002. Hydrocolloids — ingredients that add flexibility to tortilla processing. Cereal Foods World 47 :41–43.

    Gurkin S. , 'Hydrocolloids — ingredients that add flexibility to tortilla processing ' (2002 ) 47 Cereal Foods World : 41 -43.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kuk, T. 2006. A look into the future: the US baking industry in the 21 st century. Cereal Foods World 51 :306–310.

    Kuk T. , 'A look into the future: the US baking industry in the 21st century ' (2006 ) 51 Cereal Foods World : 306 -310.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lind, D., Barham, E. 2004. The social life of the tortilla: Food, cultural politics, and contested commodification. Agriculture and Human Values 21 :47–60.

    Barham E. , 'The social life of the tortilla: Food, cultural politics, and contested commodification ' (2004 ) 21 Agriculture and Human Values : 47 -60.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Seetharaman, K., Waniska, R.D., Dexter, L. 1994. An approach to increase fiber content of wheat tortillas. Cereal Foods World 39 :444–447.

    Dexter L. , 'An approach to increase fiber content of wheat tortillas ' (1994 ) 39 Cereal Foods World : 444 -447.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Serna-Saldivar, S.O., Guajardo-Flores, S., Viesca-Rios, R. 2004. Potential of triticale as a substitute for wheat in flour tortilla production. Cereal Chemistry 81 :220–225.

    Viesca-Rios R. , 'Potential of triticale as a substitute for wheat in flour tortilla production ' (2004 ) 81 Cereal Chemistry : 220 -225.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Serna-Saldivar, S.O., Rooney, L.W., Waniska, R.D. 1988. Wheat flour tortilla production. Cereal Food World 33 :855–864.

    Waniska R.D. , 'Wheat flour tortilla production ' (1988 ) 33 Cereal Food World : 855 -864.

  • Shalini, G.K., Laxmi, A. 2007. Influence of additives on rheological characteristics of whole-wheat dough and quality of Chapatti (Indian unleavened Flat bread). Part I — hydrocolloids. Food Hydrocolloids 21 :110–117.

    Laxmi A. , 'Influence of additives on rheological characteristics of whole-wheat dough and quality of Chapatti (Indian unleavened Flat bread). Part I — hydrocolloids ' (2007 ) 21 Food Hydrocolloids : 110 -117.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tharanathan, R.N., Mahadevamma, S. 2003. A review: Grain legumes a boon to human nutrition. Trends in Food Science and Technology 14 :507–518.

    Mahadevamma S. , 'A review: Grain legumes a boon to human nutrition ' (2003 ) 14 Trends in Food Science and Technology : 507 -518.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tortilla Industry Association. New survey reveals that tortilla sales continue record growth. Retrieved September 12, 2007, from http://www.tortilla-info.com/media_room/press/prrevenue00.htm

  • Tsen, C.C., Hoover, W.J., Farrel, E.P. 1973. Baking quality of triticale flour. Cereal Chemistry 50 :16–26.

    Farrel E.P. , 'Baking quality of triticale flour ' (1973 ) 50 Cereal Chemistry : 16 -26.

  • Unrau, A.M., Jenkins, B.C. 1964. Investigations on synthetic species. Milling, baking, and some compositional characteristics of some “triticale” and parental species. Cereal Chemistry 41 :365–375.

    Jenkins B.C. , 'Investigations on synthetic species. Milling, baking, and some compositional characteristics of some “triticale” and parental species ' (1964 ) 41 Cereal Chemistry : 365 -375.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Valencia, M.E., Vavich, M.G., Weber, C.W., Reid, B.L. 1979. Protein quality evaluation of corn tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, pinto beans, soybeans and their combinations. Nutrition Reports International 19 :195–201.

    Reid B.L. , 'Protein quality evaluation of corn tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, pinto beans, soybeans and their combinations ' (1979 ) 19 Nutrition Reports International : 195 -201.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wang, L., Flores, R.A. 1999. Effect of different wheat classes and their flour milling streams on textural properties of flour tortillas. Cereal Chemistry 76 :496–502.

    Flores R.A. , 'Effect of different wheat classes and their flour milling streams on textural properties of flour tortillas ' (1999 ) 76 Cereal Chemistry : 496 -502.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Waniska, R.D. 1999. Perspectives on flour tortillas. Cereal Foods World 44 :471–473.

    Waniska R.D. , 'Perspectives on flour tortillas ' (1999 ) 44 Cereal Foods World : 471 -473.